Evacuation of the Gibraltarian civilian population during World War II
The British Government's decision to enforce a mass evacuation of the civilian population during the Second World War from the Crown colony of Gibraltar, in order to increase the strength of The Rock with more British Armed Forces personnel, meant that most Gibraltarians were forced to be away from Gibraltar and did not have a place they considered to be home. Only those civilians with essential jobs were allowed to stay. However, this event gave the entire community a heightened sense of "Britishness" by sharing in the war effort. In early June 1940, about 13,500 evacuees were shipped to Casablanca in French Morocco but after the capitulation of the French to the Germans in June 1940, the new pro-German French Vichy Government found the presence of Gibraltarian evacuees in Casablanca an embarrassment and sought an opportunity to remove them; that opportunity soon arose. Once the rescued servicemen had disembarked, the ships were interned until they agreed to take away all the evacuees. Although Crichton was unable to obtain permission to clean and restock his ships, when he saw the mass of civilians pouring through the dockyards, he opened his gangways for boarding.
On 3 July 1940, the British fleet had conducted the Attack on Mers-el-Kébir and destroyed a number of French warships, to prevent them being handed over to the Germans. The attacks killed more than a thousand French sailors and led to high tension between the British and the French, evident when Gibraltarian families were forced at bayonet point by French troops to board, only with what they could carry, leaving many possessions behind; when the evacuees arrived at Gibraltar, the Governor, Sir Clive Liddell, would not allow them to land, fearing that once they were back on the Rock, it would be impossible to evacuate them a second time. Crowds demanded that the evacuees be allowed to land. After receiving instructions from London, a landing was allowed as long as the evacuees returned when other ships arrived to take them away from The Rock, by 13 July the re-evacuation back to Gibraltar had been completed. British Conservative politician Oliver Stanley agreed to accept the evacuees in the United Kingdom, but he argued with Gibraltar over the number of people involved.
The Governor, he declared, had given the number of evacuees first as 13,000 as 14,000 and as 16,000. He asked for the situation to be clarified, stressing the shortage of accommodation in Britain and insisting that only 13,000 could be accepted, 2,000 of whom were to be sent to the Portuguese island of Madeira in July and August 1940; the situation, replied General Liddell on 19 July, "is that this is a fortress liable to heavy and immediate attack and there should be no civilians here, whereas there are 22,000. The 13,000 was the number sent to Morocco, more would have been sent had the situation there not altered." In London the evacuees were placed in the hands of the Ministry of Health, many were housed in the Kensington area. Concern for them in Gibraltar mounted as the air raids against London intensified, coupled with the arrival of harrowing letters, describing the circumstances in which the evacuees were living. Tito Benady, a historian on Gibraltar Jewry, noted that when some 200 Jews of the 2000 evacuees from Gibraltar were evacuated as non combatants to Funchal, Madeira, at the start of World War II, they found the Jewish Cemetery of Funchal that belonged to the Abudarham family, the same family after whom the Abudarham Synagogue in Gibraltar was named.
On the 28 May 1944 the first repatriation party left Madeira for Gibraltar and by the end of 1944 only 520 non-priority evacuees remained on the island. In 2008, a monument was made in Gibraltar and shipped to Madeira where it has been erected next to a small chapel at Santa Catarina Park, Funchal; the monument is a gift and symbol of ever-lasting thanks given by the people of Gibraltar to the island of Madeira and its inhabitants. The city of Funchal and Gibraltar were twinned on 13 May 2009 by their mayors, the Mayor of Funchal Miguel Albuquerque and Solomon Levy, the Mayor of Gibraltar, who himself had been an evacuee from Gibraltar to Madeira. Levy had a meeting with the President of Madeira, Alberto João Jardim. In September rumours were circulating among the evacuees, in Gibraltar, that the possibility of re-evacuating the Gibraltarians once more was being discussed, this time the destination being Jamaica, in the West Indies. After much contention, it was decided to send a party directly from Gibraltar to the island, 1,093 evacuees left for Jamaica direct, on 9 October, with more following on.
