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Solomon Islands (archipelago)

The Solomon Islands are an archipelago in the western South Pacific Ocean, located northeast of Australia. They are in the Melanesia bioregion of Oceania; the archipelago forms much of the territory of Solomon Islands, while the northwestern islands are within the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, in eastern Papua New Guinea. It forms the eastern boundary of the Solomon Sea; the Solomon Islands consist of both volcanic islands of varying activity and of coral atolls. Bougainville Island is the largest in the archipelago; the climate of the islands is tropical. Daytime temperatures are 25 to 32 °C and 13 to 15 °C at night. From April to October, the southeast trade winds blow. November to March is the wet season, caused by the northwest monsoon, is warmer and wetter. Cyclones arise in the Coral Sea and the area of the Solomon Islands, but they veer toward Vanuatu and New Caledonia or down the coast of Australia, it is believed. It was the furthest humans went in the Pacific until Austronesian speakers arrived c. 4000 BCE bringing cultural elements such as the outrigger canoe.

It is between 1200 and 800 BCE that the ancestors of the Polynesians, the Lapita people, arrived from the Bismarck Archipelago with their characteristic ceramics. Most of the languages spoken today in the Solomon Islands derive from this era, but some thirty languages of the pre-Austronesian settlers survive; the first European to visit the islands was the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, coming from the Viceroyalty of Peru to the Spanish East Indies in 1568. The people of Solomon Islands had engaged in headhunting and cannibalism before the arrival of the Europeans. Missionaries began visiting the Solomons in the mid-19th century, they made little progress at first, because "blackbirding", the brutal recruitment and relocation of labourers for the sugar plantations in Queensland and Fiji, led to a series of reprisals and massacres. In 1885 the Germans declared a protectorate over the northern islands, to form the German Solomon Islands Protectorate; the evils of the labour trade prompted the United Kingdom to declare a protectorate over the southern islands in June 1893, the British Solomon Islands Protectorate.

In 1900, under the Treaty of Berlin, the Germans transferred a number of their Solomon Islands to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate. The remaining German Solomon Islands, at the extreme northwest of the archipelago, were retained by Germany until they fell to Australia early on in World War I. After the war the League of Nations formally mandated those islands to Australia along with the rest of German New Guinea, becoming Australian New Guinea. During World War II, the Territory of Papua and the Mandated Territory of New Guinea were within the Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit. After the war the Australian Territory of New Guinea was administered separately from the neighbouring Territory of Papua until the year 1949 when the two territories were formally united into the Territory of Papua and New Guinea; the Territory of Papua and New Guinea became independent from Australia in the year 1975 as the modern state of Papua New Guinea. The Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea was established in the northern Solomon Islands in 2000.

Following the independence of neighbouring Papua New Guinea from Australia in 1975, the British Solomon Islands gained self-government in 1976. Independence for the Solomon Islands nation was granted on 7 July 1978; the population of the Solomons is Melanesian, although minority Polynesian and Micronesian communities exist. There has been a large influx of Chinese immigrants. Around 60 to 70 languages are spoken in the Solomon Islands. Many Melanesian languages and Polynesian languages are native to the area. Immigrant populations speak Micronesian languages. English is an official language in both areas of the archipelago. There are three families of Papuan languages native to the archipelago: the North Bougainville languages, South Bougainville languages, the Central Solomon languages; the predominant religion on the islands is Christianity, with the largest denomination being the Anglican Church of Melanesia. Governance of the Solomon Islands archipelago is split between the state of Solomon Islands and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea.

Both countries are Commonwealth realms. Bougainville is considering independence from Papua New Guinea. List of birds of the Solomon Islands archipelago Melanesia

Oxygen tent

An oxygen tent consists of a canopy placed over the head and shoulders, or over the entire body of a patient to provide oxygen at a higher level than normal. Some devices cover only a part of the face. Oxygen tents are sometimes confused with altitude tents as used by athletes and those looking to acclimatize to a higher altitude, but those contain a reduced oxygen content; this form of treatment is prescribed in conditions where people have difficulty in breathing. An oxygen tent can be used in either a hospital setting or outside a health-care facility, can be recommended for short- or long-term therapy; the tent is made of transparent plastic material. It can envelop the patient’s bed with the end sections held in place by a mattress to ensure that the tent is airtight; the enclosure has a side opening with a zipper. Oxygen therapy benefits patients by providing more oxygen to their lungs and to their tissues; the treatment raises the amount of oxygen in the blood, decreases load on the heart, facilitates breathing.

