The Kansai region or the Kinki region lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū. The region includes the prefectures of Mie, Wakayama, Osaka, Hyōgo and Shiga, sometimes Fukui and Tottori. While the use of the terms "Kansai" and "Kinki" have changed over history, in most modern contexts the use of the two terms is interchangeable; the urban region of Osaka and Kyoto is the second-most populated in Japan after the Greater Tokyo Area. The Kansai region is a cultural center and the historical heart of Japan, with 11% of the nation's land area and 22,757,897 residents as of 2010; the Osaka Plain with the cities of Osaka and Kyoto forms the core of the region, from there the Kansai area stretches west along the Seto Inland Sea towards Kobe and Himeji and east encompassing Lake Biwa, Japan's largest freshwater lake. In the north, the region is bordered by the Sea of Japan, to the south by the Kii Peninsula and the Pacific Ocean, to the east by the Ibuki Mountains and Ise Bay.
Four of Japan's national parks lie in whole or in part. The area contains six of the seven top prefectures in terms of national treasures. Other geographical features include Awaji Island in Hyōgo; the Kansai region is compared with the Kantō region, which lies to its east and consists of Tokyo and the surrounding area. Whereas the Kantō region is symbolic of standardization throughout Japan, the Kansai region displays many more idiosyncrasies – the culture in Kyoto, the mercantilism of Osaka, the history of Nara, or the cosmopolitanism of Kobe – and represents the focus of counterculture in Japan; this East-West rivalry has deep historical roots from the Edo period. With a samurai population of less than 1% the culture of the merchant city of Osaka stood in sharp contrast to that of Edo, the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate. Many characteristic traits of Kansai people descend from Osaka merchant culture. Catherine Maxwell, an editor for the newsletter Omusubi, writes: "Kansai residents are seen as being pragmatic, down-to-earth and possessing a strong sense of humor.
Kantō people, on the other hand, are perceived as more sophisticated and formal, in keeping with Tokyo’s history and modern status as the nation’s capital and largest metropolis."Kansai is known for its food Osaka, as supported by the saying "Kyotoites are ruined by overspending on clothing, Osakans are ruined by overspending on food". Popular Osakan dishes include takoyaki, kitsune udon and kushikatsu. Kyoto is considered a mecca of traditional Japanese cuisine like kaiseki. Kansai has many wagyu brands such as Kobe beef and Tajima cattle from Hyōgo, Matsusaka beef from Mie and Ōmi beef from Shiga. Sake is another specialty of the region, the areas of Nada-Gogō and Fushimi produce 45% of all sake in Japan; as opposed to food from Eastern Japan, food in the Kansai area tends to be sweeter, foods such as nattō tend to be less popular. The dialects of the people from the Kansai region called Kansai-ben, have their own variations of pronunciation and grammar. Kansai-ben is the group of dialects spoken in the Kansai area, but is treated as a dialect in its own right.
Kansai is one of the most prosperous areas for baseball in Japan. Two Nippon Professional Baseball teams, Hanshin Tigers and Orix Buffaloes, are based in Kansai. Koshien Stadium, the home stadium of the Hanshin Tigers, is famous for the nationwide high school baseball tournaments. In association football, the Kansai Soccer League was founded in 1966 and has 16 teams in two divisions. Cerezo Osaka, Gamba Osaka, Vissel Kobe belong to J. League Division 1 and Kyoto Sanga F. C. belongs to the top professional leagues in Japan. The terms Kansai and Kinai have a deep history, dating back as far as the nation of Japan itself; as a part of the Ritsuryō reforms of the seventh and eighth centuries, the Gokishichidō system established the provinces of Yamato, Kawachi and Izumi. Kinai and Kinki, both meaning "the neighbourhood of the capital", referred to these provinces. In common usage, Kinai now refers to the center of the Kansai region. Kansai in its original usage refers to the land west of the Osaka Tollgate, the border between Yamashiro Province and Ōmi Province.
