Malawi–United States relations
The transition from a one-party state to a multi-party democracy strengthened the cordial U. S. relationship with Malawi. Significant numbers of Malawians study in the United States; the United States has an active Peace Corps program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Servicess, an Agency for International Development mission in Malawi. U. S. and Malawian views on the necessity of economic and political stability in southern Africa coincide. Through a pragmatic assessment of its own national interests and foreign policy objectives, Malawi advocates peaceful solutions to the region's problems through negotiation. Malawi works to achieve these objectives in the United Nations, COMESA, SADC. Malawi is the first southern African country to receive peacekeeping training under the U. S.-sponsored African Crisis Response Force Initiative and has joined the successor program, African Contingency Operations Training Assistance. It has an active slate of peacetime engagement military-to-military programs.
The two countries maintain a continuing dialogue through diplomatic representatives and periodic visits by senior officials. In July 2011, the United States suspended direct aid funding; the US government agency responsible, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, suspended aid because it was'deeply upset' by the deaths of the 19 people during the July protests. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 60% of Malawians approve of U. S. leadership, with 25% disapproving and 15% uncertain. The United States has a substantial foreign assistance program in Malawi, with the U. S. Government providing $70 million annually in development assistance to Malawi under USAID's Country Strategic Plan; the primary goal of USAID assistance is poverty reduction and increased food security through broad-based, market-led economic growth, focusing on four areas: sustainable increases in rural incomes, increased civic involvement in the rule of law, improved access to and quality of health services, improved access to quality basic education.
The USAID program is implemented in partnership with the Government of Malawi, nongovernmental organizations, other U. S. Government agencies, U. S. private voluntary organizations and other partners, including the private sector through public-private partnerships. USAID's program to increase rural incomes includes training and technical assistance to increase smallholder productivity. USAID is encouraging smallholders to diversify into dairy production, a lucrative business in Malawi and well-suited to Malawi's limited land area. USAID grantee Land O' Lakes, partnering with World Wide Sires, continues to promote the growth of the dairy industry in Malawi through 55 dairy associations with over 6,376 members. USAID, through the Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa, improved output markets for a total of 177,468 rural households. USAID-supported microfinance institutions provided financial services to 189,782 clients and disbursed 351,319 loans valued at $35,876,401. U. S. Government funding totaling $700,000 was leveraged to provide up to $13 million in agricultural financing through Malawi's first Development Credit Authority.
The Democracy and Governance portfolio continued to evolve in 2007, which proved to be an important transition year for the MCC Threshold Country Program. Activities under the TCP reaped positive results in fighting corruption, improving fiscal responsibility, establishing a more transparent and effective judiciary; as a result of successes gained under the TCP, the Government of Malawi was the only country in the world selected by MCC in December 2007 for Compact eligibility. Several other Democracy and Governance activities continued to fight corruption in the private sector, educate at-risk youth of their civic responsibilities, nurture Christian/Muslim dialogue and relationships; the Democracy and Governance office initiated a public-private partnership with the Financial Services Volunteer Corps to assist the Reserve Bank of Malawi and private banks to further develop risk-based banking supervision capacity. Chancellor College and a U. S.-based Historically Black College/University entered into a partnership to strengthen the government's legal aid programs.
As was the case in previous years, USAID continued to support the Sector Wide Approach to Health in 2007 through discrete initiatives aimed at "increased use of improved health behaviors and services" for maternal and reproductive health, including HIV/AIDS, malaria. These sustained efforts over the last 7 years have had substantial impact on health indicators in the country. In the area of HIV prevention, for example, the number of USAID-assisted counseling and testing centers increased from 3 in 2000 to 276 in 2007, while the number of clients assisted at these sites per year increased from about 22,000 in 2000 to more than 192,000 in 2007. In addition, according to a national Demographic and Health Survey completed in 2005 with support from USAID, USAID's Presidential Emergency Plan for HIV/AIDS Relief activities reached 1,351,404 people through ABC messages (abstinence from sexual activity, being faithful to a single partn
Kenya–United States relations
Kenya–United States relations are bilateral relations between Kenya and the United States. Kenya and the United States have long been close allies and have enjoyed cordial relations since Kenya's independence. Relations became closer after Kenya's democratic transition of 2002 and subsequent improvements in human rights; this was preceded by sometimes frosty interludes during President Moi's regime when the two countries clashed over bad governance issues, resulting in aid suspension and many diplomatic rows. Following the election of the new government of Uhuru Kenyatta in 2013, relations somewhat took a dip when the new president forged a new foreign policy looking east away from traditional western allies. Kenya–United States relations have been cemented through cooperation against Islamist terrorism and a visit by President Obama to Kenya, the homeland of his father. Kenya's athletic mastery of some auspicious American events such as the Boston Marathon and New York Marathon have increased ordinary Americans' consciousness of Kenya paving the way for a warm mutual regard between the two peoples.