It dried up secretions that occur in respiratory conditions. Oxygen therapy might be advised for lung diseases, heart conditions, carbon monoxide poisoning, could be administered to patients in case of surgery. A person with viral or bacterial meningitis who develops breathing difficulty might be kept in an oxygen tent. Certain precautions are recommended when using an oxygen tent. One of the measures is to avoid opening the tent often. If the tent is opened to attend to the patient, the edges need to be tucked back to prevent oxygen from seeping out. In general, it is advisable not to smoke or have any inflammable material within the vicinity of any oxygen apparatus. Using an electrical device inside an oxygen tent could be hazardous. Oxygen therapy Oxygen mask Medical Discoveries: Oxygen tent What is an Oxygen Tent at Oxygen Concentrator Store wiseGEEK: What is an Oxygen Tent

Mystery airship

Mystery airships or phantom airships are a class of unidentified flying objects best known from a series of newspaper reports originating in the western United States and spreading east during late 1896 and early 1897. According to researcher Jerome Clark, airship sightings were reported worldwide during the 1880s and 1890s. Mystery airship reports are seen as a cultural predecessor to modern claims of extraterrestrial-piloted flying saucer-style UFOs. Typical airship reports involved night time sightings of unidentified lights, but more detailed accounts reported ships comparable to a dirigible. Reports of the alleged crewmen and pilots described them as human-looking, although sometimes the crew claimed to be from Mars, it was popularly believed that the mystery airships were the product of some inventor or genius, not ready to make knowledge of his creation public. For example, Thomas Edison was so speculated to be the mind behind the alleged airships that in 1897 he "was forced to issue a worded statement" denying his responsibility.

It has been argued that mystery airships are unlikely to represent test flights of real human-manufactured dirigibles as no record of successful sustained or long-range airship flights are known from the period and "it would have been impossible, not to mention irrational, to keep such a thing secret." To the contrary, there were in fact several functional airships manufactured before the 1896–97 reports, but their capabilities were far more limited than the mystery airships. Reece and others note that contemporary American newspapers of the "yellow journalism" era were more to print manufactured stories and hoaxes than are modern news sources, editors of the late 1800s would have expected the reader to understand that such stories were false. Most journalists of the period did not seem to take the airship reports seriously, as after the major 1896-97 wave concluded, the subject fell from public consciousness; the airship stories received further attention only after the 1896-97 newspaper reports were rediscovered in the mid 1960s and UFO investigators suggested the airships might represent earlier precursors to post-World War II UFO sightings.

The best-known of the mystery airship waves began in California in 1896. Afterwards and accounts of similar airships came from other areas moving eastward across the country; some accounts during this wave of airship reports claim that occupants were visible on some airships, encounters with the pilots were reported as well. These occupants appeared to be human, though their behaviour and clothing were sometimes reported to be unusual. Sometimes the apparent humans claimed to be from the planet Mars. Historian Mike Dash described and summarized the 1896–1897 series of airship sightings, writing: Not only were bigger and more robust than anything produced by the aviators of the world; the 1896–1897 airship wave is the best investigated of all historical anomalies. The files of 1,500 newspapers from across the United States have been combed for reports, an astonishing feat of research; the general conclusion of investigators was that a considerable number of the simpler sightings were misidentification of planets and stars, a large number of the more complex the result of hoaxes and practical jokes.

A small residuum remains perplexing. The Sacramento Bee and the San Francisco Call reported the first sighting on November 18, 1896. Witnesses reported a light moving over Sacramento on the evening of November 17 at an estimated 1,000-foot elevation; some witnesses said. A witness named R. L. Lowery reported that he heard a voice from the craft issuing commands to increase elevation in order to avoid hitting a church steeple. Lowery added "in what was no doubt meant as a wink to the reader" that he believed the apparent captain to be referring to the tower of a local brewery, as there were no churches nearby. Lowery further described the craft as being powered by two men exerting themselves on bicycle pedals. Above the pedaling men seemed to be a passenger compartment, which lay under the main body of the dirigible. A light was mounted on the front end of the airship; some witnesses reported the sound of singing. The November 19, 1896, edition of the Stockton, Daily Mail featured one of the earliest accounts of an alleged alien craft sighting.

