A chess variant is a game "related to, derived from, or inspired by chess". Such variants can differ from chess in many different ways, ranging from minor modifications to the rules, to games which have only a slight resemblance. "International" or "Western" chess itself is one of a family of games which have related origins and could be considered variants of each other. Chess is theorised to have been developed from chaturanga, from which other members of this family, such as shatranj and xiangqi evolved. Many chess variants are designed to be played with the equipment of regular chess. Although most variants have a similar public-domain status as their parent game, some have been made into commercial, proprietary games. Just as in traditional chess, chess variants can be played over-the-board, by correspondence, or by computer; some internet chess servers facilitate the play of some variants in addition to orthodox chess. In the context of chess problems, chess variants are called fairy chess.
Fairy chess variants tend to be created for problem composition rather than actual play. There are thousands of known chess variants; the Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants catalogues around two thousand, with the preface noting that — with creating a chess variant being trivial — many were considered insufficiently notable for inclusion. The origins of the chess family of games can be traced to the game of chaturanga during the time of the Gupta Empire in India. Over time, as the game spread geographically, modified versions of the rules became popular in different regions. In Sassanid Persia, a modified form became known as shatranj. Modifications made to this game in Europe resulted in the modern game. Courier chess was a popular variant in medieval Europe, which had a significant impact on the "main" variant's development. Other games in the chess family, such as shogi, xiangqi, are developments from chaturanga made in other regions; these related games are considered chess variants, though the majority of variants are, modifications of chess.
The basic rules of chess were not standardised until the 19th century, the history of chess prior to this involves many variants, with the most popular modifications spreading and forming the modern game. While some regional variants have historical origins comparable to or older than chess, the majority of variants are express attempts by individuals or small groups to create new games with chess as a starting point. In most cases the creators are attempting to create new games of interest to chess enthusiasts or a wider audience. Variants have the same public domain status as chess, though a few are proprietary, the materials for play are released as commercial products; the variations from chess may be done to address a perceived issue with the standard game. For example, Chess960, which randomises the starting positions, was invented by Bobby Fischer to combat what he perceived to be the detrimental dominance of opening preparation in chess. Several variants introduce complications to the standard game, providing an additional challenge for experienced players, for example in Kriegspiel, where players cannot see the pieces of their opponent.
A handful, such as No Stress Chess, attempt to simplify the game, so as to be attractive to chess beginners. The table below details some, but not all, of the ways in which variants can differ from the orthodox game: Variants can themselves be developed into further sub-variants, for example Horde chess is a variation upon Dunsany's Chess; some variations are created for the purpose of composing interesting puzzles, rather than being intended for full games. This field of composition is known as fairy chess. Fairy chess gave rise to the term "fairy chess piece", used more broadly across writings about chess variants to describe chess pieces with movement rules other than those of the standard chess pieces. Forms of standardised notation have been devised to systematically describe the movement of these. A distinguishing feature of several chess variants is the presence of one or more fairy pieces. Physical models of common fairy pieces are sold by major chess set suppliers. Individuals notable for creating multiple chess variants include V. R. Parton, Ralph Betza, Philip M. Cohen and George R. Dekle Sr.
Some board game designers, notable for works across a wider range of board games, have attempted to create chess variants. These include Andy Looney. Several chess masters have developed variants, such as Chess960 by Bobby Fischer, Capablanca Chess by José Raúl Capablanca, Seirawan chess by Yasser Seirawan. While chess and xiangqi have professional circuits as well as many organised tournaments for amateurs, play of the majority of chess variants is predominately on a casual basis; some variants have had significant tournaments. Several Gliński's hexagonal chess tournaments were played at the height of the variant's popularity in the 1970s and 1980s. Chess960 has been the subject of tournaments, including in 2018 an "unofficial world championship" between reigning World Chess Champion Magnus Carlsen and fellow high-ranking Grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura. Several internet chess servers facilitate live play of popular variants, including Chess.com and the Free Internet Chess Server. The software packages Zillions of Games and Fairy-Max have been programmed to support many chess variants.
