Puntland the Puntland State of Somalia, is a region in northeastern Somalia. Centred on the town of Garoowe in the Nugal province, its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 1998 but is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia. Puntland is bordered by Somaliland to its west, the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Guardafui Channel in the northeast, the Somali Sea in the southeast, the central Galmudug region in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest. There are several major geographical apexes in Puntland, including the Cape Guardafui which forms the tip of the Horn of Africa, Ras Hafun the easternmost place on the entire African continent, the beginning of the karkaar mountain range, it has the northernmost major city in Somalia, located at a line of latitude higher than 11° north. The name "Puntland" is derived from the Land of Punt mentioned in ancient Egyptian sources, although the exact location of the fabled territory is still a mystery. Many studies suggest that the Land of Punt was located in present-day Somalia, whereas others propose that it was situated elsewhere.
The Warsangali Sultanate was an imperial ruling house centred in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia. It was one of the largest sultanates established in the territory, and, at the height of its power, included the Sanaag region and parts of the northeastern Bari region of the country, an area known as Maakhir or the Maakhir Coast; the Sultanate was founded in the 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darod clan, was ruled by the descendants of the Gerad Dhidhin. In the late 19th century, the influential Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire governed the Sultanate, assuming control during some of its most turbulent years; the Majeerteen Sultanate was founded in the mid-18th century. It rose to prominence the following century, under the reign of the resourceful Boqor Osman Mahamuud. Centred in Aluula, it controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries; the polity maintained a robust trading network, entered into treaties with foreign powers, exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front.
The Majeerteen Sultanate was nearly destroyed in the mid-1800s by a power struggle between Boqor Osman and his ambitious cousin, Yusuf Ali Kenadid. After five years of battle, the young upstart was forced into exile in Yemen. A decade in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the Arabian Peninsula with a band of Hadhrami musketeers and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance, he managed to overpower the local clans and establish the Sultanate of Hobyo in 1878. In late 1889, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with Italy, making his realm an Italian protectorate, his rival Sultan Kenadid had signed a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Sultanate the year before. Both rulers had signed the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist objectives, with Boqor Osman looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Kenadid over the Majeerteen Sultanate. Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid hoped to exploit the conflicting interests among the European imperial powers that were looking to control the Somali peninsula, so as to avoid direct occupation of their territories by force.
With the gradual extension into northern Somalia of European colonial rule, all three sultanates were annexed to Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland in the early 20th century. The local commercial hub of Bosaso was represented in the parliament of the succeeding Trust Territory of Somaliland by the MPs Ugas Yasin Ugas Abdurahman and Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf. Much of the northern sultanates' former domain is today co-extensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia. Following the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991, a home-grown constitutional conference was held in Garoowe in 1998 over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders, members of the business community and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia was established to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, interact with domestic and international partners. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed served as the fledgling state's founding president.
As stipulated in Article 1 of the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Puntland is a part of the Federal State of Somalia. As such, the region adheres to a federal system of government. Unlike the secessionist region of Somaliland to its west, Puntland is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation. However, both regions have one thing in common: they base their support upon clan elders and their organizational structure along lines based on clan relationships and kinship. Since 1998, Puntland has been in territorial disputes with Somaliland over the Sool and Sanaag regions; the legal structure of Puntland consists of the judiciary and the executive branches of government. Though peaceful, the region experienced political unrest in 2001 when President of Puntland, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founding fathers of the Puntland State and its first president, wanted his term extended. Ahmed and Jama Ali Jama fought for control of the region, with Ahmed emerging victorious the following year.
Ahmed served his second term as president until October 2004, when he was elected President of Somalia. He was succeeded in office by Mohamed Hashi, who se
2017 Somali presidential election
The 2017 Somali presidential election was held in Somalia on 8 February. Members of parliament elected in the autumn-2016 parliamentary election elected former Prime Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed to the post of President of Somalia for a four-year term; the presidential election was to be held in August 2016 and promised to be a one-person, one-vote national poll, but had been postponed several times and shifted to an electoral college system due to security concerns. On 26 January 2017, the election was set for 8 February, with candidates required to register by 29 January; the election was held in an airport hangar at Mogadishu. Mohamed was declared president in a peaceful transition of power after incumbent President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud conceded defeat and congratulated the victor. Due to the ongoing civil war, security for the ballot was a significant concern; the vote was planned to be held at a Mogadishu police academy but was moved to the more secure Aden Adde International Airport, considered as the safest place in Somalia's Capital.