An attack on Kenya by Al-Qaeda in 1998 as well as subsequent more attacks by Al-Shabaab, has drawn the two countries politically closer due to the shared fate the U. S. has had of similar targeting in the horrific September 11 attacks by Al-Qaeda in Lower Manhattan and The Pentagon. Kenya is one of the most pro-American nations in Africa and the world more so than the U. S. itself. According to the Pew Research Global Attitudes Project, 87% of Kenyans view the U. S. favorably in 2007, decreasing down to 83% in 2011 and 81% viewing the U. S. favorably in 2013. and according to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 68% of Kenyans approve of U. S. leadership, with 14% disapproving and 18% uncertain. In a 2013 BBC World Service poll, 69% of Kenyans view U. S. influence positively, with only 11% viewing U. S. influence negatively. After Kenya's independence on December 12, 1963, the United States recognized the new nation. However, it was not until March 2, 1964 that diplomatic relations were established with William Atwood establishing the U.
S. Embassy at Nairobi; the United States provided the fledgling nation with $21 million in funds and technical aid, with Kenya seeking more loans from the United States. The United States soon found itself invested in Kenyan politics due to the power struggle between Tom Mboya and Jaramogi Oginga Odinga; the United States had been impressed by Mboya since the 1950s, sought to empower him in the new administration instead of the more leftist Odinga. The United States was successful, Mboya began wooing Kenya's prime minister Jomo Kenyatta into becoming more favorable with the United States and the CIA. After Odinga's fall from power, Kenya found itself squarely in the Western bloc during the Cold War period; the fact that Soviet ideals never gained traction in post-independence Kenya meant that there was little to no jockeying between the United States and the U. S. S. R. in this region. This meant there was little need for Kenya and United States relations, since the United States took Kenyan support for granted.
However, the 1980s saw. After Jomo Kenyatta's death, the new president of Kenya Daniel arap Moi sought to further strengthen relations with the United States Moi joined the United States' Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force, allowing for the construction of United States military installations in Kenya; the most notable development of this military construction was allowing United States naval access to Mombasa, which resulted in the United States paying Kenya $26 million. Good relations, fell into jeopardy with the deteriorating civil rights picture in Kenya. In 1987, the chairman of the Congress subcommittee on Africa, Michigan congressman Howard Wolpe, accused Daniel arap Moi of bankrolling criminals and committing human rights abuses; the issue was placed on the agenda for Ronald Reagan's talks with Moi, but nothing came of it at this time. In 1991, the United States joined with a coalition of other nations who gave financial assistance to Kenya to pressure for reforms. In a 1991 meeting in Paris, Kenya's aid donors insisted on ending corruption and human rights abuses, threatening to pull their aid.
These concerns caused the United States to suspend its aid in 1992. When United States pressure forced multiparty elections in 1992, relations were tense all throughout the 1990s due to international discontent with the tactics of the Moi regime; the United States reacted positively to the Kenyan elections of 2000, the first democratic transition of power in Kenya's history. The new president, Mwai Kibaki was honored as the first African head of state to be invited to Washington D. C. for a state visit. On August 7, 1998, al Qaeda terrorists detonated a car bomb outside the United States embassy in Nairobi, leaving 200 dead and thousands wounded; the immediate aftermath strained relations between the United States and Kenya, as Kenyans felt that the United States only cared about the Americans who lost their lives, not the Kenyans. The situation was worsened when the American ambassador, Prudence Bushnell, implied that Kenyans were attempting to loot the embassy. However, since that event, the Kenyan and U.