Play in most chess variants is sufficiently similar to chess that games can be recorded with algebraic notation, although additions to this are required. For example, the third dimension in Millennium 3D Chess means that move notatio
Maastricht University is a public university in Maastricht, Netherlands. Founded in 1976, it is the second youngest of the thirteen Dutch universities. In 2013, nearly 16,000 students studied at Maastricht University, 47% of whom were foreign students, with over 3,200 employees. About half of the bachelor's programmes are offered in English, while the other half is taught wholly or in Dutch. Most of the master's and doctoral programmes are in English. In 2013, Maastricht University was the second Dutch university to be rewarded the ‘Distinctive Quality Feature for Internationalisation’ by the Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders. Besides traditional programmes, Maastricht University has an honours liberal arts college: University College Maastricht and a Maastricht Science Programme in the same liberal arts tradition; the satellite University College Venlo opened in 2015. Maastricht University ranks as one of Europe's leading universities. Amongst others, Maastricht University's master's programme in International Business is ranked 25, being in the top 25 of the best business programmes in the world according to the Financial Times.
The Times Higher Education World Ranking quotes Maastricht University as one of the best young universities in the world. Maastricht University was established in 1976. Faced with a shortage of medical professionals, the Dutch government decided in the late 1960s that a new public institution of higher education was needed in order to expand the country's medical training facilities. Political leaders in the province of Limburg, most notably Sjeng Tans, the chairman of the Labour Party and former member of the Limburg provincial council and Maastricht city council lobbied for the new medical school to be established in Maastricht; this academic institution would be vital to sustain the intellectual life of the city, indeed the whole province. Moreover, it was argued that the establishment of a university in Maastricht could contribute to the government's restructuring efforts in this part of the Netherlands, experiencing economic challenges following the collapse of the Limburg coal mining industry.
The newly established school chose not to await official recognition but to start its educational programme in September 1974, adopting an innovative approach to academic education in the form of problem-based learning. About 50 students enrolled in the first academic year. By the end of 1975, the Dutch Parliament passed the statute needed for the institution to acquire national educational funds and to be able to award academic degrees; the new university, named Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, was established on the 9th of January 1976, when Queen Juliana of the Netherlands signed the university's founding charter at a ceremony in the Basilica of Saint Servatius. Sjeng Tans became the university's first president. Soon after its establishment, the university gained political support to increase its funding and to expand into other academic fields; the Faculty of Law was created in 1981, followed by the Faculty of Economics in 1984. In 1994, the Faculty of Arts and Culture and one year the Faculty of Psychology were established.
The Faculty of Humanities and Sciences started in 2005, containing a variety of organisational units, such as the Department of Knowledge Engineering and the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance. Together with the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences Maastricht University has six faculties; the university was renamed Universiteit Maastricht in 1996 and added its English-language name in 2008. As of 2010, Maastricht University consists of six faculties offering 17 bachelor programmes, 56 master programmes and several Ph. D. programmes. Maastricht University is located in buildings in two separate locations in Maastricht; the arts and social science departments are housed in a number of historic buildings in the city center, while psychology, the medical and life sciences are based in the modern Randwyck campus on the outskirts of the city. The university's arts and social sciences faculties are located in Maastricht's city centre, west of the river Meuse. Most of the university's inner city properties have official monumental status.
As many of these buildings were facing abandonment at the time of their acquirement, the development of an urban university campus has contributed to the preservation and liveliness of Maastricht's historic city centre. The first building, obtained by the university was the former Jesuit monastery and seminary at Tongersestraat dating from the 1930s. Here, in 1974 the newly established medical school started. After the Faculty of Medicine moved to premises closer to the newly constructed university hospital, the Jesuit monastery became home to the Faculty of Economy, now the university's largest academic unit in terms of student numbers; the building was expanded in the 1990s to include the university restaurant and a large lecture hall designed by Dutch architect Jo Coenen. The Faculty of Law is housed in the building known as Oud Gouvernement in Bouillonstraat, completed in 1935 as the provincial government building, it was acquired by the UM in 1986 after the provincial government had moved to its new premises on the river Meuse in the southeastern part of the city.