On the voting day, traffic was banned in the city, schools were closed and flights to and from the airport were suspended. In the previous presidential election in 2012, the president was elected by a parliament, picked by 135 elders. Plans in 2016–2017 for a full election involving all adult Somalis were scrapped due to security concerns relating to the ongoing civil war; the election costs were 60% funded by donor countries in Europe, the United States and Japan, with the remainder from the Somali government and candidate registration fees. The president was elected by the 328 members of the Lower House and Upper House of the Somali Parliament; the Parliament's members were elected in the 2016 parliamentary election which itself was limited to 14,025 clan elder-appointed delegates. The election's foreign financiers described the extension of the franchise as a "modest step forward"; the procedure for the election—a form of runoff voting—is outlined in section 89 of the Constitution of Somalia.
There were over twenty registered candidates in the first round of voting. A total of 23 or 24 candidates declared themselves, though withdrawals—including that of Abdirahman Mohamed Farole—reduced the field to 21 by the time of the vote; the field included the incumbent President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, incumbent Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, former President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, former Prime Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed and Somalia's former envoy to Kenya Ambassador Mohamed Ali Nur "Americo" among others. No candidate achieved the required two-thirds of votes to win in the first round, so the top four candidates advanced to the second round. Omar Abdirashid Sharmarke dropped out, reducing the field to three candidates. No candidate reached the required threshold in the second round of voting, third-place Ahmed was eliminated. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud conceded defeat. According to a report by the United Nations Security Council, the United Arab Emirates offered cash bribes to influence the election's outcome.
Several analysts reported that the meddling in this election was so prevalent, that the Islamist terrorist group Al Shabaab did not try to intervene, because the corruption nearly made them look more appealing to the public by comparison
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials; some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty. Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft; the primary purpose of a diplomat, a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, he lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest.
However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed. From the Battle of Baideng to the Battle of Mayi, the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu, consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu sent word to Emperor Wen of Han that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese; the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; the Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty, there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa, Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza; the paiza were in three different types (
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud is a Somali politician. He is the chairman of largest political aggregation party which have majority of parliament in both chambers Union for Peace and Development Party, He was the 8th President of Somalia from 16 September 2012 until 16 February 2017. A civil and political activist, Mohamud was a university professor and dean, he is the founder and Chairman of the Peace and Development Party. In April 2013, Mohamud was named to the Time 100, TIME magazine's annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world, his efforts at advancing national reconciliation, anti-corruption measures, socio-economic and security sector reforms in Somalia were cited as reasons for the selection. He was born in Jalalaqsi, a small agricultural town situated in the central Hiran of present-day Somalia, during the trusteeship period, he is a member of the Abgaal sub-clan of the Hawiye clan, comes from a middle-class background. Mohamud has children, he speaks English. Mohamud frequented secondary schools in his hometown.
He moved to Somalia's capital Mogadishu in 1978, where he studied for three years at the local Somali National University. In 1981, he earned an undergraduate diploma in technology from the institution. In 1986, Mohamud began attending Bhopal University. There, he completed a master's degree in technical education in 1988. Mohamud is a graduate of Eastern Mennonite University's Summer Peacebuilding Institute based in Harrisonburg, Virginia. In 2001, he completed three of the SPI's intensive courses, studying mediation, trauma healing, designing learner-centered trainings. In a professional capacity, Mohamud accepted a position as an instructor and trainer at the Lafole Technical Secondary School, he joined the Somali National University-affiliated Technical Teachers' Training College in 1984. In 1986, he became the department's head; when the civil war broke out in the early 1990s, Mohamud remained in Somalia and acted as a consultant with various NGOs, UN bureaus, peace and development projects.
He worked as an education officer for UNICEF in the central and southern parts of the country from 1993 to 1995. In 1999, he co-established the Somali Institute of Management and Administration in the capital; the institution subsequently grew into the SIMAD University, with Mohamud acting as dean until 2010. Mohamud entered Somali politics the following year, when he established the independent Peace and Development Party. PDP members unanimously elected him as the party's chairman in April 2011, with a mandate to serve as leader for the next three years. In August 2012, Mohamud was selected as a Member of Parliament in the newly formed Federal Parliament of Somalia. Besides academic and civic work, he is a successful entrepreneur. Mohamud has connections with Somalia's branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. With the organisation, he assisted in various philanthropic initiatives, including the construction of primary and secondary schools, plus university facilities and research hospitals in regions across the country.
