Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Bardera Polytechnic is a non-profit tertiary polytechnic education centre located in Bardera, Somalia. The college's full name is Bardera Polytechnic College. Bardera Polytechnic is the first post-secondary institution in the larger Gedo region. Bardera Polytechnic is the first post civil war vocational training school in southern Somalia. For ages, Bardera was a center of higher learning. Bardera city is famously associated with the study of Islamic jurisprudence, Arabic grammar and syntax. Bardera Islamic centers are famous and students seeking knowledge as well as moalims seeking employment used to come from across Somalia. For centuries, Sufi students traveled from all points on the Horn as a whole; every Somali who came of age before the 1950s, knows the importance of Bardera as a religious education center. Generations found different kind of class spaces at Somali National University, Lafole Agricultural College and Sidam, a management training school. Taking note of the history of Bardera city, Bardera Polytechnic foresees a way of combining the old methods of study in Halaqa Learning in Circles with the new ways of thought forming in the academic settings of an ordinary university or college.
Sound Islamic studies are the goals desired by community educators in Bardera and in the region as a whole. BPC was founded on July 2008; this college was established to cover the higher education needs of the Bardera area community, growing since the start of the 1990s. BPC was in the plans for two years before it was established on a rented facility inside the city of Bardera. Bardera Polytechnic's policy is give vocational training, real marketable skills for 16 to 60 age population. Over the years, there have been language training schools in Bardera. None offered a structured curriculum. Bardera Polytechnic offers one- to three-year study programs. Certificate and diplomas are granted at Bardera Polytechnic. Since the collapse of the education system of Somalia, HIRDA, an NGO based in Bardera and Widsom College of Languages, a private language training school have nurtured the student population of Bardera. During the 1980s, the Somali National University and its campuses around Mogadishu had over 15,000 students in its student body.
Since the collapse of the central education system in Somalia, newly established regional colleges and universities have taken up the task of re-organizing the higher education system in Somalia. Bardera Polytechnic is founded to fulfill the education and training needs of Gedo region's largest district. Supporting the main economic engines of Bardera District is the goal of everyone at Bardera Polytechnic. Keeping this in mind, it was an urgent need to set up institutes and specialised centers to further develop the skills of the community. Institutes and centers initiated during the first phase are: Jubba Valley Veterinary Institute and Bardera District Agricultural InstituteJubba Valley Veterinary Institute will work with Bardera District Veterinary Center, a district-level authority on animal welfare services; the Bardera District Agricultural Institute will develop mechanisms to help the individual farming persons and farming associations. Bardera Polytechnic’s founding of Jubba Valley Veterinary Institute was another major boost for the economic lifeline of Southern Somalia.
Herders of the main three livestock types in Somalia, camel and ari will have some help in safeguarding the animals they lose each year to preventable and treatable diseases. All of Jubba Valley, the Gedo region in particular, has some of the largest livestock headcount in southern Somalia; this new center is on the western side of Bardera city on the road to El Wak. The center functions under directorship of Bardera Polytechnic and its School of Veterinary Medicine. Before the collapse of the central government in Somalia, herders had an army of helping hands from the central government Ministry of Livestock and Forestry Management. Mashruuca Gosha iyo Gendiga was a Somali central government project, founded in the early 1970s and it focused on treating and preventing diseases caused by large flies which were infested in Jubba Valley forests; this area of grassing land is used during barbax season by camel herders from all neighboring regions such as the two Jubba regions, Lower Shabeelle and Bay region.
The project was expanded to all major grassing lands in Somalia. Veterinary and Agricultural departments of the Somali National University or Jaamacada Ummada had great presence in Bardera; the university used to dispatch team of agricultural and veterinary scientists and their students to help farmers and herders to formulate better management ways. The base for this team was Markableey Hotel, near the Bardera Arc; the center will be established with the help of Bardera Polytechnic. The Gedo region has always been a major producer of livestock and profit-making animal byproducts such as butter and hide; this was evident during the central government rule from independence in 1960 to the overthrow of Somali central government in 1991. Duplication of services will not take place between Bardera District Veterinary Center and volunteer services by Jubba Valley Veterinary Institute from Bardera Polytechnic School of Veterinary Medicine; the needs of herders for veterinary services is always greater than the services these two institutions will be offering to herders who are always on the move between grasslands on the Jubba River and in the interior of Jubba Valley regions.
Observations of disease presence in animals, veterinary medicine with minimal fees and advice to h
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Somalia the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country located in the Horn of Africa, it is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djabuti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, its terrain consists of plateaus and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around 14.3 million. And has been described as the most culturally homogeneous country in Africa. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are concentrated in the southern regions; the official languages of are Arabic. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre, it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt.
During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Sultanate of the Geledi. The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. In the late 19th century, the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. In the interior, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Darwiish repelled the British four times, forcing a retreat to the coast, before succumbing in the Somaliland campaign. Italy acquired full control of the northeastern and southern parts of the area after waging the Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government; the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, which collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out.