During the Kamakura period, this border was redefined to include Iga Provinces. It is not until the Edo period. Like all regions of Japan, the Kansai region is not an administrative unit, but rather a cultural and historical one, which emerged much during the Heian Period after the expansion of Japan saw the development of the Kantō region to the east and the need to differentiate what was the center of Japan in Kansai emerged; the Kansai region lays claim to the earliest beginnings of Japanese civilization. It was Nara, the most eastern point on the Silk Road, that became the site of Japan's first permanent capital; this period saw the spread of Buddhism to Japan and the construction of Tōdai-ji in 745. The Kansai region boasts the Shinto religion's holiest shrine at Ise Shrine in Mie prefecture; the Heian period saw the capital moved to Heian-kyō, where it would remain for over a thousand years until the Meiji Restoration. During this golden age, the Kansai region would give birth to traditional Japanese culture.
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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof, feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords and fiefs. A broader definition of feudalism, as described by Marc Bloch, includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but those of all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clergy, the peasantry bound by manorialism. Since the publication of Elizabeth A. R. Brown's "The Tyranny of a Construct" and Susan Reynolds's Fiefs and Vassals, there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society.
There is no accepted modern definition of feudalism, at least among scholars. The adjective feudal was coined in the 17th century, the noun feudalism used in a political and propaganda context, was not coined until the 19th century, from the French féodalité, itself an 18th-century creation. In a classic definition by François-Louis Ganshof, feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords and fiefs, though Ganshof himself noted that his treatment related only to the "narrow, legal sense of the word". A broader definition, as described in Marc Bloch's Feudal Society, includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but those of all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clergy, those living by their labour, most directly the peasantry bound by manorialism. Since the publication of Elizabeth A. R. Brown's "The Tyranny of a Construct" and Susan Reynolds's Fiefs and Vassals, there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society.
Outside a European context, the concept of feudalism is used only by analogy, most in discussions of feudal Japan under the shōguns, sometimes medieval and Gondarine Ethiopia. However, some have taken the feudalism analogy further, seeing feudalism in places as diverse as Spring and Autumn period in China, ancient Egypt, the Parthian empire, the Indian subcontinent and the Antebellum and Jim Crow American South; the term feudalism has been applied—often inappropriately or pejoratively—to non-Western societies where institutions and attitudes similar to those of medieval Europe are perceived to prevail. Some historians and political theorists believe that the term feudalism has been deprived of specific meaning by the many ways it has been used, leading them to reject it as a useful concept for understanding society; the term "féodal" was used in 17th-century French legal treatises and translated into English legal treatises as an adjective, such as "feodal government". In the 18th century, Adam Smith, seeking to describe economic systems coined the forms "feudal government" and "feudal system" in his book Wealth of Nations.
In the 19th century the adjective "feudal" evolved into a noun: "feudalism". The term feudalism is recent, first appearing in French in 1823, Italian in 1827, English in 1839, in German in the second half of the 19th century; the term "feudal" or "feodal" is derived from the medieval Latin word feodum. The etymology of feodum is complex with multiple theories, some suggesting a Germanic origin and others suggesting an Arabic origin. In medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service was called a beneficium; the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents. The first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one-hundred years earlier; the origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below. The most held theory was proposed by Johan Hendrik Caspar Kern in 1870, being supported by, amongst others, William Stubbs and Marc Bloch.