The network has offered scholarships for higher studies and placements in educational institutions to many students. On 10 September 2012, legislators elected Mohamud President of Somalia during the country's 2012 presidential elections. Members of parliament marked their ballot papers behind a curtain before casting them in a clear box in front of foreign envoys and hundreds of Somali men and women as well as being broadcast live on television. After the first round of voting, former President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed emerged as the frontrunner, amassing 64 votes. Mohamud was a close second with 60 votes, Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali placed third with 32 votes. Along with the fourth-place finisher Abdiqadir Osoble, Ali chose to drop out ahead of the second round. Both challengers, along with the other hopefuls that were vying for the post, thereafter instructed their supporters to back Mohamud's candidacy. Mohamud went on to earn a lopsided win in the final round, defeating Ahmed 71–29%. After the final ballot results had been read out, Mohamud was sworn into office.
Lawmakers began singing Somalia's national anthem, Mogadishu's residents expressed satisfaction at the outcome, viewing it as a moment of change. In his acceptance speech, President Mohamud thanked the general Somali populace, the Federal Parliament, as well as the other challengers, he voiced support for the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction efforts in Somalia and indicated that he was prepared to work with the international community. Additionally, Ahmed congratulated Mohamud on his victory and pledged to cooperate with the new head of state. Prime Minister Ali touted the selection as the start of a new era in Somali politics. Abdirahman Mohamud Farole, President of the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia thanked Mohamud, the Somali people, all of the other stakeholders that were involved in the Roadmap political process, which led to the presidential election and the end of the transitional period. Mohamud's appointment was welcomed throughout the world; the UN Special Representative for Somalia Augustine Mahiga issued a statement describing the election as a "great step forward on the path to peace and prosperity Somalia has proved the doubters wrong and sent a powerful message of progress to all of Africa and indeed to the entire world".
The AU Commission for Somalia hailed the selection and pledged to support the new leadership. British Prime Minister David Cameron and EU
United Nations Security Council
The United Nations Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with ensuring international peace and security, accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its charter. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions as well as the authorization of military actions through resolutions – it is the only body of the United Nations with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states; the council held its first session on 17 January 1946. Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created following World War II to address the failings of a previous international organization, the League of Nations, in maintaining world peace. In its early decades, the Security Council was paralyzed by the Cold War division between the US and USSR and their respective allies, though it authorized interventions in the Korean War and the Congo Crisis and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis and West New Guinea.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping efforts increased in scale, the Security Council authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait, Cambodia, Rwanda, Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Security Council consists of fifteen members; the great powers that were the victors of World War II – the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and the United States – serve as the body's five permanent members. These can veto any substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or nominees for the office of Secretary-General. In addition, the council has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years; the body's presidency rotates monthly among its members. Resolutions of the Security Council are enforced by UN peacekeepers, military forces voluntarily provided by member states and funded independently of the main UN budget; as of 2016, 103,510 peacekeepers and 16,471 civilians were deployed on sixteen peacekeeping operations and one special political mission.
In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations and conferences had been formed to regulate conflicts between nations, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. Following the catastrophic loss of life in World War I, the Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between the nations; this organization resolved some territorial disputes and created international structures for areas such as postal mail and opium control, some of which would be absorbed into the UN. However, the League lacked representation for colonial peoples and significant participation from several major powers, including the US, USSR, Japan; the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. US President Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries."On New Year's Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, T. V. Soong, of China, signed a short document which came to be known as the United Nations Declaration and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures."
The term United Nations was first used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. By 1 March 1945, 21 additional states had signed. "Four Policemen" was coined to refer to the four major Allied countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China. And became the foundation of an executive branch of the United Nations, the Security Council. In mid-1944, the delegations from the Allied "Big Four", the Soviet Union, the UK, the US and China, met for the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington, D. C. to negotiate the UN's structure, the composition of the UN Security Council became the dominant issue. France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK, US were selected as permanent members of the Security Council; the most contentious issue at Dumbarton and in successive talks proved to be the veto rights of permanent members. The Soviet delegation argued that each nation should have an absolute veto that could block matters from being discussed, while the British argued that nations should not be able to veto resolutions on disputes to which they were a party.