Petitions followed and the demands were met for strategic reasons and the lack of available shipping. The situation at the end of 1940, was that 2,000 evacuees were in Jamaica and a lesser number in Madeira, with the bulk of around 10,000 housed in the London area; the camp that they were in was only designed to take 7,000, but the population of Malta had refused to be moved to Jamaica and the authorities wanted to use the unused capacity as a prisoner of war camp or as barracks for the local militia. Discipline in the camp was quite strict with residents only being allowed out on the local trams between 8 a.m and 10 p.m. and local Jamaicans could be fined if they entered the camp. However, the camp enjoyed social events and gardening, but there was heated discussion with Gibraltarians who wished to not eat communally; the surrender of Italy in September 1943 lifted any possible objections to the return of the
Kaiane Loise Aldorino Lopez, GMH is a Gibraltarian politician and former Mayor of Gibraltar, as well as Miss World 2009. From 2017 to 2019, she held the ceremonial position of Mayor of Gibraltar, after serving as Deputy Mayor since 2014. Aldorino was a beauty pageant titleholder, being crowned Miss Gibraltar 2009, winning Miss World 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa, she was the first Gibraltarian woman to reach the semifinals of a major international pageant, is the only to win one, as well. Aldorino was raised in Gibraltar. Prior to becoming Miss Gibraltar 2009, she had been working as a human resources clerk at St Bernard's Hospital for five years. Aldorino was raised bilingually, speaking both Spanish, like most Gibraltarians. Aldorino began dancing with Urban Dance Group, she participated at the 2008 International Dance Organization World Showdance Championships, in Riesa, where she represented Gibraltar in the Formation category as part of the Gibraltar National Dance Team. They placed 17th, made history by being the first Gibraltarian formation team to pass the first round.
Aldorino married Aron Lopez in June 2015. They have one daughter, born in 2016. On 27 June 2009, Aldorino was crowned Miss Gibraltar 2009, succeeding Krystle Robba at the Alameda Open Air Theatre. Aldorino made history on 12 December 2009, by becoming the first Miss Gibraltar to be crowned Miss World, she was the first Gibraltarian contestant to have reached the semifinals of one of the major international pageants after receiving the title of Miss World Beach Beauty. Shortly after Aldorino was crowned by her predecessor, Ksenia Sukhinova of Russia, Gibraltar burst into celebration as many Gibraltarians took to the streets. Supporters waved the flag of Gibraltar, chanted as cars honked their horns, fireworks were set off. Chief Minister of Gibraltar Peter Caruana hailed her win as a "wonderful achievement for her and for Gibraltar" and promised a "homecoming fit for a queen". In 2010, she was guest judge in the final Mister World 2010 beauty pageant in South Korea. During her reign, Lopez traveled to over 40 countries.
Some of these countries include: United Kingdom, Japan, Hong Kong, United States, Germany, Italy, South Africa and China. On 15 December 2009, HM Government of Gibraltar announced Aldorino would be flown into Gibraltar from London on a private jet the following afternoon. On 16 December 2009, the government issued a press release in which it detailed the events that would take place upon Aldorino's arrival; these included a public greeting at Gibraltar Airport, a parade through Main Street where Aldorino would ride in the same convertible car as Diana, Princess of Wales and Prince Charles during their honeymoon visit to Gibraltar. On 17 December 2009, Aldorino paraded down Main Street preceded by the band of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, appeared at the City Hall balcony; this was followed by a press reception at the Rock Hotel. The celebrations culminated with a fireworks display from Gibraltar Harbour; the Government requested all businesses in Gibraltar who were reasonably able to do so to close between 4pm and 6pm on this day to allow their staff to take part in the welcoming celebrations.
In March 2014, Aldorino was appointed deputy to the Mayor of Gibraltar, Adolfo Canepa, as a result of a motion by the Chief Minister Fabian Picardo, passed by the Parliament. On 5 April 2017, she became the mayor of the territory. On 7 July 2011, Aldorino was the awarded with both the Freedom of the City of Gibraltar and the Gibraltar Medallion of Honour by a unanimous vote in the Gibraltar Parliament; the motion, tabled by Chief Minister of Gibraltar Peter Caruana recognised her: Aldorino became the first woman to receive the Freedom of the City in Gibraltar. Official Miss Gibraltar pageant website
Madeira the Autonomous Region of Madeira, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago situated in southwest of Portugal, its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, located on the main island's south coast; the archipelago is just under 400 kilometres north of Canary Islands. Bermuda and Madeira, a few time zones apart, are the only land in the Atlantic on the 32nd parallel north, it includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution; the autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union as an outermost region. Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420; the archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Age of Discovery.
Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists five times its population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy and cultural value and fauna, landscapes that are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, embroidery artisans; the main harbour in Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa. In addition, the International Business Centre of Madeira known as the Madeira Free Trade Zone, was created formally in the 1980s as a tool of regional economic policy, it consists of a set of incentives tax-related, granted with the objective of attracting foreign direct investment based on international services into Madeira. Plutarch in his Parallel Lives referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius, relates that after his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs from Africa.