Opposite lies Slijpe Court, a 17th-century mansion that in 2002 was refurbished to house the Department of Knowledge Engineering of the Faculty of Humanities and Science. The university's administrative headquarters is located at M
Minichess is a family of chess variants played with regular chess pieces and standard rules, but on a smaller board. The motivation for these variants is to make the game shorter than the standard chess; the first chess-like game implemented on a computer was a 6×6 chess variant Los Alamos chess. The low memory capacity of the early days computer required reduced board size and smaller number of pieces to make the game implementable on a computer. Chess on a 3×3 board does not have any defined starting position. However, it is a solved game: the outcome of every possible position is known; the best move for each side is known as well. The game was solved independently by Aloril in 2001 and by Kirill Kryukov in 2004; the solution by Kryukov is more complete, since it allows pawns to be placed everywhere, not only on the second row as by Aloril. The longest checkmate on 3 ×; the number of legal positions is 304,545,552. In 2009 Kryukov reported solving 3×4 chess. On this board there are 167,303,246,916 legal positions and the longest checkmate takes 43 moves.
In 1981 mathematician David Silverman suggested 4×4 chess variant shown on the diagram. The first player wins in this game, so Silverman proposed a variant: Black can select a pawn, White must make a first move with this pawn. However, in this case Black wins more easily. To make the variant more playable, Silverman proposed to insert a row between pawns and use the board 4×5. In this variant pawns can do double-move. Another chess variant on a 4×5 board, was invented by Glimne in 1997. Castling is allowed in this variant. There is variant on a 4×8 board, Demi-chess, invented by Peter Krystufek in 1986. Castling is allowed in this variant. A board needs to be five squares wide to contain all kinds of chess pieces on the first row. In 1969, Martin Gardner suggested a chess variant on 5×5 board in which all chess moves, including pawn double-move, en-passant capture as well as castling can be made. AISE abandoned pawn double-move and castling; the game was played in Italy and opening theory was developed.
The statistics of the finished games is the following: White won 40% of games. Black won 28%. 32% were draws. Mehdi Mhalla and Frederic Prost weakly solved Gardner minichess in 2013 and proved the game-theoretic value to be a draw. Gardner minichess was played by AISE with suicide chess and progressive chess rules. In 1980 HP shipped the HP-41C programmable calculator; the calculator was able to play on quite a decent level. In 1989, Martin Gardner proposed another setup. In difference from Gardner minichess, black pieces are mirrored. Paul Jacobs and Marco Meirovitz suggested another starting position for 5×5 chess shown at the right. Jeff Mallett, suggested setup in which white has two knights against two black bishops. There are several chess variants on 5×6 board; the earliest published one is Petty chess, invented by B. Walker Watson in 1930. Speed chess was invented by Mr. den Oude in 1988. Elena chess was invented by Sergei Sirotkin in 1999. QuickChess was invented by Joseph Miccio in 1991. Pawn double-move and castling are not allowed in this variant, pawns can only promote to captured pieces.
The game was sold by Amerigames International and received National Parenting Publications Award in 1993. Miccio obtained an USA patent in 1993. Besides two variants similar to Speed chess and Elena Chess, the patent claimed one further variant, which have been named Chess Attack. Miccio advocated these games as educational tools for children to learn chess rules; the smaller board and less pieces would reduce the complexity of the game and allow for more quicker games. The piece setup like in Speed chess was intended to teach short side castling and setup as in Chess Attack - long side castling. Laszlo Polgar published a book in 1994 Minichess 777+1 Positions devoted to chess on 5×6 board. Besides initial setup as in QuickChess, Polgar proposed to use any other possible setup of pieces asymmetrical ones; the book contained problems and games for 5×6 chess. Polgar recommended to use is as a first book to teach children to play chess. Chess Attack, which has the same setup as Gardner minichess is sold by Norway company Yes Games AS since 2008.
