Netlify is a San Francisco-based cloud computing company that offers hosting and serverless backend services for static websites. It features continuous deployment from Git across a global application delivery network, serverless form handling, support for AWS Lambda functions, full integration with Let's Encrypt, it provides both free and paid plans. Netlify customers include Google, Verizon, NBC, Cisco, Vue.js, Peloton, Lodash, Smashing Magazine, Sequoia Capital. A predecessor to the company began in 2013 when Danish entrepreneur Mathias Biilmann noticed a return to static websites while running MakerLoop, a content management startup based in San Francisco. In 2015, Biilmann invited Christian Bach, his childhood friend, working as an executive at a creative services agency in Denmark, to join him in the new venture. Netlify was publicly launched as a MakerLoop product in March 2015. On December 19, 2017, MakerLoop filed a certificate of amendment with the Secretary of State of Delaware reincorporating and changing its name to Netlify.
On July 10, 2018, GitHub founder and former CEO Tom Preston-Werner predicted that "within 5 years, you'll build your next large scale featured web app with JAMstack and deploy on Netlify."In an October 2018 press release co-authored by Netlify, CodePen co-founder Chris Coyier stated that "this is where the web is going, Netlify is just bringing it to us all a lot faster. With all the innovation in the space, this is an exciting time to be a developer." Official website
Kibana is an open source data visualization plugin for Elasticsearch. It provides visualization capabilities on top of the content indexed on an Elasticsearch cluster. Users can create bar and scatter plots, or pie charts and maps on top of large volumes of data. Kibana provides a presentation tool, referred to as Canvas, that allows users to create slide decks that pull live data directly from Elasticsearch; the combination of Elasticsearch and Kibana, referred to as the "Elastic Stack", is available as a product or service. Logstash provides an input stream to Elasticsearch for storage and search, Kibana accesses the data for visualizations such as dashboards. Elastic provides "Beats" packages which can be configured to provide pre-made Kibana visualizations and dashboards about various database and application technologies. Official website kibana on GitHub
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
A web server is server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can satisfy World Wide Web client requests. A web server can, in general, contain one or more websites. A web server processes incoming network requests over several other related protocols; the primary function of a web server is to store and deliver web pages to clients. The communication between client and server takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Pages delivered are most HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts in addition to the text content. A user agent a web browser or web crawler, initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so; the resource is a real file on the server's secondary storage, but this is not the case and depends on how the web server is implemented. While the primary function is to serve content, a full implementation of HTTP includes ways of receiving content from clients.
This feature is used for submitting web forms, including uploading of files. Many generic web servers support server-side scripting using Active Server Pages, PHP, or other scripting languages; this means that the behaviour of the web server can be scripted in separate files, while the actual server software remains unchanged. This function is used to generate HTML documents dynamically as opposed to returning static documents; the former is used for retrieving or modifying information from databases. The latter is much faster and more cached but cannot deliver dynamic content. Web servers can be found embedded in devices such as printers, routers and serving only a local network; the web server may be used as a part of a system for monitoring or administering the device in question. This means that no additional software has to be installed on the client computer since only a web browser is required. In March 1989 Sir Tim Berners-Lee proposed a new project to his employer CERN, with the goal of easing the exchange of information between scientists by using a hypertext system.
The project resulted in Berners-Lee writing two programs in 1990: A Web browser called WorldWideWeb The world's first web server known as CERN httpd, which ran on NeXTSTEPBetween 1991 and 1994, the simplicity and effectiveness of early technologies used to surf and exchange data through the World Wide Web helped to port them to many different operating systems and spread their use among scientific organizations and universities, subsequently to the industry. In 1994 Berners-Lee decided to constitute the World Wide Web Consortium to regulate the further development of the many technologies involved through a standardization process. Web servers are able to map the path component of a Uniform Resource Locator into: A local file system resource An internal or external program name For a static request the URL path specified by the client is relative to the web server's root directory. Consider the following URL as it would be requested by a client over HTTP: http://www.example.com/path/file.html The client's user agent will translate it into a connection to www.example.com with the following HTTP 1.1 request: GET /path/file.html HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com The web server on www.example.com will append the given path to the path of its root directory.