At the Yalta Conference of February 1945, the American and Russian delegations agreed that each of the "Big Five" could veto any action by the council, but not procedural resolutions, meaning that the permanent members could not prevent debate on a resolution. On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the United Nations Charter. At the conference, H. V. Evatt of the Australian delegation pushed to further restrict the veto power of Security Council permanent members. Due to the fear that rejecting the strong veto would cause the conference's failure, his proposal was defeated twenty votes to ten; the UN came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the Security Council and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. On 17 January
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed known as Farmajo, is a Somali politician and diplomat, the 9th and current President of Somalia. He was a Prime Minister of Somalia from November 2010 until June 2011 and is the founder and Chairman of the Tayo Political Party, he became the President of Somalia after winning in the 2017 Somali presidential election with 194 votes out of a total of 328 by members of the Somali Parliament after defeating former president Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. Mohamed was born to a Marehan family. Nicknamed Farmajo, from formaggio, the Italian word for cheese, his family hails from Mudug region in the central part of the countryMohamed's parents were activists affiliated with the Somali Youth League, Somalia's first political party. During the 1970s, his father worked as a civil servant in the national Department of Transportation. Mohamed attended a boarding school in Somalia. Between 1985 and 1988, he worked as a secretary in the Somali embassy in Washington, D. C.. Between 1989 and 1993, he completed a Bachelor's degree in History and a Masters Degree in Political Science from the State University of New York at Buffalo in Buffalo, New York.
Mohamed holds both American citizenship. In an administrative capacity, Mohamed worked at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Somalia before the collapse of the central government in 1991 and the ensuing civil war. Between 1985 and 1988, he acted as First Secretary in the Somali embassy in Washington and worked with various human rights organizations. From 1994 to 1997, Mohamed was chosen as an at-large Commissioner for the Buffalo Municipal Housing Authority, worked there as the finance chairman, he served as case manager for a lead abatement program in the city from 1995 to 1999. Between 2000 and 2002, Mohamed was a minority business coordinator for the Erie County Division of Equal Employment Opportunity. From 2002 until his appointment as Prime Minister in late 2010, he worked as Commissioner for Equal Employment at the New York State Department of Transportation in Buffalo. Mohamed taught leadership skills and conflict resolution at Erie Community College, part of the SUNY system. On 14 October 2010, Mohamed was appointed the new Prime Minister of Somalia.
He replaced Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, who resigned the month before following a protracted dispute with the President. Political analysts who weighed in on the selection expressed optimism regarding Mohamed's prospects of fulfilling his duties as Premier in the face of an obstinate insurgency in the southern part of the country. Factors cited included Mohamed's background in the Somali lack of political baggage. After several postponements following disagreements between President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed and the Speaker of Parliament Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden over whether the ensuing vote of confidence should be decided by a show of hands or a secret ballot, lawmakers overwhelmingly approved Mohamed's appointment on 31 October 2010. 297 of the 392 Members of Parliament endorsed the selection via hand-raising. United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon congratulated Mohamed on his new appointment, commended the Somali leadership for having reached a consensus on procedural arrangements that facilitated a transparent and consultative confirmation of the Premier.
African Union chairman Jean Ping welcomed the new Prime Minister and re-affirmed the AU's support for the Somali government. On 1 November 2010, Mohamed was sworn into office at a ceremony held in the presidential residence, Villa Somalia. On 12 November 2010, Mohamed named a new Cabinet, as per the Transitional Federal Government's Charter; the Premier issued a statement indicating that "the Somali people and the international community were waiting for a competent and credible Somali cabinet, I am happy to appoint this lean but capable cabinet". As had been expected, the allotted ministerial positions were reduced in number, with only 18 administrative posts unveiled versus the previous government's bloated 39 portfolios. Only two Ministers from the previous Cabinet were reappointed: Hussein Abdi Halane, the former Minister of Finance and a well-regarded figure in the international community, was put in charge of a consolidated Ministry of Finance and Treasury. Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi group and an important military ally of the TFG, was accorded the key Interior and Labour ministries.
The remaining ministerial positions were assigned to technocrats new to the Somali political arena: Abdihakim Mohamoud Haji Faqi, a former diplomat, was appointed one of several Deputy Prime Ministers in addition to the important post of Minister of Defense. President Sharif Ahmed welcomed the new Cabinet and encouraged parliament to endorse the appointments. After another lengthy delay over disagreements regarding the Cabinet's composition and size, members of parliament approved Mohamed's new government on 27 November 2010. 251 of the 343 lawm