In this variant, pawns can make double-moves and en-passant capture is allowed. The game was endorsed by Alexandra Kosteniuk. MinitChess, published in 2010 based on earlier 2007 and 2009 variants, is played on a Gardner board with the black pieces mirrored. In this variant there is no castling, no double pawn moves, pawn promotion only to queen, victory by king capture or when an opponent has no legal move, draw after 40 moves by each side. In addition, the bishop is replaced by a bad bishop that has the additional option of moving to any adjacent empty square on its turn, allowing it to change color; this variant is intended to be easy to write computer programs to play and harder for expert human players of standard chess, while still retaining the essential character of the game: several computer tournaments have been held. Besides Los Alamos chess, there are other chess variant
Quantum computing is the use of quantum-mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform computation. A quantum computer is used to perform such computation, which can be implemented theoretically or physically; the field of quantum computing is a sub-field of quantum information science, which includes quantum cryptography and quantum communication. Quantum Computing was started in the early 1980s when Richard Feynman and Yuri Manin expressed the idea that a quantum computer had the potential to simulate things that a classical computer could not. In 1994, Peter Shor shocked the world with an algorithm that had the potential to decrypt all secured communications. There are two main approaches to physically implementing a quantum computer analog and digital. Analog approaches are further divided into quantum simulation, quantum annealing, adiabatic quantum computation. Digital quantum computers use quantum logic gates to do computation. Both approaches use quantum qubits.
Qubits are fundamental to quantum computing and are somewhat analogous to bits in a classical computer. Qubits can be in a 0 quantum state, but they can be in a superposition of the 1 and 0 states. However, when qubits are measured they always give a 0 or a 1 based on the quantum state they were in. Today's physical quantum computers are noisy and quantum error correction is a burgeoning field of research. Quantum supremacy is the next milestone that quantum computing will achieve soon. While there is much hope and research in the field of quantum computing, as of March 2019 there have been no commercially useful algorithms published for today's noisy quantum computers. A classical computer has a memory made up of bits, where each bit is represented by either a one or a zero. A quantum computer, on the other hand, maintains a sequence of qubits, which can represent a one, a zero, or any quantum superposition of those two qubit states. In general, a quantum computer with n qubits can be in any superposition of up to 2 n different states..
A quantum computer operates on its qubits using measurement. An algorithm is composed of a fixed sequence of quantum logic gates and a problem is encoded by setting the initial values of the qubits, similar to how a classical computer works; the calculation ends with a measurement, collapsing the system of qubits into one of the 2 n eigenstates, where each qubit is zero or one, decomposing into a classical state. The outcome can, therefore, be at most n classical bits of information. If the algorithm did not end with a measurement, the result is an unobserved quantum state. Quantum algorithms are probabilistic, in that they provide the correct solution only with a certain known probability. Note that the term non-deterministic computing must not be used in that case to mean probabilistic because the term non-deterministic has a different meaning in computer science. An example of an implementation of qubits of a quantum computer could start with the use of particles with two spin states: "down" and "up".
This is true. A quantum computer with a given number of qubits is fundamentally different from a classical computer composed of the same number of classical bits. For example, representing the state of an n-qubit system on a classical computer requires the storage of 2n complex coefficients, while to characterize the state of a classical n-bit system it is sufficient to provide the values of the n bits, that is, only n numbers. Although this fact may seem to indicate that qubits can hold exponentially more information than their classical counterparts, care must be taken not to overlook the fact that the qubits are only in a probabilistic superposition of all of their states; this means that when the final state of the qubits is measured, they will only be found in one of the possible configurations they were in before the measurement. It is incorrect to think of a system of qubits as being in one particular state before the measurement; the qubits are in a superposition of states before any measurement is made, which directly affects the possible outcomes of the computation.
To better understand this point, consider a classical computer that operates on a three-bit register. If the exact state of the register at a given time is not known, it can be described as a probability distribution over the 2 3 = 8 different three-bit strings 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111. If there is no uncertainty over its state it is in one of these states with probability 1. However, if it is a probabilistic computer there is a possibility of it being in any one of a number of different states; the state of a three-qubit quantum computer is described by an eight-dimensional vector (
Infinite chess is any variation of the game chess played on an unbounded chessboard. Versions of infinite chess have been introduced independently by multiple players, chess theorists, mathematicians, both as a playable game and as a model for theoretical study, it has been found that though the board is unbounded, there are ways in which a player can win the game in a finite number of moves. Classical chess is played on an 8×8 board. However, the history of chess includes variants of the game played on boards of various sizes. A predecessor game called Courier chess was played on a larger 12×8 board in the 12th century, continued to be played for at least six hundred years. Japanese chess has been played on boards of various sizes; this chess-like game, which dates to the mid 16th century, was played on a 36×36 board. Each player starts with 402 pieces of 209 different types, a well-played game would require several days of play requiring each player to make over a thousand moves. Chess player Jianying Ji was one of many to propose infinite chess, suggesting a setup with the chess pieces in the same relative positions as in classical chess, with knights replaced by nightriders and a rule preventing pieces from travelling too far from opposing pieces.