They are called the Isles of the Blest."Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900 and 1030. During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet were said to have fled from England to France in 1346. Driven off course by a violent storm, their ship ran aground along the coast of an island that may have been Madeira; this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico on the island, in memory of the young lovers. Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339. In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off course by a storm to an island they named Porto Santo in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck; the following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown.
Subsequently, the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest." Their investigation revealed it to be the larger island. The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425. Grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the islands could be profitable; these specialised plants, their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands and fuelled Portuguese industry. Following the introduction of the first water-driven sugar mill on Madeira, sugar production increased to over 6,000 arrobas by 1455, using advisers from Sicily and financed by Genoese capital; the accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to bypass Venetian monopolies. "By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus as a producer of sugar."
Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy, increasing the demand for labour. African slaves were used during portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, the proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of Madeira by the 16th century. Barbary corsairs from North Africa, who enslaved Europeans from ships and coastal communities throughout the Mediterranean region, captured 1,200 people in Porto Santo in 1617. After the 17th century, as Portuguese sugar production was shifted to Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe and elsewhere, Madeira's most important commodity product became its wine; the British first amicably occupied the island in 1801 whereafter Colonel William Henry Clinton became governor. A detachment of the 85th Regiment of Foot under Lieutenant-colonel James Willoughby Gordon garrisoned the island. After the Peace of Amiens, British troops withdrew in 1802, only to reoccupy Madeira in 1807 until the end of the Peninsular War in 1814.
On 31 December 1916, during the Great War, a Ge
Adolfo John Canepa, CMG, OBE, GMH is a Gibraltarian politician. He has dedicated most of his life to politics and the development of Gibraltar, having served both as Leader of the Opposition and as Chief Minister of Gibraltar from 8 December 1987 to 25 March 1988. During this period he was the leader of the Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights, he is the incumbent Speaker of the Gibraltar Parliament. Adolfo Canepa was born in London during a period of World War II when most of Gibraltar's civilian population had been evacuated. Prior to his involvement in local politics, Canepa was well known as part of a team of teachers at the Gibraltar Grammar School who helped the Christian Brothers to mould an entire generation of Gibraltarians, he left teaching, at considerable sacrifice for his wife Julie and young family at the time, to pursue a career in politics. Canepa was a leading member of the Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights, he was a candidate for election for the first time in the 1972 elections, winning a seat and thus becoming Minister for Labour and Social Security.
During his time in this ministry, he led a wide-ranging review of the social security system. He served in government as Minister for Economic Development and Trade, a ministry he held until he succeeded Hassan as Chief Minister. During Hassan's last term in government Canepa served as Deputy Chief Minister, he was Hassan's closest political colleague and became his right-hand man at meetings in London with British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher over the Dockyard Agreement and accompanied him as his Deputy to meetings leading up to the Brussels Agreement in the early eighties. Canepa succeeded Alfred Vasquez as Mayor of Gibraltar between 1976 and 1978, he was succeeded by Horace Zammit. Hassan resigned without completing his term as Chief Minister in 1987 after an agreement on the shared use of Gibraltar Airport was signed by Spain and the United Kingdom, citing personal reasons. Being Deputy at the time, Canepa succeeded him as Chief Minister and leader of the AACR. However, Canepa lost the 1988 elections to Joe Bossano of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party, with Canepa obtaining 4,422 votes, while Bossano polled 8,128 votes.
Canepa become Leader of the Opposition until he announced his resignation just prior to the 1992 elections. Canepa announced his resignation as leader of the AACR and his retirement from politics altogether; the AACR disbanded shortly after. Since his official retirement from politics, Canepa has assisted successive Governments of Gibraltar as a consultant, advising them by means of his experience and expertise on legislative and constitutional matters, he served in Peter Caruana’s Committee on Foreign Affairs, supporting the Chief Minister in the lobbying campaign and subsequent referendum which led to the derailing of the joint sovereignty proposals in 2002, in the Constitutional Reform Group which led to Gibraltar’s current constitution. For the last fifteen years he has worked in the Legislative Unit, the prime function of, to scrutinise all European Union documents and determine how they might affect Gibraltar. In October 2012, Canepa was appointed the Speaker of the Gibraltar Parliament and holds the post.
