The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
San Jose State University
San José State University is a comprehensive public university located in San Jose, United States. Located in downtown San Jose, the SJSU main campus is situated on 154 acres, SJSU offers 134 bachelors and masters degrees with 110 concentrations and five credential programs with 19 concentrations. The university offers two joint doctoral programs and one independent doctoral program as of 2014. SJSU is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, SJSUs total enrollment was 32,154 in fall 2016, including nearly 5,800 graduate students. As of fall 2015, graduate student enrollment at SJSU was the second-highest of any campus in the CSU system, as of fall 2014, the top five most popular undergraduate majors at SJSU were psychology, marketing, business management, and biological sciences. As of fall 2014, the top five most popular programs were software engineering, electrical engineering and information sciences, social work. More San José State University alumni are hired by Silicon Valley firms than graduates of any college or university.
SJSU sports teams are known as the Spartans, and compete in the NCAA Division I FBS Mountain West Conference, what is now San José State University was originally established in 1857 as the Minns Evening Normal School in San Francisco, founded by George W. Minns. In 1862, by act of the California legislature, Minns Evening Normal School became the California State Normal School, the school eventually moved to San Jose in 1871, and was given Washington Square Park at Fourth and San Carlos Streets, where the campus remains to this day. In 1881, a bell was forged to commemorate the school. The bell was inscribed with the words California State Normal School, A. D.1881, the original bell appears on the SJSU campus to this day, and is still associated with various student traditions and rituals. In August 1882, a branch campus of the California State Normal School opened in Los Angeles. In 1921, the California State Normal School changed its name to the State Teachers College at San Jose, in 1935, the State Teachers Colleges became the California State Colleges, and the schools name was changed again, this time to San Jose State College.
Finally, in 1974, the California legislature voted to change the name to San José State University. In 1930, the Justice Studies Department was founded as a two-year police science degree program and it holds the distinction of offering the first policing degree in the United States. A stone monument and plaque are displayed close to the site of the police school near Tower Hall. In 1942, the old gym was used to register and collect Japanese Americans before sending them to internment camps, Uchidas parents and siblings were among those processed in the building. In 1963, in an effort to save Tower Hall from demolition, SJSU students and alumni organized testimonials before the State College Board of Trustees, sent telegrams, and provided signed petitions
San Simeon, California
San Simeon is a town and census-designated place on the Pacific coast of San Luis Obispo County, California. Its position along State Route 1 is approximately halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, each of those cities being roughly 230 miles away. A key feature of the area is Hearst Castle, a mansion built by William Randolph Hearst in the early 20th century that is now a tourist attraction. The area is home to a large northern elephant seal rookery. It is located seven miles north of San Simeon on Highway 1, the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, traveled northwest along the coast in September,1769. On September 11–12, the party passed the location of San Simeon. At Ragged Point, about 15 miles past San Simeon, the party turned inland across the Santa Lucia Range, San Simeon was founded as an asistencia to Mission San Miguel Arcángel, founded in 1797 and located to the east across the Santa Lucia Range. San Simeon was named for Rancho San Simeon, although the town-site is actually north of that rancho, on the former Rancho Piedra Blanca, in 1865, Pico sold part of the rancho to George Hearst, the father of William Randolph Hearst.