On an Apache server, this is /home/www. The result is the local file system resource: /home/www/path/file.html The web server reads the file, if it exists, sends a response to the client's web browser. The response will describe the content of the file and contain the file itself or an error message will return saying that the file does not exist or is unavailable. A web server can be either incorporated in user space. Web servers that run in user-mode have to ask the system for permission to use more memory or more CPU resources. Not only do these requests to the kernel take time, but they are not always satisfied because the system reserves resources for its own usage and has the responsibility to share hardware resources with all the other running applications. Executing in user mode can mean useless buffer copies which are another handicap for user-mode web servers. A web server has defined load limits, because it can handle only a limited number of concurrent client connections per IP address and it can serve only a certain maximum number of requests per second depending on: its own settings, the HTTP request type, whether the content is static or dynamic, whether the content is cached, the hardware and software limitations of the OS of the computer on which the web server runs.
When a web server is near to or over its limit, it becomes unresponsive. At any time web servers can be overloaded due to: Excess legitimate web traffic. Thousands or millions of clients connecting to the web site in a short interval, e.g. Slashdot effect. A denial-of-service attack or distributed denial-of-service attack is an attempt to make a computer or network resource unavailable to its intended users.
MariaDB is a community-developed, commercially supported fork of the MySQL relational database management system, intended to remain free and open-source software under the GNU General Public License. Development is led by some of the original developers of MySQL, who forked it due to concerns over its acquisition by Oracle Corporation. MariaDB intends to maintain high compatibility with MySQL, ensuring a drop-in replacement capability with library binary parity and exact matching with MySQL APIs and commands, it includes a new storage engine, Aria, an alternative to MyISAM that intends to be the default transactional and non-transactional engine. It used XtraDB as the default storage engine, switched back to InnoDB since version 10.2. Its lead developer is Michael "Monty" Widenius, one of the founders of MySQL AB and the founder of Monty Program AB. On 16 January 2008, MySQL AB announced that it had agreed to be acquired by Sun Microsystems for $1 billion; the acquisition completed on 26 February 2008.
MariaDB is named after Monty's younger daughter Maria, similar to how MySQL is named after his other daughter My. MariaDB version numbers follow the MySQL's numbering scheme up to version 5.5. Thus, MariaDB 5.5 offers all of the MySQL 5.5 features. There exists a gap in MySQL versions between 5.1 and 5.5, while MariaDB issued 5.2 and 5.3 point releases. Since specific new features have been developed in MariaDB, the developers decided that a major version number change was necessary. MariaDB has been supported in Amazon RDS service since October 2015. MariaDB is a supported database in Microsoft Azure. MariaDB's API and protocol are compatible with those used by MySQL, plus some features to support native non-blocking operations and progress reporting; this means that all connectors and applications which work with MySQL should work on MariaDB—whether or not they support its native features. On this basis, Fedora developers replaced MySQL with MariaDB in Fedora 19, out of concerns that Oracle was making MySQL a more closed software project.
OpenBSD in April 2013 dropped MySQL for MariaDB 5.5. In December 2012 Michael Widenius, David Axmark, Allan Larsson announced the formation of a foundation that would oversee the development of MariaDB. In April 2013 the Foundation announced that it had appointed Simon Phipps as its Secretary and interim Chief Executive Officer, Rasmus Johansson as Chairman of the Board, Andrew Katz, Jeremy Zawodny, Michael Widenius as Board members. Noting that it wished to create a governance model similar to that used by the Eclipse Foundation, the Board appointed the Eclipse Foundation's Executive Director Mike Milinkovich as an advisor to lead the transition. SkySQL Corporation Ab, a company formed by ex-MySQL executives and investors after Oracle bought MySQL, announced in April 2013 that they were merging their company with Monty Program AB, joining the MariaDB Foundation; the MariaDB Foundation appointed Widenius as its CTO. Simon Phipps quit in 2014 on the sale of the MariaDB trademark to SkySQL, he said: "I quit as soon as it was obvious the company was not going to allow an independent foundation."
On 1 October 2014, SkySQL Corporation AB changed its name to MariaDB Corporation AB to reflect its role as the main driving force behind the development of MariaDB server and the biggest support-provider for it. MariaDB is a registered trademark of MariaDB Corporation AB, used under license by the MariaDB Foundation. From January 2015 to September 2018, Otto Kekäläinen was the CEO of the MariaDB Foundation, he stepped down on 1 October of that year. Arjen Lentz was appointed CEO of the Foundation in October 2018, but resigned in December 2018. Kaj Arnö joined as the CEO on 1 February 2019. Eric Herman is the current Chairman of the Board. MariaDB is used at ServiceNow, DBS Bank, Google and the Wikimedia Foundation since 2013. Several Linux and BSD distributions include MariaDB, like Ubuntu; some default to MariaDB, such as Arch Linux, Debian, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, openSUSE, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, OpenBSD, FreeBSD. In 2013 Google tasked one of its engineers to work at the MariaDB Foundation.