S. governments have intensified cooperation to address all forms of insecurity in Kenya, including terrorism. The United States provides equipment and training to Kenyan security forces, both civilian and military. In its dialog with the Kenyan Government, the United States urges effective action against corruption and insecurity as the two greatest impediments to Kenya achieving sustained, rapid economic growth. Families and victims of the attack have severally appealed to the Kenyan government to petition the U. S. gov
The Pacific Community is an international development organisation owned and governed by its 26 country and territory members. The organisation's headquarters are in Nouméa, New Caledonia, it has regional offices in Suva and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, as well as a country office in Honiara, Solomon Islands, field staff in other Pacific locations, its working languages are French. SPC is focused on development issues within the context of the region, including climate change, disaster risk management, food security, gender equality, human rights, non-communicable diseases and youth employment; the organization facilitates the sharing of technical experience and knowledge, helps to implement specific development projects and activities in support of its members. The Pacific Community was founded in 1947 as the South Pacific Commission by six developed countries with strategic interests and territorires in the region: Australia, Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States.
SPC's founding charter is the Canberra Agreement. In the aftermath of World War II, the six colonial powers which created the SPC arguably intended it to secure Western political and military interests in the postwar Pacific. Two founding members, the Netherlands and Great Britain have since withdrawn from SPC as the Pacific territories they controlled either gained independence or the right to represent themselves in the organization. From the start, SPC's role was constrained; the invitation from Australia and New Zealand to the US, France and the UK to participate in a South Seas Commission Conference in 1947 included the statement that "the Commission to be set up should not be empowered to deal in any way with political matters or questions of defense or security". This constraint on discussion led to the creation of the South Pacific Forum, which not only excluded the more distant "metropolitan" powers of France, UK and USA, but their Pacific Island territories. In 1949 the Pacific Community established its permanent headquarters in Nouméa, New Caledonia, at the former American military base known as the Pentagon.
In 1995 a new headquarters was constructed close to the same location and the military base was demolished. A monument and plaque commemorating SPC's original headquarter location can be found on site of the Le Promenade complex at Anse Vata. Governance of the organization reflected the changing political environment. At inception, each member had a single vote; when Western Samoa joined as newly independent state in 1965 the rules were changed to ensure that the Western foundation nations would maintain firm control over the organization. Australia was given five votes, Britain, New Zealand, the United States four and Western Samoa just one. Dutch New Guinea represented in the SPC by the Netherlands, was transferred to the United Nations in 1962 and to Indonesia in 1969. Without any territory remaining in the region, the Netherlands withdrew from SPC in 1962. In 1972 the first South Pacific Arts Festival was convened by SPC in Fiji; the event drew more than 1000 participants from 14 countries.
In 1975 SPC created a Council of Pacific Arts, permanently making culture issues a part of the SPC mandate and establishing the Festival of Pacific Arts as a regular event. With decolonization efforts expanding, newly independent states and nonindependent territories were allowed to apply for membership. "As its membership grew, the character and scope of the SPC evolved to incorporate the indigenous peoples of the Pacific."In 1983 at the Saipan Conference, unequal voting was abandoned, once again establishing a'one member one vote' principle for SPC. However, this decision did not come without criticism as some pointed out that the combination of allowing membership to non-independent territories and establishing a one-vote per member principle provided additional votes to France and the United States who continued to maintain control over Pacific territories, it was during the Saipan Conference that the Committee of Representatives of Governments and Administrations was established, creating the only Pacific regional organization, both representative of the Pacific, governed by its membership.
In 1988, SPC become a founding member of Council of Regional Organisations of the Pacific or CROP "to improve cooperation and collaboration among the various intergovernmental regional organisations to work toward achieving the common goal of sustainable development in the Pacific region". The United Kingdom withdrew from the organisation in 1996 and rejoined in 1998; the UK withdrew a second time in 2004, has not been a member of SPC since that time. It's interests in the Pacific Community are managed through the European Union, although it is a direct donor to the organization. In 1996 the Pacific Heads of Agriculture and Livestock Programmes asked "to put in place, both in their countries and through regional cooperation, policies to conserve and best utilize their plant genetic resources" As these resources were considered a shared regional responsibility, it made sense for a regional organization to respond to this need. SPC established the Regional Germplasm Centre in 1998; the facility grew and in 2007 was renamed Centre for Pacific Crops and Trees.