The first Europeans to settle in the area near the bay of San Simeon were Portuguese shore whalers under the command of Captain Joseph Clark from the Cape Verde Islands. In 1869, Captain Clark built a wharf near the point for his whaling station, a small community grew near the 1869 wharf, but the waves near the wharf were too high, and the wharf was abandoned. In 1878, Hearst built a new wharf, and the community moved near the new wharf. A general store was built near the Clark wharf, and relocated near the 1878 wharf, shore whaling continued on the point until the mid-1890s. It ceased for a time, started up again in 1897. In 1953, the Hearst Corporation donated the William Randolph Hearst Memorial Beach, including the Hearst Pier and it is currently part of Hearst San Simeon State Park. The present-day San Simeon pier was built in 1957, the name San Simeon refers to some geologic structures of the area, particularly elements of the coastal Jurassic Age landforms and ophiolite mineral formations.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the census-designated place covers an area of 0.8 square miles, the original townsite of San Simeon is at San Simeon Bay, and was the important 19th-century shipping point with the successive wharves that were built. San Simeon Acres, about four miles south of the townsite at the mouth of Pico Creek. Most of the development at San Simeon Acres was in the 1960s to the 1980s, many motels and cafes serve visitors to Hearst Castle
Hearst Castle is a National Historic Landmark and California Historical Landmark mansion located on the Central Coast of California, United States. It was designed by architect Julia Morgan, between 1919 and 1947, as a residence for newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, who died in 1951, in 1954 it became a California State Park. The site was opened to visitors in 1958, since that time it has been operated as the Hearst San Simeon State Historical Monument where the estate, and its considerable collection of art and antiques, is open for public tours. Despite its location far from any urban center, the site attracts millions of travelers each year, Hearst formally named the estate La Cuesta Encantada, but usually called it the ranch. Hearst Castle and grounds are sometimes referred to as San Simeon without distinguishing between the Hearst property and the adjacent unincorporated area of the same name. Invitations to Hearst Castle were highly coveted during its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, the Hollywood and political elite often visited, usually flying into the estates airfield or taking a private Hearst-owned train car from Los Angeles.
While guests were expected to attend the formal dinners each evening, since the Ranch had so many facilities, guests were rarely at a loss for things to do. The estates theater usually screened films from Hearsts own movie studio, Hearst Castle was the inspiration for the Xanadu mansion of the 1941 Orson Welles film Citizen Kane, a fictionalization of William Randolph Hearsts career. Hearst Castle was not used as a location for the film, commercial filming is rare at Hearst Castle and most requests are turned down. U. Y. One condition of the Hearst Corporations donation of the estate was that the Hearst family would be allowed to use it when they wished. Patty Hearst, a granddaughter of William Randolph, related that as a child, the house is screened from tourist routes by a dense grove of eucalyptus to provide maximum privacy for the guests. In 2001, Patty Hearst hosted a Travel Channel show on the estate, Hearst Castle joined the National Register of Historic Places on June 22,1972 and became a United States National Historic Landmark on May 11,1976.
Hearst Castle was included as one of Americas 10 Amazing Castles by Forbes Travel. com, the estate itself is five miles inland atop a hill of the Santa Lucia Range at an altitude of 1,600 feet. The region is sparsely populated because the Santa Lucia Range abuts the Pacific Ocean, the surrounding countryside visible from the mansion remains largely undeveloped. Its entrance is approximately five miles north of Hearst San Simeon State Park, Hearst Castle was built on Rancho Piedra Blanca that William Randolph Hearsts father, George Hearst, originally purchased in 1865. The younger Hearst grew fond of this site over many childhood family camping trips and he inherited the ranch, which had grown to 250,000 acres and 14 miles of coastline, from his mother Phoebe Hearst in 1919. The Hearst Castle area has a mediterranean climate that is moderated by its relative proximity to the Pacific coastline. Hearst first approached American architect Julia Morgan with ideas for a new project in April 1915, I get tired of going up there and camping in tents
San Jose, California
San Jose, officially the City of San José, is the economic and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2015 population of 1,026,908, it is the third most populous city in California and the tenth most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the shore of San Francisco Bay. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California. San Jose is the largest city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Ohlone people, San Jose was founded on November 29,1777, as the Pueblo of San José de Guadalupe, the first civilian town founded in Spanish Alta California. When California gained statehood in 1850, San Jose became the states first capital, following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 60s.
The rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from a center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had officially surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California, by the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries. San Jose is considered to be a city, notable for its affluence. San Joses location within the high tech industry, as a cultural, political. San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institute. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. The first lasting European presence began with a series of Franciscan missions established from 1769 by Junípero Serra, San Jose came under Mexican rule in 1821 after Mexico broke with the Spanish crown.
