WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Leopold Zunz was the founder of academic Judaic Studies, the critical investigation of Jewish literature and ritual. Zunzs historical investigations and contemporary writings had an important influence on contemporary Judaism, Leopold Zunz was born at Detmold, the son of Talmud scholar Immanuel Menachem Zunz and Hendel Behrens, the daughter of Dov Beer, an assistant cantor of the Detmold community. The year following his birth his family moved to Hamburg, where, as a boy, he began learning Hebrew grammar, the Pentateuch. His father, who was his first teacher, died in July 1802 and he subsequently gained admission to the Jewish free school founded by Philipp Samson, in Wolfenbüttel. Departing from home in July 1803, he saw his mother for the last time, a turning point in Zunzs development came in 1807, when Samuel Meyer Ehrenberg, a reform-minded educator, took over the directorship of the Samson School. He settled in Berlin in 1815, studying at the University of Berlin and he was ordained by the Hungarian rabbi Aaron Chorin, an early supporter of religious reform, and served for two years teaching and giving sermons in the Beer reformed synagogue in Berlin.
He found the career uncongenial, and in 1840 he was appointed director of a Lehrerseminar, Zunz was always interested in politics, and in 1848 addressed many public meetings. In 1850 he resigned his headship of the Teachers Seminary, and was awarded a pension, in 1823, Zunz became the editor of the Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums. The ideals of this Verein were not destined to bear religious fruit, Zunz took no large share in Jewish reform, but never lost faith in the regenerating power of science as applied to the traditions and literary legacies of the ages. He influenced Judaism from the rather than from the pulpit. Further, Isidore Singer and Emil Hirsch have stated that the point of protest against Reform was directed against Samuel Holdheim, in life Zunz went so far as to refer to rabbis as soothsayers and quacks. The violent outcry raised against the Talmud by some of the spirits of the Reform party was repugnant to Zunzs historic sense. Zunz himself was inclined to assign a determinative potency to sentiment.
Although Zunz kept to the Jewish ritual practises, he understood them as symbols and this contrasts with the traditional view of the validity of divine ordinances according to which the faithful are bound to observe without inquiry into their meaning. His position accordingly approached that of the symbolists among the reformers who insisted that symbols had their function and he emphasized most strongly the need of a moral regeneration of the Jews. He wrote precise philological studies but impassioned speeches on the Jewish nation, in 1840 he became director of the Berlin Jewish Teachers Seminary. He was friendly with the traditional Enlightenment figure Nachman Krochmal whose Moreh Nebuke ha-Zeman, was edited, according to the authors last will, Zunz died in Berlin in 1886. Zunz believed that only an approach to Jewish texts and a comprehensive and interdisciplinary academic framework would allow for the adequate study of Jewish themes
Marranos is a term used for those Jews living in Iberia who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity yet continued to practice Judaism in secret. Converts from both Judaism or Islam were referred to by the broader term New Christians. The term marrano came into use in 1492 with the Castilian Alhambra Decree. By then, the majority of Jews in Spain had converted to Catholicism. They remained under the eye of the Spanish Inquisition subject to suspicions of secret practice of Judaism by formal Catholics. The origin of the term marrano as applied to Crypto-Jews is debatable, one derives from Arabic مُحَرّمٌ muḥarram, meaning forbidden, anathematized. Marrano in this context means swine or pig, from the prohibition against eating pork. The numbers who converted and the effects of various migrations in and this percentage was suggested as representing the proportion of Sephardi in the population at the time of mass conversions in the 14th and 15th centuries. However, the authors concede that other historical population movements from the Near East such as Syrians and Phoenicians may account for these results, some Portuguese conversos or cristãos-novos continued to practice as crypto-Jews.
In the early 20th century, historian Samuel Schwartz wrote about crypto-Jewish communities discovered in northeastern Portugal and he claimed that members had managed to survive more than four centuries without being fully assimilated into the Old Christian population. The last remaining community in Belmonte officially returned to Judaism in the 1970s. In 2003, the American Sephardi Federation founded the Belmonte Project to raise funds to acquire Judaic educational material and services for the Belmonte community, two documentary films are known to have been made in north-eastern Portugal where present day descendants of Marranos were interviewed about their lives. In 1974 for The Marranos of Portugal, the Israel Broadcasting Authority sent reporter Ron Ben-Yishai to carry out interviews with families about their religious practice, the film was commended at the 1976 Jerusalem Jewish Film and TV Festival. Another documentary, The Last Marranos, was made by the New York Jewish Media Fund in 1997, after the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain and Portugal, conversos continued to be suspect in times of social strain.