Kern derived the word from a putative Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which *fehu means "cattle" and -ôd means "goods", implying "a moveable object of value." Bloch explains that by the beginning of the 10th century it was common to value land in monetary terms but to pay for it with moveable objects of equivalent value, such as arms, horses or food. This was known as feos, a term that took on the general meaning of paying for something in lieu of money; this meaning was applied to land itself, in which land was used to pay for fealty, such as to a vassal. Thus the old word feos meaning movable property changed little by little to feus meaning the exact opposite: landed property. Another theory was put forward by Archibald R. Lewis. Lewis said the origin of'fief' is not feudum, but rather foderum, the earliest attested use being in Astronomus's Vita Hludovici. In that text is a passage about Louis the Pious that says annona militaris quas vulgo foderum vocant, which can be translated as "Louis forbade that military provender (which they popular
Bunraku known as Ningyō jōruri, is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theatre, founded in Osaka in the beginning of 17th century. Three kinds of performers take part in a bunraku performance: the Ningyōtsukai or Ningyōzukai, the Tayū, shamisen musicians. Other instruments such as taiko drums will be used; the most accurate term for the traditional puppet theater in Japan is ningyō jōruri. The combination of chanting and shamisen playing is called jōruri and the Japanese word for puppet is ningyō, it is used in many plays. Bunraku puppetry has been a documented traditional activity for Japanese people for hundreds of years. Bunraku's history goes as far back as the 16th century but the origins of the modern form can be traced to the 1680s, it rose to popularity after the playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon began a collaboration with the magnificent chanter Takemoto Gidayu, who established the Takemoto puppet theater in Osaka in 1684. The term Bunraku referred only to the particular theater established in 1805 in Osaka, named the Bunrakuza after the puppeteering ensemble of Uemura Bunrakuken, an early 18th-century puppeteer from Awaji, whose efforts revived the flagging fortunes of the traditional puppet theater.
The puppets of the Osaka tradition tend to be somewhat smaller overall, while the puppets in the Awaji tradition are some of the largest as productions in that region tend to be held outdoors. The heads and hands of traditional puppets are carved by specialists, while the bodies and costumes are constructed by puppeteers; the heads can be quite sophisticated mechanically. In plays with supernatural themes, a puppet may be constructed so that its face can transform into that of a demon. Less complex heads may have eyes that move up and down, side to side or close, noses and eyebrows that move. Controls for all movements of parts of the head are located on a handle that extends down from the neck of the puppet and are reached by the main puppeteer inserting his or her left hand into the chest of the puppet through a hole in the back of the torso; the main puppeteer, the omozukai, uses his or her right hand to control the right hand of the puppet. The left puppeteer, known as the hidarizukai or sashizukai, depending of the tradition of the troupe, manipulates the left hand of the puppet with his or her own right hand by means of a control rod that extends back from the elbow of the puppet.
A third puppeteer, the ashizukai, operates the legs. Puppeteers begin their training by operating the feet move on to the left hand, before being able to train as the main puppeteer. Many practitioners in the traditional puppetry world those in the National Theater, describe the long training period, which requires ten years on the feet, ten years on the left hand, ten years on the head of secondary characters before developing the requisite skills to move to the manipulation of the head of a main character, as an artistic necessity. However, in a culture like that of Japan, which privileges seniority, the system can be considered a mechanism to manage competition among artistic egos and provide for a balance among the demographics of the puppeteers in a troupe in order to fill each role. All but the most minor characters require three puppeteers, who perform in full view of the audience wearing black robes. In most traditions, all puppeteers wear black hoods over their heads, but a few others, including the National Bunraku Theater, leave the main puppeteer unhooded, a style of performance known as dezukai.
The shape of the puppeteers' hoods varies, depending on the school to which the puppeteer belongs. A single chanter recites all the characters' parts, altering his vocal pitch and style in order to portray the various characters in a scene. Multiple chanters are used; the chanters sit next to the shamisen player. Some traditional puppet theaters have revolving platform for the chanter and shamisen player, which rotates bringing replacement musicians for the next scene; the shamisen used in bunraku is larger than other kinds of shamisen and has a different sound, lower in pitch and with a fuller tone. Bunraku shares many themes with kabuki. In fact, many plays were adapted for performance both by actors in kabuki and by puppet troupes in bunraku. Bunraku is noted for lovers' suicide plays; the story of the forty-seven rōnin is famous in both bunraku and kabuki. Bunraku is an author's theater, as opposed to kabuki, a performer's theater. In bunraku, prior to the performance, the chanter holds up the text and bows before it, promising to follow it faithfully.