It became part of the United States, after it capitulated in 1846, on March 27,1850, San Jose became the second incorporated city in the state, with Josiah Belden its first mayor. San Jose was Californias first state capital, and hosted the first, today the Circle of Palms Plaza in downtown is the historical marker for the first state capital. The city was a station on the Butterfield Overland Mail route, in the period 1900 through 1910, San Jose served as a center for pioneering invention and impact in both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air flight. These activities were led principally by John Montgomery and his peers, the City of San Jose has established Montgomery Park, a Monument at San Felipe and Yerba Buena Roads, and John J. Montgomery Elementary School in his honor
California pottery includes industrial and decorative pottery produced in the Northern California and Southern California regions of the U. S. state of California. Production includes brick, sewer pipe, architectural terra cotta, garden ware, kitchenware, art ware, giftware, Ceramics include terra cotta, earthenware and stoneware products. California potters large and small have left a legacy of collectibles, Tile has been a favorite building material in California since the early Spanish settled the area and brought with them bright-colored tile, according to Helen Stiles. She noted that Spanish and the attending Chinese design of the 17th and 18th centuries have all influenced the decoration of tile, as people moved into California after statehood in 1848, the demand for ceramic products grew exponentially. Buildings needed roofs and sewer pipes, the ceramic industry grew as the demand increased. The Golden Era in tile making and art pottery, influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement, was around 1910, architect Julia Morgan used tiles to adorn her buildings including the Hearst Castle in the 1920s.
The most active period for the production of ceramics including tableware, giftware. The major area of production was in the Los Angeles basin, around Los Angeles there were over 300 producers of figurines. Next in size was the Trenton area, followed by East Liverpool, the period around World War II saw the greatest growth for the ceramic industry. With imports cut off from European and Asian markets, small family owned businesses, by 1948, the peak year for the industry, over eight hundred ceramic concerns were in operation throughout California. In the 1950s, imports resumed and flooded the United States market with competitively priced ceramic wares, only a fraction of California potteries survived until the early 1960s. Today, only a few are still in business, the Big Five California potteries, from the 1930s to the 1960s in reference to the range of products and output, were Vernon Kilns, J. A. Bauer Pottery, Metlox Potteries, Pacific Clay Products, and Gladding, all of the Big Five potteries operated production facilities in the Los Angeles Basin.
Gladding, McBean & Co. grew from one factory manufacturing sewer pipe and architectural terra cotta in Lincoln, California to factories throughout California, Vernon Kilns closed in 1958, J. A. Bauer in 1962, and Metlox in 1988, the former Gladding, McBean & Co. s Franciscan tableware and tile factory in Los Angeles was bought by Wedgwood from the Interpace corporation in 1979. Wedgwood closed the Franciscan Ceramics plant in 1984, moving production of the Franciscan tableware brands to England. The former Gladding, McBean & Co. s Lincoln factory was purchased by Pacific Coast Building Products in 1976 and continues to produce sewer pipe, architectural terra cotta, Pacific Clay Products discontinued manufacturing tableware, art ware, and figurines in 1942. Pacific Clay Products continues to manufacture sewer pipe, to use the sortable tables, click on the icons at the top of each column to sort that column in alphabetical order, click again for reverse alphabetical order
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the portion of Californias expansive Central Valley. Its estimated 2014 population of 485,199 made it the sixth-largest city in California, Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento Americas Most Diverse City, Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr. his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr. and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutters Fort, which was established by Sutter in 1839, the city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento, California State University, Sacramento, is the largest university in the city and one of 23 campuses in the California State University system.
