A courthouse is a building, home to a local court of law and the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities. The term is common in North America. In most other English-speaking countries, buildings which house courts of law are called "courts" or "court buildings". In most of Continental Europe and former non-English-speaking European colonies, the equivalent term is a palace of justice. In most counties in the United States, the local trial courts conduct their business in a centrally located courthouse which may house county governmental offices; the courthouse is located in the county seat, although large metropolitan counties may have satellite or annex offices for their courts. In some cases this building may be renamed in some way or its function divided as between a judicial building and administrative office building. Many judges officiate at civil marriage ceremonies in their courthouse chambers. In some places, the courthouse contains the main administrative office for the county government, or when a new courthouse is constructed, the former one will be used for other local government offices.
Either way, a typical courthouse will have one or more courtrooms and a court clerk's office with a filing window where litigants may submit documents for filing with the court. Each United States district court has a federally owned building that houses courtrooms and clerk's offices. Many federal judicial districts are further split into divisions, which may have their own courthouses, although sometimes the smaller divisional court facilities are located in buildings that house other agencies or offices of the United States government; the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California has a courthouse in Yosemite to hear misdemeanors and petty crimes for Yosemite National Park. The courthouse is part of the iconography of American life and is equivalent to the city hall as the symbol of the municipium in European free cities. Courthouses are shown in American cinema, they range from small-town rural buildings with a few rooms to huge metropolitan courthouses that occupy large plots of land.
The style of American architecture used varies, with common styles including federal, Greek Revival and modern. Due to concerns over potential violence, many courthouses in American cities have security checkpoints where all incoming persons are searched for weapons through the use of an X-ray machine for all bags and a walk-through metal detector, much like those found at airports. For example, the Los Angeles Superior Court added such checkpoints to all entrances to its main courthouse in Downtown Los Angeles after a woman was shot and killed by her ex-husband in open court in September 1995; the Supreme Court of California ruled in 2002 that Los Angeles County was not liable to her three children under the California Government Tort Claims Act. After the Oklahoma City bombing, the federal government proceeded to fortify all large federal buildings, including many urban courthouses; some courthouses in areas with high levels of violent crime have redundant layers of security. For example, when the Supreme Court of California hears oral argument in San Francisco or Los Angeles, visitors must pass through one security checkpoint to enter the building, another to enter the courtroom.
In Canada each municipality constructs several in the case of large cities. In smaller communities the court is in the same building as the city hall and other municipal offices. In the past many courthouses included the local prison. One well-known court house in Canada is the Romanesque Revival Old City Hall in Ontario. Designed by E. J. Lennox, Old City Hall was completed in 1899 and has been functioning as a municipal building since, it was constructed to facilitate Toronto’s City Council and municipal offices and the city's courts however following the construction of the fourth city hall the building's purpose was limited to being a courthouse for the Ontario Court of Justice. This building can be described as Romanesque Revival due to multiple characteristics it shares with Romanesque architecture; these characteristics include the materiality in terms of large stone construction, the repetitive rhythmic use of windows containing various sized arches and barrel vaults directing attention towards them, decorated spandrels and the inclusion of gabled walls.
Old City Hall has been designated a National Historical Site since 1989. Court Courts of England and Wales List of courthouses
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Texas's 25th congressional district
Texas District 25 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that stretches from Fort Worth to Austin. The current Representative from District 25 is Roger Williams. For the 2004 elections, it had an elongated shape stretching from deep south Texas at the U. S.-Mexico border to Austin as a result of mid-decade 2003 gerrymandering of Texas congressional districts. The district was redrawn again for the 2006 elections as the result of a lawsuit. In July 2011, Texas Governor Rick Perry signed into law a redistricting plan, approved by the Texas legislature in June, which gave the 25th district a different geography for the 2012 elections, including part of Travis County, stretching north as far as southern Tarrant County near Fort Worth; the redistricting split Travis County into five districts, four of which were Republican. As a result, the only realistic place for Representative Lloyd Doggett to run was the new 35th district. For a number of years, there was a consolidated lawsuit against the redistricting.
In March 2017, a panel of federal judges ruled that the new 35th district and two others were illegally drawn with discriminatory intent. However, the district was allowed to stand in the Supreme Court's 2018 Perez ruling. On June 28, 2006, the U. S. Supreme Court declared that the Texas legislature's 2003 redistricting plan violated the Voting Rights Act in the case of District 23; the main basis for the ruling was that the old 23rd was a protected majority-Hispanic district—in other words, if the 23rd was redrawn in a way to put Hispanics in a minority, a new majority-Hispanic district had to be created. Since the 25th was not compact enough to be an acceptable replacement, the 23rd had to be struck down; the size of the 23rd required the redrawing of nearly every district from El Paso to San Antonio. As a result, on August 4, 2006, a three-judge panel announced replacement district boundaries for 2006 election for the 23rd district, as well as for the 15th, 21st, 25th and 28th districts. On election day in November, these five districts held open primaries.