In kabuki, actors insert puns on their names, ad-libs, references to contemporary happenings and other things which deviate from the script. The most famous bunraku playwright was Chikamatsu Monzaemon. With more than 100 plays to his credit, he is sometimes called the Shakespeare of Japan. Bunraku companies and puppet makers have been designated "Living National Treasures" under Japan's program for preserving its culture. Osaka is the home of the government-supported troupe at National Bunraku Theatre; the National Bunraku Theater offers five or more shows every year, each running for two to three weeks in Osaka before moving to Tokyo for a run at the National Theater. The National Bunraku Theater tours within Japan and abroad; until the late 1800s there were hundreds of other professional, semi-professional, amateur troupes across Japan that performed traditional puppet drama. Since the end of World War II, the number of troupes has dropped to fewer than 40, most of which perform only once or t
A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals carnivores use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes; the roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth hardness; the cellular tissues that become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm. The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position; the teeth of mammals have deep roots, this pattern is found in some fish, in crocodilians. In most teleost fish, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side. In cartilaginous fish, such as sharks, the teeth are attached by tough ligaments to the hoops of cartilage that form the jaw; some animals develop only one set of teeth. Sharks, for example, grow a new set of teeth. Rodent incisors grow and wear away continually through gnawing, which helps maintain constant length.
The industry of the beaver is due in part to this qualification. Many rodents such as voles and guinea pigs, but not mice, as well as leporidae like rabbits, have continuously growing molars in addition to incisors. Teeth are not always attached to the jaw. In many reptiles and fish, teeth are attached to the palate or to the floor of the mouth, forming additional rows inside those on the jaws proper; some teleosts have teeth in the pharynx. While not true teeth in the usual sense, the dermal denticles of sharks are identical in structure and are to have the same evolutionary origin. Indeed, teeth appear to have first evolved in sharks, are not found in the more primitive jawless fish – while lampreys do have tooth-like structures on the tongue, these are in fact, composed of keratin, not of dentine or enamel, bear no relationship to true teeth. Though "modern" teeth-like structures with dentine and enamel have been found in late conodonts, they are now supposed to have evolved independently of vertebrates' teeth.
Living amphibians have small teeth, or none at all, since they feed only on soft foods. In reptiles, teeth are simple and conical in shape, although there is some variation between species, most notably the venom-injecting fangs of snakes; the pattern of incisors, canines and molars is found only in mammals, to varying extents, in their evolutionary ancestors. The numbers of these types of teeth vary between species; the genes governing tooth development in mammals are homologous to those involved in the development of fish scales. Study of a tooth plate of a fossil of the extinct fish Romundina stellina showed that the teeth and scales were made of the same tissues found in mammal teeth, lending support to the theory that teeth evolved as a modification of scales. Teeth are among the most distinctive features of mammal species. Paleontologists use teeth to determine their relationships; the shape of the animal's teeth are related to its diet. For example, plant matter is hard to digest, so herbivores have many molars for chewing and grinding.
Carnivores, on the other hand, have canine teeth to tear meat. Mammals, in general, are diphyodont. In humans, the first set starts to appear at about six months of age, although some babies are born with one or more visible teeth, known as neonatal teeth. Normal tooth eruption at about six months can be painful. Kangaroos and manatees are unusual among mammals because they are polyphyodonts. In Aardvarks, teeth lack enamel and have many pulp tubules, hence the name of the order Tubulidentata. In dogs, the teeth are less than humans to form dental cavities because of the high pH of dog saliva, which prevents enamel from demineralizing. Sometimes called cuspids, these teeth are shaped like points and are used for tearing and grasping food Like human teeth, whale teeth have polyp-like protrusions located on the root surface of the tooth; these polyps are made of cementum in both species, but in human teeth, the protrusions are located on the outside of the root, while in whales the nodule is located on the inside of the pulp chamber.