A group of investment companies led by Intel has invested $20 million in SkySQL. The European Investment Bank has funded MariaDB with €25 million in 2017. Comparison of relational database management systems Multi-master replication Bartholomew, Daniel. Getting Started with MariaDB. ISBN 9781782168096. Bartholomew, Daniel. MariaDB Cookbook. ISBN 978-1-78328-440-5. Forta, Ben. MariaDB Crash Course. Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-321-79994-1. MariaDB Foundation website MariaDB Corporation website MariaDB, the Backward Compatible Branch of MySQL Database Server on YouTube – a lecture given by Monty Widenius at Google
Web search engine
A web search engine or Internet search engine is a software system, designed to carry out web search, which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a web search query. The search results are presented in a line of results referred to as search engine results pages; the information may be a mix of web pages, videos, articles, research papers and other types of files. Some search engines mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler. Internet content, not capable of being searched by a web search engine is described as the deep web. Internet search engines themselves predate the debut of the Web in December 1990; the Who is user search dates back to 1982 and the Knowbot Information Service multi-network user search was first implemented in 1989. The first well documented search engine that searched content files, namely FTP files was Archie, which debuted on 10 September 1990.
Prior to September 1993, the World Wide Web was indexed by hand. There was a list of webservers hosted on the CERN webserver. One snapshot of the list in 1992 remains, but as more and more web servers went online the central list could no longer keep up. On the NCSA site, new servers were announced under the title "What's New!"The first tool used for searching content on the Internet was Archie. The name stands for "archive" without the "v", it was created by Alan Emtage, Bill Heelan and J. Peter Deutsch, computer science students at McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the program downloaded the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP sites, creating a searchable database of file names. The rise of Gopher led to two new search programs and Jughead. Like Archie, they searched the file titles stored in Gopher index systems. Veronica provided a keyword search of most Gopher menu titles in the entire Gopher listings. Jughead was a tool for obtaining menu information from specific Gopher servers.
While the name of the search engine "Archie Search Engine" was not a reference to the Archie comic book series, "Veronica" and "Jughead" are characters in the series, thus referencing their predecessor. In the summer of 1993, no search engine existed for the web, though numerous specialized catalogues were maintained by hand. Oscar Nierstrasz at the University of Geneva wrote a series of Perl scripts that periodically mirrored these pages and rewrote them into a standard format; this formed the basis for W3Catalog, the web's first primitive search engine, released on September 2, 1993. In June 1993, Matthew Gray at MIT, produced what was the first web robot, the Perl-based World Wide Web Wanderer, used it to generate an index called'Wandex'; the purpose of the Wanderer was to measure the size of the World Wide Web, which it did until late 1995. The web's second search engine Aliweb appeared in November 1993. Aliweb did not use a web robot, but instead depended on being notified by website administrators of the existence at each site of an index file in a particular format.
JumpStation used a web robot to find web pages and to build its index, used a web form as the interface to its query program. It was thus the first WWW resource-discovery tool to combine the three essential features of a web search engine as described below; because of the limited resources available on the platform it ran on, its indexing and hence searching were limited to the titles and headings found in the web pages the crawler encountered. One of the first "all text" crawler-based search engines was WebCrawler, which came out in 1994. Unlike its predecessors, it allowed users to search for any word in any webpage, which has become the standard for all major search engines since, it was the search engine, known by the public. In 1994, Lycos was launched and became a major commercial endeavor. Soon after, many search engines vied for popularity; these included Magellan, Infoseek, Northern Light, AltaVista. Yahoo! was among the most popular ways for people to find web pages of interest, but its search function operated on its web directory, rather than its full-text copies of web pages.