University of the Pacific is a university with one of its three campuses in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, located in nearby Davis, operates its UC Davis Medical Center and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the oak trees in the region, and by fruits, seeds. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley, a Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote, Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths, the air was like champagne, and drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. The valley and the river were christened after the Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, John Sutter first arrived on August 13,1839 at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutters Fort, representing Mexico, Sutter called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west, within just a few short years, John Sutter had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847, Sutter hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, Sutter received 2,000 fruit trees in 1847, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma and he hired topographical engineer William H
He formed a partnership, Minton & Poulson, c.1796, with Joseph Poulson who made bone china from c.1798 in his new near-by china pottery. When Poulson died in 1808, Minton carried on alone, using Poulsons pottery for china until 1816 and he built a new china pottery in 1824. The products are often referred to as Minton, as in Minton china. Early Mintons products were mostly standard domestic tableware in blue transfer printed or painted earthenware, from c1798 production included bone china from his partner Joseph Poulsons near-by china pottery. China production ceased c1816 following Joseph Poulsons death in 1808, recommencing in a new pottery in 1824, hard white unglazed statuary porcelain, called Parian ware due to its resemblance to Parian marble, was first introduced by Spode in the 1840s. It was further developed by Minton who employed John Bell, Hiram Powers, in 1849 Minton engaged a young French ceramic artist Léon Arnoux as art director and he remained with the Minton Company until 1892.
The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 gave Arnoux the opportunity to recruit the modeller Marc-Louis Solon who had developed the technique of pâte-sur-pâte at Sèvres and brought it with him to Minton. In this process the design is built up in relief with layers of liquid slip, there was great demand for Solons plaques and vases, featuring maidens and cherubs, and Minton assigned him apprentices to help the firm become the unrivaled leader in this field. Others introduced to Minton by Arnoux included the sculptor Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, in 1870 Mintons opened an art pottery studio in Kensington, London directed by W. S. Coleman and encouraged both amateur and professional artists to become involved in pottery decoration and design. When the studio was destroyed by fire in 1875, it was not rebuilt, Solons early designs for Mintons were strongly influenced by the Viennese Secessionist art movement, founded by Gustav Klimt and others, and so became known as Secessionist ware. The Secessionist range covered both practical and ornamental wares including cheese dishes, teapots and comports, the shapes of ornamental vases included inverted trumpets, elongated cylinders and exaggerated bottle forms, although tableware shapes were conventional.
The Minton factory in the centre of Stoke was rebuilt and modernised after the Second World War by the managing director, J. E. Hartill. The tableware division was always the mainstay of Mintons fortunes and the rationalisation of the British pottery industry took Mintons into a merger with Royal Doulton Tableware Ltd. By the 1980s Mintons was only producing a few different shapes, the factory, including office accommodation and a Minton Museum, was demolished in 2002 as part of rationalisation within the Royal Doulton group. Royal Doulton was taken over in turn by the Waterford Wedgwood group in January 2005, as a result of these changes, the ceramics collection formerly in the Minton Museum was partly dispersed. On the other hand, the Minton Archive has been together with help from the Art Fund. The Victorian building which used to be the Minton Hollins tileworks is on a site from the former Minton pottery. It was threatened with demolition in the 1980s but was listed and has been preserved, cumming Minton Collection Famous Potters of Stoke-on-Trent – Thomas Minton Explore historic Minton pottery online The Majolica Society Stoke Museums, home to the former Minton Museum collection
Mark Hopkins Hotel
The InterContinental Mark Hopkins San Francisco is a luxury hotel located at the top of Nob Hill in San Francisco, California. The hotel is managed by the InterContinental Hotels Group, the chain operates over 5000 hotels and resorts in approximately 75 nations. The Mark Hopkins is the oldest InterContinental in the United States, the 19th floor penthouse suite was converted in 1939 into the glass-walled Top of the Mark restaurant cocktail lounge. InterContinental Mark Hopkins Hotel is a member of Historic Hotels of America, Mark Hopkins, one of the founders of the Central Pacific Railroad, chose the southeastern peak of Nob Hill as the site for a dream home for his wife, Mary. The mansion was completed in 1878, after his death, since the tower of the mansion was at the time the highest point in San Francisco, Eadweard Muybridge chose this location to shoot his iconic 1887 panoramic of the city from this location. Mary Sherwood Hopkins, on her death in 1891 at the age of seventy-three, left the Nob Hill mansion, in 1893, Searles donated the building and grounds to the San Francisco Art Association, for use as a school and museum.