While the roots of human teeth are made of cementum on the outer surface, whales have cementum on the entire surface of the tooth with a small layer of enamel at the tip. This small enamel layer is only seen in older whales where the cementum has been worn away to show the underlying enamel; the toothed whale is a suborder of the cetaceans characterized by having teeth. The teeth differ among the species, they may be numerous, with some dolphins bearing over 100 teeth in their jaws. On the other hand, the narwhals have a giant unicorn-like tusk, a tooth containing millions of sensory pathways and used for sensing during feeding and mating, it is the most neurologically complex tooth known. Beaked whales are toothless, with only bizarre teeth found in males; these teeth may be used for feeding but for demonstrating aggression and showmanship. In humans there are 20 primary teeth, 28 to 32 of what's known as permanent teeth, in addition to other four being third molars or wisdom teeth, each of which may or may not g
Koreans are an East Asian ethnic group native to Korea and southwestern Manchuria. Koreans live in the two Korean states, South Korea and North Korea, but are an recognized ethnic minority in China, Vietnam and the Philippines, plus a number of former Soviet states, such as Russia and Uzbekistan. Over the course of the 20th century, significant Korean communities have emerged in Oceania and North America; as of 2017, there were an estimated 7.4 million ethnic Koreans residing outside the Korean Peninsula. South Koreans refer to themselves as Hanguk-in, or Hanguk-saram, both of which mean "Korean nation people." When referring to members of the Korean diaspora, Koreans use the term Han-in. North Koreans refer to themselves as Joseon-in or Joseon-saram, both of which mean "Joseon people"; the term is derived from the Joseon dynasty, a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for five centuries from 1392 to 1910. Using similar words, Koreans in China refer to themselves as Chaoxianzu in Chinese or Joseonjok, Joseonsaram in Korean, which are cognates that mean "Joseon ethnic group".
Zainichi Koreans refer to themselves as Zainichi Chousenjin, Chousenjin in Japanese or Jaeil Joseonin, Joseonin in Korean In the chorus of Aegukga, the national anthem of South Korea, the Koreans are referred to as Daehan-saram. Ethnic Koreans living in Russia and Central Asia refer to themselves as Koryo-saram, alluding to Goryeo, a Korean dynasty spanning from 918 to 1392. Koreans are the descendants or an admixture of the ancient people who settled in the Korean Peninsula said to be Siberian or paleo-Asian. Archaeological evidence suggests that proto-Koreans were migrants from Manchuria during the Bronze Age, it is noteworthy to mention that there were people living on the Korean peninsula from the Paleolithic age and Neolithic age, thus it is logical to assume that there was intermingling between these populations. Linguistic evidence indicates speakers of proto-Korean languages were established in southeastern Manchuria and northern Korean peninsula by the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, migrated from there to southern Korea during this period.
The largest concentration of dolmens in the world is found on the Korean Peninsula. In fact, with an estimated 35,000-100,000 dolmen, Korea accounts for nearly 70% of the world's total. Similar dolmens can be found in Manchuria, the Shandong Peninsula and the Kyushu island, yet it is unclear why this culture only flourished so extensively on the Korean Peninsula and its surroundings compared to the bigger remainder of Northeastern Asia. Stephen Pheasant, who taught anatomy and ergonomics at the Royal Free Hospital and the University College, said that Far Eastern people have proportionately shorter lower limbs than Europeans and Black Africans. Pheasant said that the proportionately short lower limbs of Far Eastern people is a difference, most characterized in Japanese people, less characterized in Korean and Chinese people, the least characterized in Vietnamese and Thai people. In a craniometric study, Pietrusewsky found that the Japanese series, a series that spanned from the Yayoi period to modern times, formed a single branch with Korea.
Pietrusewsky found, that Korean and Yayoi people were highly separated in the East Asian cluster, indicating that the connection that Japanese have with Korea would not have derived from Yayoi people. Park Dae-kyoon et al. said that distance analysis based on thirty-nine non-metric cranial traits showed that Koreans are closer craniometrically to Kazakhs and Mongols than Koreans are close craniometrically to the populations in China and Japan. Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups; the reference population for Koreans used in Geno 2.0 Next Generation is 94% Eastern Asia and 5% Southeast Asia & Oceania. Korea Foundation Associate Professor of History, Eugene Y. Park said that many Koreans seem to have a genealogical memory blackout before the twentieth century. Park said.