Colonel H. G. Shaw claimed that while driving his buggy through the countryside near Stockton, he came across what appeared to be a landed spacecraft. Shaw described it as having a metallic surface, featureless apart from a rudder, pointed ends, he said the vessel was around 150 feet in total length. Three slender, 7-foot-tall, apparent extraterrestrials were said to approach from the craft while "emitting a strange warbling noise." The beings examined Shaw's buggy and tried to physically force him to accompany them back to the airship. The aliens were said to give up after realizing they lacked the physical strength to force Shaw aboard, they fled back to their ship, which lifted off the ground and sped out of sight. Shaw believed that the beings were Martians sent to kidnap an earthling for unknowable but nefarious purposes; this has been seen by some as an early attempt at alien abduction. The my

Notuner Gaan

Notuner Gaan, more popularly known as Chol Chol Chol is the national march of Bangladesh. Whose lyrics and tune were written by national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam in 1928, it was first published in the newspaper Shikha with the title Notuner Gaan and was included in Nazrul's book Shondha. The Bangladeshi government adopted this song as the national marching song of Bangladesh on 13 January 1972 in its first meeting after the country's independence; the first lines of the song are played at most military functions. The Daily Star has referred to it as the national military song. On the first week of February in 1928, Nazrul came to Dhaka to attend the Muslim Literary Society's second annual conference, he wrote this song at Syed Abul Hossain's Dhaka house. Here are the rest of the original lyrics from which the National march of Bangladesh came: Amar Shonar Bangla O Mon Romzaner Oi Rozar Sheshe Prime Minister's Office, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh

Baroque garden

The Baroque garden was a style of garden based upon symmetry and the principle of imposing order on nature. The style originated in the late-16th century in Italy, in the gardens of the Vatican and the Villa Borghese gardens in Rome and in the gardens of the Villa d'Este in Tivoli, spread to France, where it became known as the jardin à la française or French formal garden; the grandest example is found in the Gardens of Versailles designed during the 17th century by the landscape architect André Le Nôtre for Louis XIV. In the 18th century, in imitation of Versailles ornate Baroque gardens were built in other parts of Europe, including Germany, Spain, in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. In the mid-18th century the style was replaced by the more less-geometric and more natural English landscape garden. Baroque gardens were intended to illustrate the mastery of man over nature, they were designed to be seen from above and from a little distance from the salons or terraces of a chateau. They were laid out like rooms in a house, in geometric patterns, divided by gravel alleys or lanes, with the meeting points of the lanes marked by fountains or statues.

Flower beds were designed with bands of shrubbery and flowers forming the designs. Larger bushes and trees were sculpted into conical or dome-like shapes, trees were grouped in bosquets, or orderly clusters. Water was present in the form of long rectangular ponds, aligned with the terraces of the house, or circular ponds with fountains; the gardens included one more small pavilion, where visitors could take shelter from the sun or rain. Over time, the style evolved, became more natural. Grottoes and "secret gardens" enclosed by trees appeared, to illustrate the literary ideals of Arcadia and other popular stories of the time; the ideas that inspired the Baroque garden, like those of Baroque architecture, first appeared in Italy in the late Renaissance. In the late 15th century, the architect and writer Leon Battista Alberti proposed that the house and garden were both sanctuaries from the confusion of the outside world and that they both should be designed with architectural forms, geometric rooms, corridors.

In a popular allegorical story, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, one of the first printed novels, the Dominican priest and author Francesco Colonna described a garden composed of designed ornamental flowerbeds and rows of trees shaped in geometric forms. The Cortile del Belvedere or courtyard of the Belevedere at the Vatican in Rome was one of the first gardens in Europe which adopted these geometric principles, was a model for many Baroque gardens, it was begun in 1506, constructed for Pope Julius II, in connected his residence on a nearby hillside with the Vatican. The garden was three hundred meters long, filled with orderly flower beds and gardens geometrically divided by alleys and hedges, with fountains at the intersections of the paths, it was finished in 1565 by Pirro Ligorio. The original garden was drastically modified by the addition of the Vatican Library; the same architect who completed the Cortile del Belvedere, Pirro Ligorio, was commissioned in the same year to design an more ambitious garden, Villa d'Este, for the Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este.

This garden was designed on a steep hillside. The garden was composed of five terraces, elaborately planted in geometric forms and connected with ramps and stairways. Like many Baroque gardens, it was best viewed from above and from a distance, to get the full effect; this architectural form for gardens continued to dominate in Italy until the construction of Villa Borghese gardens in Rome by Cardinal Scipione Borghese in 1605. In this large garden, the regular and geometric alleys and groves of aligned trees were joined by other parts of the garden in asymmetrical forms, by a number of "secret gardens", small sanctuaries of trees and flowers planted with flowers and fruit trees, surrounded by rows of oak trees and cypress trees, populated with birds and animals; this garden marked the beginning of the transition to the more natural landscape garden, based on the romantic vision of an imaginary Arcadia. All of these gardens underwent extensive redesign in the 18th century, turning them into more natural-looking landscape gardens.