Numerous other chess players, chess theorists, mathematicians who study game theory have conceived of variations of infinite chess with different objectives in mind. Chess players sometimes use the scheme to alter the strategy. Theorists conceive of infinite chess variations to expand the theory of chess in general, or as a model to study other mathematical, economic, or game-playing strategies. For infinite chess, mathematical investigations have shown that in a general endgame, one player can force a win in a finite number of moves. More it has been found that infinite chess is decidable. Chess on an infinite plane: 76 pieces are played on an unbounded chessboard; the game uses orthodox chess pieces, plus guards and chancellors. The absence of borders makes pieces less powerful, so the added material helps compensate for this. Trappist-1: This variation uses the huygens, a chess piece that jumps prime numbers of squares preventing the game from being solved. List of chess variants Fairy chess pieces Infinite Chess at The Chess Variant Pages Infinite Chess • Infinite Series on YouTube
Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction between rational decision-makers. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in computer science, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans and computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used the Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by the 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, co-written with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.
Game theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars. It was explicitly applied to biology in the 1970s, although similar developments go back at least as far as the 1930s. Game theory has been recognized as an important tool in many fields; as of 2014, with the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences going to game theorist Jean Tirole, eleven game theorists have won the economics Nobel Prize. John Maynard Smith was awarded the Crafoord Prize for his application of game theory to biology. Early discussions of examples of two-person games occurred long before the rise of modern, mathematical game theory; the first known discussion of game theory occurred in a letter written by Charles Waldegrave, an active Jacobite, uncle to James Waldegrave, a British diplomat, in 1713. In this letter, Waldegrave provides a minimax mixed strategy solution to a two-person version of the card game le Her, the problem is now known as Waldegrave problem. In his 1838 Recherches sur les principes mathématiques de la théorie des richesses, Antoine Augustin Cournot considered a duopoly and presents a solution, a restricted version of the Nash equilibrium.
In 1913, Ernst Zermelo published Über eine Anwendung der Mengenlehre auf die Theorie des Schachspiels. It proved that the optimal chess strategy is determined; this paved the way for more general theorems. In 1938, the Danish mathematical economist Frederik Zeuthen proved that the mathematical model had a winning strategy by using Brouwer's fixed point theorem. In his 1938 book Applications aux Jeux de Hasard and earlier notes, Émile Borel proved a minimax theorem for two-person zero-sum matrix games only when the pay-off matrix was symmetric. Borel conjectured that non-existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games would occur, a conjecture, proved false. Game theory did not exist as a unique field until John von Neumann published the paper On the Theory of Games of Strategy in 1928. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer's fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior co-authored with Oskar Morgenstern.
The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of utility, which reincarnated Daniel Bernoulli's old theory of utility as an independent discipline. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in this 1944 book; this foundational work contains the method for finding mutually consistent solutions for two-person zero-sum games. During the following time period, work on game theory was focused on cooperative game theory, which analyzes optimal strategies for groups of individuals, presuming that they can enforce agreements between them about proper strategies. In 1950, the first mathematical discussion of the prisoner's dilemma appeared, an experiment was undertaken by notable mathematicians Merrill M. Flood and Melvin Dresher, as part of the RAND Corporation's investigations into game theory. RAND pursued the studies because of possible applications to global nuclear strategy. Around this same time, John Nash developed a criterion for mutual consistency of players' strategies, known as Nash equilibrium, applicable to a wider variety of games than the criterion proposed by von Neumann and Morgenstern.