In Lisbon in 1506, a plague caused people to look for scapegoats. Some became suspicious that conversos might be practicing Judaism and therefore be at fault, officials seized several, but released them after a few days. A New Christian who tried to explain the miracle as due to natural causes was dragged from the church, a Dominican roused the populace still more. Friar João Mocho and the Aragonese friar Bernardo, crucifix in hand, were said to have gone through the streets of the city, crying Heresy. and calling upon the people to destroy the conversos
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
The Jews, known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites, or Hebrews, of the Ancient Near East. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel, associated with the god El, somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel, some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as Hebrews. The worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million prior to World War II, but approximately 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, and as of 2015 was estimated at 14.3 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank. According to the report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and these numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as such by a respondent in the same household.
The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure, Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it. The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, according to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי ISO 259-3 Yhudi, is pronounced, with the stress on the syllable, in Israeli Hebrew. The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו, Djudio, ג׳ודיוס, Yiddish, ייִד Yid, ייִדן, Yidn. The etymological equivalent is in use in languages, e. g. but derivations of the word Hebrew are in use to describe a Jew, e. g. in Italian. The German word Jude is pronounced, the corresponding adjective jüdisch is the origin of the word Yiddish, in such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility.
Some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a factual reconstruction for the origin of the Jews is a difficult and complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3,000 years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities, as archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory. In this case, it is complicated by long standing politics and religious and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacobs son Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs descendants were enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, traditionally dated to the 13th century BCE, Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the Patriarchs and of the Exodus story, with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites inspiring national myth narrative. The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct Israelite ethnic group
Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe and Africa in the 12th century. His vivid descriptions of western Asia preceded those of Marco Polo by a hundred years, with his broad education and vast knowledge of languages, Benjamin of Tudela is a major figure in medieval geography and Jewish history. Little is known of his life, apart from the fact that he was from the Navarrese town of Tudela in what is now Spain. Today, a street in the aljama is named after him, the Travels of Benjamin is an important work not only as a description of the Jewish communities, but as a reliable source about the geography and ethnography of the Middle Ages. Some modern historians credit Benjamin with giving accurate descriptions of life in the Middle Ages. Originally written in Hebrew, his itinerary was translated into Latin and it received much attention from Renaissance scholars in the 16th century. Benjamin set out on his journey from the northeast Iberian Peninsula around 1165 and it has been suggested he may have had a commercial motive as well as a religious one.
Several times the subject shows an interest in the trade perhaps as a professional gem-merchant. He took the road, stopping frequently, meeting people, visiting places, describing occupations and giving a demographic count of Jews in each town. His journey began in the city of Zaragoza, further down the valley of the Ebro to Tarragona and Girona, whence he proceeded north to France, and set sail from the port of Marseilles. After visiting Genoa, Lucca and Rome in present-day Italy — he next went to Greece and Constantinople and he visited Syria, the Land of Israel, and northern Mesopotamia before reaching Baghdad. From there he went to Persia, cut back across the Arabian Peninsula to Egypt and North Africa and his visit to the ruins outside the city of Mosul in Iraq is one of the earliest accurate descriptions of the site of ancient Nineveh. He visited in all, over 300 cities, including many of importance in Jewish history, such as Susa, Sura, in addition, he gathered information on many more areas which he heard about on his travels, including China and Tibet.
He recorded details on such as that of Al-Hashishin, the hemp smokers, introducing Western Europeans to people. He described his years abroad in a book, The Travels of Benjamin and this book describes the countries he visited, with an emphasis on the Jewish communities, including their total populations and the names of notable community leaders. He described the customs of the population, both Jewish and non-Jewish, with an emphasis on urban life. He gave detailed descriptions of sites and landmarks passed along the way, as well as important buildings, although Benjamin is noted for citing sources and is generally regarded by historians as trustworthy, some of his claims are faulted as relying on earlier writers. For instance, Benjamins identification of the Laish with Baniyas along with Philostorgius, eusebius of Caesarea, locates Dan/Laish more accurately in the vicinity of Paneas at the fourth mile on the route to Tyre