Except in a few preserved paths and flower beds, it is difficult now to imagine them in their original state. At the end of the 15th century, Charles V of France invited Italian architects and garden designers to France to create an Italian garden for his Château d'Amboise. In the 16th century, the development of the Baroque garden in France was accelerated by Henry IV of France and his Florentine wife, Marie de Médicis, their first major project in the style was the garden of the Chateau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. The new garden, on the bluff above the Seine, featured an extensive belvedere with ramps and stairways, scattered with an assortment of pavilions and theatres. Following the death of the King, his widow built a palace and a garden of her own, now called the Luxembourg Palace, she planted groves of full-grown trees and laid out parterres and fountains on the model of the gardens of her native Florence. The French Baroque garden reached its summit under Louis XIV, due to his garden designer, André Le Nôtre.

Le Nôtre's first large-scale project was for Vaux-le-Vicomte, the chateau of the King's Minister of Finance, Nicolas Fouquet, built between 1656 and 1661. The central feature of this garden was a main axis descending from the chateau, composed of

Chater House

Chater House is an office tower in Central, Hong Kong. Opened in 2003, it is a part of the Hongkong Land portfolio of properties, it has a three-level retail podium, known as Landmark Chater. The building was built on the site of the former Swire House, was named after Sir Paul Chater; the building faces streets on three sides: Pedder Street and Connaught Road Central. There were three buildings on the site between 1905 and 1958, namely Mansions Building, King's Building and York Building. Following the Praya reclamation of 1890–1904, a building was constructed and opened in 1905, that served as offices of Canadian Pacific Ocean Services and Hong Kong, Canton & Macao Steamboat Company; this building was acquired in 1921, used as its headquarters by the Union Insurance Society of Canton Ltd. and became known as Union Building. It was bought by The Hongkong Land Company in 1946, was demolished in 1950. Hongkong Land acquired the adjacent King's Building and demolished it in 1958 to complete the Union House complex.

King's Building was for some time home to Marconi Wireless. The building was located along Connaught Road, next to the Union Building, it was demolished in 1958. York Building was built in 1905 and demolished in 1958; the 23-storey building called Union House, was completed in 1962, had a total floor space of 34,000 square metres. in the 1970s, the Swire Group, gained naming rights for the building, renamed Swire House in 1976. In 1997, the main tenant of the building was Cathay Pacific, which occupied about 30% of the floor space. Other tenants included other Swire group companies, including Swire Industries. Swire House was demolished on 5 October 1998; the site was again redeveloped by Hongkong Land when the new Hong Kong International Airport opened in 1998. The building's main tenant, Cathay Pacific, relocated to Cathay City when the airport moved to its new site at Chek Lap Kok, while Swire Group moved to Pacific Place in Admiralty. Chater House has a total floor area of 438,500 net sq.ft. was designed by architects Kohn Pedersen Fox.

It was configured into 30 floors – 474,000 net sq. ft – of office accommodation above a three-level retail podium of 45,000 net sq.ft. and a three-level basement, which includes 112 parking spaces. When the project was announced, in 1997, the estimated cost was HK$2.3 billion, would complete in 2003. Architecture firm Aedas were the architect for the Chater House; the main contractor was Gammon Construction. The building is linked to the Central Elevated Walkway owned by Hong Kong Land. In 2014, the display of Antony Gormley's art installation Event Horizon at Chater House was cancelled when US investment bank JPMorgan, which has offices in the building, asked Hongkong Land – the sponsor of Event Horizon – to cancel its support for the show after bank employee Dennis Li Junjie jumped to his death from the building's roof; the main tenant of Chater House is JPMorgan, who have their Asia Pacific headquarters in the building. Other current tenants include Franklin Templeton Investments and previous tenants include the Securities and Futures Commission.

The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors was headquartered in the Swire House. Jardine House Exchange Square Mandarin Oriental Alexandra House Prince's Building The Landmark Cheung Kong Center HSBC Building Standard Chartered Hong Kong Three Garden Road World-Wide House Wheelock House Hang Seng Bank Headquarters Building Chater House on Hongkong Land website