During this period most regions returned to religious law. The early 2000s saw the creation of interim federal administrations; the Transitional National Government was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, which reestablished the military. In 2006, the TFG assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union; the ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized, a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. A new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012; the same month, the Federal Government of Somalia was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu. Somalia has maintained an informal economy based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, telecommunications, it is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here; the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East; the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back 5,000 years, has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback; the rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE.
Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula; this civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. The Puntites traded myrrh, gold, short-horned cattle and frankincense with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians and Romans through their commercial ports. An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati.
In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt, brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor. In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have b
Bardera City is an important agricultural city in the Gedo region of Somalia. It is the second most populous town in the Juba Valley, with Kismayo being the largest and most densely populated city in the region, Garbahaarreey serving as Gedo's capital. Bardhere is inhabited by the Marehan clan; the name Baardheere is a compound of two words: Baar meaning "palm tree", dheere meaning "tall", a reference to the ubiquitous palm trees in the area. The city is reputed as a hub of Islamic scholarship and agricultural production. During the Middle Ages and its surrounding area was part of the Ajuran Empire that governed much of southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia, with its domain extending from Hobyo in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south. In the early modern period, Bardera was ruled by the Geledi Sultanate; the kingdom was incorporated into Italian Somaliland protectorate in 1910 after the death of the last Sultan Osman Ahmed. After independence in 1960, the city was made the center of the official Bardera District.
Bardera is situated 2-3 degrees latitude north of the equator and at a longitude of 42-43 degrees. It is characterized by high humidity; the climate is ideally suited for year-round crop production. In the 1930s, there were about 8,000 inhabitants in the city. Large numbers of Bardera's residents make their living working in the many small and large farms on the span of the Jubb River in Bardera District. Agricultural products from Bardera farms are sold throughout the country. Sorghum, corn or maize, different types of onions, sesame and fruits such as bananas, oranges and mangoes, from Bardera farms reach markets as far as Djibouti, about 3,000 km away to the north of Somalia. There are two types of farming which exist in Bardera area: seasonal farming. Many medium- and small-scale farms near the river use water pumping machines; these motors irrigate the land with canals, farmers plant crops. The majority of farmers use a low-tech farming method of farming during the two rainy seasons of gu' and deyr.
Small operation farms are found throughout Gedo region, far away from the river banks where families plant sorghum and beans on any land, suitable for farming. These farming plots are located on sandy soft earth with muddy combinations; the locals call this type of earth adable. Mogadishu's fruit and vegetable market used to have a section containing Bardera's famous onion product. Since the start of the civil war in Somalia, produce from Bardera to large cities like Mogadishu, Kismayo, or Baidoa were diverted to Kenyan markets such as Wajir, Garissa and Nairobi. Palmtree being part of the name Bardera, there are many palm trees along the river bank and every farm has one or two palm trees. Bardera has a hot semi-arid climate. Bardera is connected to the port city of Kismayo. Everything from building materials to medicines come from Kismayo. There is another commercial route to Wajir in the North East Province. There is well-established inter-regional commercial activity zone between Bardera and Belad Hawo.
People and goods move between these two destinations. For decades, the main business route for Bardera was to and from Mogadishu via Baidoa. However, this travel route was disrupted during the height of the Somali civil war in the early 1990s; some trucks bring commercial goods from Mogadishu. The economy of Bardera is agriculture-based. Animal husbandry figures prominently, with livestock kept for meat and butter. During the 1970s, animal skins such as leather and hide were important trading commodities in the area, as well as in surrounding districts and the Gedo region as a whole. Bardera's main district hospital has been closed due to disrepair and neglect since November 1995. Functioning health centers include Somali Red Crescent MCH, HIRDA MCH, West Bardera Maternity Unit and East Bardera Mothers and Children's Hospital, now Bardera Maternity Hospital; the population uses basic modes of transportation. People get from place to place on foot; each morning scores of people enter the city on foot from all directions, bringing livestock to the animal market, milk, hide, wood for cooking and other products for sale.
There are independent taxi car operators. The taxi owner-operator and the customer agree upon a fee. There are no scheduled flights into Bardera Airport. Charter flights of small planes land at the unpaved airstrip in the northeastern section of the city; the Jubba River divides the city in half but there are not any for hire boats on the river, either to cross from one bank to the other, or to travel along the river on either direction. Bardera has an thriving sports scene; the professional football team from Bardera takes part in competitions of Jubba Cup and Gedo District's Cup. Bardera Football team is the winner of 2002 South Somalia Regional Cup Champions. Badera won against Kismayo and Baido teams. Bardera has five high schools. For higher education, there are 4 tertiary education institutions, University of Gedo and Bardera Polytechnic, Hope university, Gedo International University, al hikmah university. Bardera has two FM radio stations: Bardera Radio. February 12, 2007 New Commissioner for Bardera Ethiopian Army Invaides Bardera Somalia Baardheere city portal Baardheere at Google Maps