Park said that, through "inventing tradition" in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, families devised a kind of master narrative story that purports to explain a surname-ancestral seat combination's history to the extent where it is next to impossible to look beyond these master narrative stories. Park gave an example of what "inventing tradition" was like from his own family's genealogy where a document from 1873 recorded three children in a particular family and a 1920 document recorded an extra son in that same family. Park said that these master narratives connect the same surname and ancestral seat to a single, common ancestor. Park said that this trend became universal in the nineteenth century, but genealogies which were published in the seventeenth century admit that they did not know how the different lines of the same surname or ancestral seat are related at all. Park said that on
Russians are a nation and an East Slavic ethnic group native to European Russia in Eastern Europe. Outside Russia, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Moldova and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany and Canada; the Russians share many cultural traits with other East Slavic ethnic groups Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion; the Russian language is official in Russia, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as "Russians". One is "русский", which most means "ethnic Russians". Another is "россияне", which means "citizens of Russia"; the former word refers to ethnic Russians, regardless of what country they live in and irrespective of whether or not they hold Russian citizenship. Under certain circumstances this term may or may not extend to denote members of other Russian-speaking ethnic groups from Russia, or from the former Soviet Union.
The latter word refers to all people holding citizenship of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity, does not include ethnic Russians living outside Russia. Translations into other languages do not distinguish these two groups; the name of the Russians derives from the Rus' people. According to the most prevalent theory, the name Rus', like the Finnish name for Sweden, is derived from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen or Roden, as it was known in earlier times; the name Rus' would have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden: Ruotsi and Rootsi. According to other theories the name Rus' is derived from Proto-Slavic *roud-s-ь, connected with red color or from Indo-Iranian; until the 1917 revolution, Russian authorities never called them "Russians", calling them "Great Russians" instead, a part of "Russians". The modern Russians formed from two groups of East Slavic tribes: Northern and Southern.
The tribes involved included the Krivichs, Ilmen Slavs, Radimichs and Severians. Genetic studies show that modern Russians do not differ from Belarusians and Ukrainians; some ethnographers, like Dmitry Konstantinovich Zelenin, affirm that Russians are more similar to Belarusians and to Ukrainians than southern Russians are to northern Russians. Russians in northern European Russia share moderate genetic similarities with Uralic peoples, who lived in modern north-central European Russia and were assimilated by the Slavs as the Slavs migrated northeastwards; such Uralic peoples included the Muromians. The territory of Russia has been inhabited since 2nd Millennium BCE by Indo-European, Ural-Altaic, various other peoples. Outside archaeological remains, little is known about the predecessors to Russians in general prior to 859 AD when the Primary Chronicle starts its records, it is thought that by 600 AD, the Slavs had split linguistically into southern and eastern branches. The eastern branch settled between the Dnieper Rivers in present-day Ukraine.
Both Belarusians and South Russians formed on this ethnic linguistic ground. From the 6th century onwards, another group of Slavs moved from Pomerania to the northeast of the Baltic Sea, where they encountered the Varangians of the Rus' Khaganate and established the important regional center of Novgorod; the same Slavic ethnic population settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero. With the Uralic substratum, they formed the tribes of the Ilmen Slavs. Kievan Rus' was a loose federation of states. Modern Russians derive their name and cultural ancestry from Kievan Rus'. In 2010, the world's Russian population was 129 million people of which 86% were in Russia, 11.5% in the CIS and Baltic countries, with a further 2.5% living in other countries. 111 million ethnic Russians live in Russia, 80% of whom live in the European part of Russia, 20% in the Asian part of the country. After the Dissolution of the Soviet Union an estimated 25 million Russians began living outside of the Russian Federation, most of them in the former Soviet Republics.