Information seekers could browse the directory instead of doing a keyword-based search. In 1996, Netscape was looking to give a single search engine an exclusive deal as the featured search engine on Netscape's web browser. There was so much interest that instead Netscape struck deals with five of the major search engines: for $5 million a year, each search engine would be in rotation on the Netscape search engine page; the five engines were Yahoo!, Lycos and Excite. Google adopted the idea of selling search terms in 1998, from a small search engine company named goto.com. This move had a significant effect on the SE business, which went from struggling to one of the most profitable businesses in the Internet. Search engines were known as some of the brightest stars in the Internet investing frenzy that occurred in the late 1990s. Several
MySQL is an open-source relational database management system. Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter, "SQL", the abbreviation for Structured Query Language. MySQL is free and open-source software under the terms of the GNU General Public License, is available under a variety of proprietary licenses. MySQL was owned and sponsored by the Swedish company MySQL AB, bought by Sun Microsystems. In 2010, when Oracle acquired Sun, Widenius forked the open-source MySQL project to create MariaDB. MySQL is a component of the LAMP web application software stack, an acronym for Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python. MySQL is used by many database-driven web applications, including Drupal, phpBB, WordPress. MySQL is used by many popular websites, including Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. MySQL is written in C and C++, its SQL parser is written in yacc. MySQL works on many system platforms, including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, eComStation, i5/OS, IRIX, macOS, Microsoft Windows, NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, OS/2 Warp, QNX, Oracle Solaris, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare and Tru64.
A port of MySQL to OpenVMS exists. The MySQL server software itself and the client libraries use dual-licensing distribution, they are offered under a proprietary license. Support can be obtained from the official manual. Free support additionally is available in different IRC forums. Oracle offers paid support via its MySQL Enterprise products, they differ in price. Additionally, a number of third party organisations exist to provide support and services, including MariaDB and Percona. MySQL has received positive reviews, reviewers noticed it "performs well in the average case" and that the "developer interfaces are there, the documentation is very good", it has been tested to be a "fast and true multi-user, multi-threaded sql database server". MySQL was created by a Swedish company, MySQL AB, founded by David Axmark, Allan Larsson and Michael "Monty" Widenius. Original development of MySQL by Widenius and Axmark began in 1994; the first version of MySQL appeared on 23 May 1995. It was created for personal usage from mSQL based on the low-level language ISAM, which the creators considered too slow and inflexible.
They created a new SQL interface, while keeping the same API as mSQL. By keeping the API consistent with the mSQL system, many developers were able to use MySQL instead of the mSQL antecedent. Additional milestones in MySQL development included: First internal release on 23 May 1995 Version 3.19: End of 1996, from www.tcx.se Version 3.20: January 1997 Windows version was released on 8 January 1998 for Windows 95 and NT Version 3.21: production release 1998, from www.mysql.com Version 3.22: alpha, beta from 1998 Version 3.23: beta from June 2000, production release 22 January 2001 Version 4.0: beta from August 2002, production release March 2003. Version 4.01: beta from August 2003, Jyoti adopts MySQL for database tracking Version 4.1: beta from June 2004, production release October 2004. Version 5.0: beta from March 2005, production release October 2005. The developer of the Federated Storage Engine states that "The Federated Storage Engine is a proof-of-concept storage engine", but the main distributions of MySQL version 5.0 included it and turned it on by default.
Documentation of some of the short-comings appears in "MySQL Federated Tables: The Missing Manual". Sun Microsystems acquired MySQL AB in 2008. Version 5.1: production release 27 November 2008 Version 5.1 contained 20 known crashing and wrong result bugs in addition to the 35 present in version 5.0. MySQL 5.1 and 6.0-alpha showed poor performance when used for data warehousing – due to its inability to utilize multiple CPU cores for processing a single query. Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems on 27 January 2010; the day Oracle announced the purchase of Sun, Michael "Monty" Widenius forked MySQL, launching MariaDB, took a swath of MySQL developers with him. MySQL Server 5.5 was available. Enhancements and features include: The default storage engine is InnoDB, which supports transactions and referential integrity constraints. Improved InnoDB I/O subsystem Improved SMP support Semisynchronous replication. SIGNAL and RESIGNAL statement in compliance with the SQL standard. Support for supplementary Unicode character sets utf16, utf32, utf8mb4.
New options for user-defined partitioning. MySQL Server 6.0.11-alpha was announced on 22 May 2009 as the last release of the 6.0 line. Future MySQL Server development uses a New Release Model. Features developed for 6.0 are being incorporated into future releases. The general availability of MySQL 5.6 was announced in February 2013. New features included performance improvements to the query optimizer, higher transactional throughput in InnoDB, new NoSQL-style memcached APIs, improvements to partitioning for querying and managing large tables, TIMESTAMP column type that stores milliseconds, improvements to replication, better performance monitoring by expanding the data available through the PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA; the InnoDB storage engine included support for full-text search and improved group commit performance. The general availability of MySQL 5.7 was a