Nash proved that every n-player, non-zero-sum non-cooperative game has what is now known as a Nash equilibrium. Game theory experienced a flurry of activity in the 1950s, during which time the concepts of the core, the extensive form game, fictitious play, repeated games, the Shapley value were developed. In addition, the first applications of game theory to philosophy and political science occurred during this time. In 1979 Robert Axelrod tried setting up computer programs as players and found that in tournaments between them the winner was a simple "tit-for-tat" program that cooperates on the first step on subsequent steps just does whatever its opponent did on the previous step; the same winner was often obtained by natural selection. In 1965, Reinhard Selten introduced his solution concept of subgame perfect equilibria, which further refined the Nash equilibrium. In 1994 Nash and Harsanyi became Economics Nobel Laureates for their contributi
The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English. It was established by Alexander Tilloch in 1798; the name of the journal dates from a period when "natural philosophy" embraced all aspects of science. The first paper published in the journal carried the title "Account of Mr Cartwright's Patent Steam Engine". Other articles in the first volume include "Methods of discovering whether Wine has been adulterated with any Metals prejudicial to Health" and "Description of the Apparatus used by Lavoisier to produce Water from its component Parts and Hydrogen". Early in the nineteenth century, classic papers by Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday and James Prescott Joule appeared in the journal and in the 1860s James Clerk Maxwell contributed several long articles, culminating in a paper containing the deduction that light is an electromagnetic wave or, as he put it himself, "We can scarcely avoid the inference that light consists in transverse undulations of the same medium, the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena".
The famous experimental paper of Albert A. Michelson and Edward Morley was published in 1887 and this was followed ten years by J. J. Thomson with article "Cathode Rays" – the discovery of the electron. In 1814, the Philosophical Magazine merged with the Journal of Natural Philosophy and the Arts, otherwise known as Nicholson's Journal, to form The Philosophical Magazine and Journal. Further mergers with the Annals of Philosophy and The Edinburgh Journal of Science led to the retitling of the journal in 1840, as The London and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. In 1949, the title reverted to The Philosophical Magazine. In the early part of the 20th century, Ernest Rutherford was a frequent contributor, he once told a friend to "watch out for the next issue of Philosophical Magazine. Aside from his work on understanding radioactivity, Rutherford proposed the experiments of Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden that verified his nuclear model of the atom and led to Niels Bohr's famous paper on planetary electrons, published in the journal in 1913.
Another classic contribution from Rutherford was entitled "Collision of α Particles with Light Atoms. IV. An Anomalous Effect in Nitrogen" – an article describing no less than the first artificial transmutation of an element. In 1978 the journal was divided into two independent parts, Philosophical Magazine A and Philosophical Magazine B. Part A published papers on structure and mechanical properties while Part B focussed on statistical mechanics, electronic and magnetic properties. Since the middle of the 20th century, the journal has focused on condensed matter physics and published significant papers on dislocations, mechanical properties of solids, amorphous semiconductors and glasses; as subject area evolved and it became more difficult to classify research into distinct areas, it was no longer considered necessary to publish the journal in two parts, so in 2003 parts A and B were re-merged. In its current form, 36 issues of the Philosophical Magazine are published each year, supplemented by 12 issues of Philosophical Magazine Letters.
Previous editors of the Philosophical Magazine have been John Tyndall, J. J. Thomson, Sir Nevill Mott, William Lawrence Bragg; the journal is edited by Edward A. Davis. In 1987, the sister journal Philosophical Magazine Letters was established with the aim of publishing short communications on all aspects of condensed matter physics, it is edited by Edward A. Peter Riseborough; this monthly journal had a 2014 impact factor of 1.087. Over its 200-year history, Philosophical Magazine has restarted its volume numbers at 1, designating a new'series" each time; the journal's series are as follows: Philosophical Magazine, Series 1, volumes 1 through 68 Philosophical Magazine, Series 2, volumes 1 through 11 Philosophical Magazine, Series 3, volumes 1 through 37 Philosophical Magazine, Series 4, volumes 1 through 50 Philosophical Magazine, Series 5, volumes 1 through 50 Philosophical Magazine, Series 6, volumes 1 through 50 Philosophical Magazine, Series 7, volumes 1 through 46 Philosophical Magazine, Series 8, volumes 1 through 95 If the renumbering had not occurred, the 2015 volume would have been volume 407.
Philosophical Magazine Philosophical Magazine Letters Digitised volumes at Biodiversity Heritage Library Digitised volumes of "The London and Dublin philosophical magazine" at the Jena University Library Philosophical Magazine on Internet Archive. Philosophical Magazine Letters print: ISSN 0950-0839 Philosophical Magazine Letters online: ISSN 1362-3036