Ethnic Russians migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union, sometimes encouraged to re-settle in borderlands by the Tsarist and Soviet government. On some occasions ethnic Russian communities, such as Lipovans who settled in the Danube delta or Doukhobors in Canada, emigrated as religious dissidents fleeing the central authority. After the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War starting in 1917, many Russians were forced to leave their homeland fleeing the Bolshevik regime, millions became refugees. Many white émigrés were participants in the White movement, although the term is broadly applied to anyone who may have left the country due to the change in regime. Today the largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside Russia live in former
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food vegetables. However, different varieties of salad may contain any type of ready-to-eat food. Salads are served at room temperature or chilled, with notable exceptions such as south German potato salad, served warm. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens such as arugula/rocket, kale or spinach. Other types include bean salad, tuna salad, Greek salad, sōmen salad; the sauce used to flavor a salad is called a salad dressing. Salads may be served at any point during a meal: Appetizer salads—light, smaller-portion salads served as the first course of the meal. Side salads—to accompany the main course as a side dish. Main course salads—usually containing a portion of a high-protein food, such as meat, eggs, legumes, or cheese. Dessert salads—sweet versions containing fruit, sweeteners or whipped cream; the word "salad" comes from the French salade of the same meaning, from the Latin salata, from sal. In English, the word first appears as "salad" or "sallet" in the 14th century.
Salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty oil-and-vinegar dressings during Roman times. The phrase "salad days", meaning a "time of youthful inexperience", is first recorded by Shakespeare in 1606, while the use of salad bar, referring to a buffet-style serving of salad ingredients, first appeared in American English in 1976; the Romans and ancient Greeks ate mixed greens with a type of mixed salad. Salads, including layered and dressed salads, have been popular in Europe since the Greek and Roman imperial expansions. In his 1699 book, Acetaria: A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens covered with creamy mustard dressing, truffles and slices of hard-boiled eggs. Oil used on salads can be found in the 17th century colony of New Netherland. A list of common items arriving on ships and their designated prices when appraising cargo included "a can of salad oil at 1.10 florins" and "an anker of wine vinegar at 16 florins".
In a 1665 letter to the Director of New Netherland from the Island of Curaçao there is a request to send greens: "I request most amicably that your honors be pleased to send me seed of every sort, such as cabbage, lettuce, etc. for none can be acquired here and I know that your honor has plenty...". Salads may be sold at restaurants and at fast food chains. In the United States, restaurants will have a "salad bar" with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad. Salad restaurants were earning more than $300 million in 2014. At-home salad consumption in the 2010s was rising but moving away from fresh-chopped lettuce and toward bagged greens and salad kits, with bag sales expected to reach $7 billion per year. A salad can be tossed. A green salad or garden salad is most composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket. If non-greens make up a large portion of the salad it may be called a vegetable salad instead of a green salad. Common raw vegetables used in a salad include cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, radishes, avocado, artichoke hearts, heart of palm, parsley, garden beets, green beans.
Nuts, berries and flowers are less common components. Hard-boiled eggs, bacon and cheeses may be used as garnishes, but large amounts of animal based foods would be more in a dinner salad. A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce quartered, with other ingredients on top. Bound salads are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise. One portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop. Examples of bound salad include tuna salad, chicken salad, egg salad, potato salad. Bound salads are used as sandwich fillings, they are popular at barbecues. Main course salads may contain seafood, or sliced steak. Caesar salad, Chef salad, Cobb salad, Chinese chicken salad and Michigan salad are dinner salads. Fruit salads are canned. Examples include fruit cocktail. Note that "fruit" here refers to culinary fruits, many common components of vegetable salads are botanical fruits but culinary vegetables. Dessert salads include leafy greens and are sweet. Common variants are made with whipped cream.
Other forms of dessert salads include snickers salad, glorified rice, cookie salad. Sauces for salads are called "dressings"; the concept of salad dressing varies across cultures. Sometimes a dressing is not used. In Western culture, there are two basic types of salad dressing: Vinaigrettes based on a mixture of salad oil and vinegar flavored with herbs, salt, pepper and other ingredients. Creamy dressings based on mayonnaise or fermented milk products, such as yogurt, sour cream, or butte