On 10 December 2007 Adolfo Canepa was presented with the Gibraltar Award on behalf of the founding fathers of the AACR. The award was presented by the Self Determination for Gibraltar Group in recognition of the AACR's contribution to the political development and democratisation of Gibraltar. In 2009, Adolfo Canepa was one of the four recipients of the Gibraltar Medallion of Honour and was therefore recorded in the Gibraltar Roll of Honour. List of Gibraltarians Politics of Gibraltar The Struggle for Democracy by TJ Finlayson, Published in The Gibraltar Chronicle
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Alberto João Jardim
Alberto João Cardoso Gonçalves Jardim, GCC, GCIH is a Portuguese politician, the President of the Regional Government of Madeira, from 1978 to 2015. He is a controversial political figure in Portugal. Jardim was born on Madeira Island in 1943, son of Alberto Gonçalves Jardim and wife Marceliana do Patrocínio de Jesus Cardoso, he went to Coimbra in order to study at the local university, he lived there for over a decade as a student. He was awarded a degree of Licentiate in Law from the Faculty of Law of the University of Coimbra in 1973. Jardim became a secondary school teacher, he was director of the Instituto de Emprego e Formação Profissional da Ilha da Madeira. As a journalist, he was director of "Jornal da Madeira", wrote for different Portuguese newspapers and magazines, he was one of the Founders of the Popular Democratic Party in May 1974, a month after the Carnation Revolution, together with Francisco Sá Carneiro, Francisco Pinto Balsemão, Joaquim Magalhães Mota, Carlos Mota Pinto, João Bosco Mota Amaral, António Barbosa de Melo and António Marques Mendes, co-founder of its Madeiran branch.
First elected in 1978 at the age of 35, Alberto João Jardim was successively elected President of the Regional Government of Madeira 10 times. He is a member of the: Council of State of the Portuguese Republic as the President of the Regional Government of Madeira State Defense Council of the Portuguese Republic State Internal Defense Superior Council of the Portuguese Republic Homeland Security Superior Council of the Portuguese Republic, he is one of democratically elected leaders of any jurisdiction in the world. Alberto João Jardim is a member and former Vice President of the European Union Committee of the Regions, he is Honorary President of the European Summit of Regions & Cities. He is a member of the Assembly of European Regions, he was Vice President of European People's Party. On 19 February 2007, he resigned from his office in protest against the new law on regional finances enacted by the national government of José Sócrates. Due to his resignation, early elections had to be scheduled.
The national government announced that the law wouldn't be changed. On 8 January 2011, he suffered a heart attack but recovered and won elections again on 9 October 2011, after winning he promised to resign in early 2015. On 12 January 2015 he retired as President of the Social Democratic Party of Madeira, elections were held and Miguel Albuquerque succeeded him as President of the Social Democratic Party of Madeira. On 14 February 2015 during the carnival of Madeira which Alberto participated, he wore a Greek traditional hat, he stated that it was to show his solidarity for the people of Greece and Syriza, he warned that the new government of Madeira that will replace him should be strong and not bow to the government of Lisbon, because the people of Madeira want strong leadership because Madeira has been robbed by Lisbon for 5 and half centuries, therefore justifying the financial hole that occurred during the part of his Presidency and if they fail to deliver Je suis un Syriza. On 29 March 2015 regional elections were held and Alberto ruled himself out as he had said he would in 2011, Miguel Albuquerque won the election and became the new president on 20 April 2015.
In 1968 he married Maria Ângela Andrade Martins and had three children: Cláudia Sofia Martins Gonçalves Jardim, married to David Gomes and mother of Maria Carlota Jardim Gomes Pedro Alberto Martins Gonçalves Jardim, single Andreia Luísa Martins Gonçalves Jardim, married to José Miguel Monteiro de Resende Tropa and mother of Pedro Afonso Gonçalves Jardim de Resende Tropa, Maria Pilar Gonçalves Jardim de Resende Tropa and João Francisco Gonçalves Jardim de Resende Tropa. A controversial personality, Jardim is seen as an outspoken populist, infamous for his outspoken remarks about his political opponents, from left to right, including several journalists; as Madeira's democratically elected political leader for over 30 years, he has many supporters who view him as a responsible and proactive governor well regarded in the Archipelago of Madeira proper. Despite his confrontational and sometimes impolite personality, Jardim has claimed many benefits and privileges for Madeira, helping the region to improve in several fields throughout the years it has been under his leadership.
However, the European Union assistance to its ultra-peripheral regions, which includes the Portuguese archipelago of Madeira, has played a major role in the region's development. In addition, Jardim's government of the autonomous region was financially supported, decade across decade, by massive public debt creation and wild over-expenditure. An more surprising scandal was reported on 16 September 2011, when Portugal's central bank said Madeira island had under-reported its debt since 2004, putting further pressure on the country to meet deficit targets under an international bailout. An evaluation conducted by the Bank of Portugal of Madeira's accounts showed it failed to report EUR1.1 billion in debt from 2008 to 2010 alone. The Bank of Portugal called the omission "grave