It was called the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art and valued at $600,000 at the time, the Mark Hopkins mansion survived the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, however, it was destroyed in the three-day fire that followed the earthquake. Mining engineer and hotel investor George D. Smith purchased the Nob Hill site, removed the Art Association building, the San Francisco architectural firm Weeks and Day designed the 19-story hotel, a combination of French château and Spanish ornamentation. One of the areas, The Room of The Dons, contains a piece of California history. Nine seven-foot-high panels painted by artists Maynard Dixon and Frank Von Sloun in 1926 for the hotels opening decorate the upper walls, one panel shows Queen Calafia and her Amazons set against a gold leaf sky. Calafia is the namesake for the state of California, during World War II, the Top Of The Mark lounge was a favored place for Pacific-bound servicemen and their sweethearts to meet before being deployed. In 1962, the hotel was sold by the original owner George D.
Smith to San Francisco financier Louis Lurie, in 1973 Luries heirs signed a long-term management contract for the Mark Hopkins with InterContinental Hotels Corporation. Woodridge Capital Partners Affiliates and funds managed by Oaktree Capital Management acquired the hotel in 2014 and they own the Fairmont San Francisco hotel across the street. The Mark Hopkins became a center for the City, and is rated AAA Four-Diamond and has won the Gold-Key award. A bronze plaque installed by the California State Park Commission, designating the site California Historical Landmark #754, was commissioned October 20,1961, the plaque marks the former site of the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art. The Mark Hopkins Hotel is listed as a San Francisco Designated Landmark, San Franciscos tallest buildings List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Woodbridge, Sally B. Media related to Mark Hopkins mansion at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Stoke-on-Trent is a city and unitary authority area in Staffordshire, with an area of 36 square miles. Together with the boroughs of Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire Moorlands, it is part of North Staffordshire. Stoke is polycentric, having formed by a federation of six towns in the early 20th century. It took its name from Stoke-upon-Trent, where the town hall, Hanley is the primary commercial centre. The four other towns are Burslem, Tunstall and Fenton, Stoke-on-Trent is the home of the pottery industry in England and is commonly known as the Potteries. Formerly a primarily industrial conurbation, it is now a centre for service industries, the name Stoke is taken from the town of Stoke-upon-Trent, the original ancient parish, with other settlements being chapelries. Stoke derives from the Old English stoc, a word that at first meant little more than place and these variant meanings included dairy farm, secondary or dependent place or farm, summer pasture, crossing place, meeting place and place of worship.
It is not known which of these was intended here, because Stoke was such a common name for a settlement, some kind of distinguishing affix was usually added later, in this case the name of the river. The motto of Stoke-on-Trent is Vis Unita Fortior which can be translated as, United Strength is Stronger, or Strength United is the More Powerful and it was not until 1 April 1910 that the Six Towns were brought together. The county borough of Hanley, the boroughs of Burslem, Longton. The combined borough took the town of Stoke. In 1919, the borough proposed to further and annex the neighbouring borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme. This never took place, due to objections from Newcastle Corporation. A further attempt was made in 1930, with the promotion of the Stoke-on-Trent Extension Bill, Wolstanton was instead added to Newcastle-under-Lyme in 1932. The borough was granted city status in 1925, with a Lord Mayor from 1928. The decision was overturned, when an approach was made to King George V. The public announcement of the elevation to city status was made by the King during a visit to Stoke on 4 June 1925, the county borough was abolished in 1974, and Stoke became a non-metropolitan district of Staffordshire.
Its status as a unitary authority was restored on 1 April 1997, for Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS3 region