It holds more than 2000 varieties of genetic material on Pacific strains of taro, banana and others, has been instrumental in helping to rebuild island agriculture after disa
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. A person may have multiple citizenships. A person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless, while one who lives on state borders whose territorial status is uncertain is a border-lander. Nationality is used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation. In some countries, e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom and citizenship can have different meanings. Each country has its own policies and criteria as to, entitled to its citizenship. A person can be granted citizenship on a number of bases. Citizenship based on circumstances of birth is automatic, but in other cases an application may be required. Citizenship by birth. If one or both of a person's parents are citizens of a given state the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well.
This might only have applied through the paternal line, but sex equality became common since the late twentieth century. Citizenship is granted based on ancestry or ethnicity and is related to the concept of a nation state common in Europe. Where jus sanguinis holds, a person born outside a country, one or both of whose parents are citizens of the country, is a citizen. States limit the right to citizenship by descent to a certain number of generations born outside the state, although some do not; this form of citizenship is common in civil law countries. Born within a country; some people are automatically citizens of the state. This form of citizenship originated in England where those who were born within the realm were subjects of the monarch and is common in common law countries. In many cases, both jus soli and jus sanguinis hold citizenship either by parentage. Citizenship by marriage. Many countries fast-track naturalization based on the marriage of a person to a citizen. Countries which are destinations for such immigration have regulations to try to detect sham marriages, where a citizen marries a non-citizen for payment, without them having the intention of living together.
Naturalization. States grant citizenship to people who have entered the country and been granted permit to stay, or been granted political asylum, lived there for a specified period. In some countries, naturalization is subject to conditions which may include passing a test demonstrating reasonable knowledge of the language or way of life of the host country, good conduct and moral character, vowing allegiance to their new state or its ruler and renouncing their prior citizenship; some states allow dual citizenship and do not require naturalized citizens to formally renounce any other citizenship. Citizenship by investment or Economic Citizenship. Wealthy people invest money in property or businesses, buy government bonds or donate cash directly, in exchange for citizenship and a passport. Whilst legitimate and limited in quota, the schemes are controversial. Costs for citizenship by investment range from as little as $100,000 to as much as €2.5m Excluded categories. In the past there have been exclusions on entitlement to citizenship on grounds such as skin color, ethnicity and free status.
Most of these exclusions no longer apply in most places. Modern examples include some Arab countries which grant citizenship to non-Muslims, e.g. Qatar is known for granting citizenship to foreign athletes, but they all have to profess the Islamic faith in order to receive citizenship; the United States grants citizenship to those born as a result of reproductive technologies, internationally adopted children born after February 27, 1983. Some exclusions still persist for internationally adopted children born before February 27, 1983 though their parents meet citizenship criteria. Many thinkers point to the concept of citizenship beginning in the early city-states of ancient Greece, although others see it as a modern phenomenon dating back only a few hundred years and, for humanity, that the concept of citizenship arose with the first laws. Polis meant both the political assembly of the city-state as well as the entire society. Citizenship has been identified as a western phenomenon. There is a general view that citizenship in ancient times was a simpler relation than modern forms of citizenship, although this view has come under scrutiny.
The relation of citizenship has not been a fixed or static relation, but changed within each society, that according to one view, citizenship might "really have worked" only at select periods during certain times, such as when the Athenian politician Solon made reforms in the early Athenian state. Historian Geoffrey Hosking in his 2005 Modern Scholar lecture course suggested that citizenship in ancient Greece arose from an appreciation for the importance of freedom. Hosking explained: It can be argued that this growth of slavery was what made Greeks conscious of the value of freedom. After all, any Greek farmer might fall into debt and therefore might become a slave, at any time... When the Greeks fought together, they fought in order to avoid being enslaved by warfare, to avoid being defeated by those who might take them into slavery, and they arranged their political institutions so as to remain free men. Slavery permitted sla