Otherwise, a runoff election in December decided the seat. The redrawn 25th was more compact and restricted to Central Texas, comprising more of Travis County, most of Bastrop County, all of Hays, Fayette, Gonzales and Colorado Counties. Incumbent congressman Doggett faced Republican Grant Rostig, independent candidate Brian Parrett, Libertarian Party Barbara Cunningham, won re-election. In the 2008 election Doggett faced Republican George Morovich, a structural engineer from La Grange and Libertarian Jim Stutsman, a retired Army veteran. Doggett won with 65.8% of the vote to Morovich's 30.5% and Stutsman's 3.7%. Doggett won 73.8% of the vote in his Austin-based stronghold of Travis County. Dogget faced Republican and "Tea Party favorite" Donna Campbell, again held his seat, though by a small margin; the new district boundaries were more favorable to Republicans. Julie Oliver ran a strong campaign against incumbent Roger Williams, but fell short. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The Wichita people or Kitikiti'sh are a confederation of Southern Plains Native American tribes. They spoke the Wichita language and Kichai language, both Caddoan languages, they are indigenous to Oklahoma and Kansas. Today, Wichita tribes, which include the Kichai people, Waco, Taovaya and the Wichita proper, are federally recognized as the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes are headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is in Oklahoma; the Wichitas are a self-governance tribe, who operate their own housing authority and issue tribal vehicle tags. The current tribal administration is. President: Terri Parton Vice-President: Jesse E. Jones Secretary: Myles Stephenson Jr. Treasurer: Vanessa Vance The tribe owns the Sugar Creek Casino, several restaurants, the Sugar Creek Event Center, Hinton Travel Inn in Hinton, it owns a smoke shop, travel plaza, historical center in Anadarko. Their annual economic impact in 2010 was $4.5 million. The Wichita language is one of the Caddoan languages.
They are related by language and culture with whom they enjoy close relations. The Wichita lived in fixed villages notable for their large, domed-shaped, grass-covered dwellings, sometimes up to 30 feet in diameter; the Wichita were skilled traders and negotiators. Their historical homelands stretched from San Antonio, Texas in the south to as far north as Great Bend, Kansas. A semi-sedentary people, they occupied northern Texas in the early 18th century, they traded with other Southern Plains Indians on both sides of the Red River and as far south as Waco. For much of the year, the Wichita lived in huts made of forked cedar poles covered by dry grasses. In the winter, they lived in hunting camps. Wichita hunters used all parts of the bison—for clothing and cooking fat, winter shelter, leather supplies and medicine; each spring, Wichita families to their villages for another season of cultivating crops. Wichita people wore clothing from tanned hides, which the women sewed, they decorated their dresses with elk canine teeth.
Both men and women tattooed their bodies with solid and dotted lines and circles. The Wichita tribes call themselves Kitikiti'sh / Kirikirish, because of the historical practice of tattooing marks around their eyes; the kindred Pawnee called them Kírikuuruks / Kírikuruks and the Arikara referred to them as Čirikuúnux. The Kiowa knew them as Thoe-Khoot. Wichita people have been a loose confederation of related peoples on the Southern Plains, including such bands or sub-tribes as Taovayas, Tawakonis and Guichitas or Wichita Proper; the Taovaya were the most important in the 18th century. The French called the Wichita peoples Panis Piqués or Panis Noirs. One Pawnee splinter grouping known as Panismahas moved from what is now Nebraska to the Texas-Arkansas border regions where they lived with the Taovayas. In 2018, the Wichita Tribes opened the Wichita Tribal History Center in Anadarko, which shares Wichita history, visual arts, culture with the public; the Wichita Annual Dance, a powwow, is held at the Wichita Tribal Park on US-281, north of Anadarko, every August.
After the man and woman were made they dreamed that things were made for them, when they woke they had the things of which they had dreamed... The woman was given an ear of corn... It was to be the food of the people that should exist in the future, to be used generation after generation. —Tawakoni Jim in The Mythology of the Wichita, 1904 The Ancestral Wichita people lived in the eastern Great Plains from the Red River in Arkansas north to Nebraska for at least 2,000 years. Early Wichita people were hunters and gatherers who adopted agriculture. Farming villages were developed about 900 CE on terraces above the Washita and South Canadian Rivers in present-day Oklahoma; the women of these 10th-century communities cultivated varieties of maize and squash, marsh elder, tobacco, important for religious purposes. The men hunted deer, rabbits and bison, caught fish and harvested mussels from the rivers; these villagers lived in thatched-roof houses. Archaeologists describe the Washita River Phase from 1250 to 1450, when local populations grew and villages of up to 20 houses were spaced every two or so miles along the rivers.
These farmers may have had contact with the Panhandle culture villages in the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles, farming villages along the Canadian River. The Panhandle villagers showed signs of adopting cultural characteristics of the Pueblo peoples of the Rio Grande Valley, with whom they interacted. In the late 15th century, most of these Washita River villages were abandoned for reasons that not known today. Numerous archaeological sites in central Kansas near the Great Bend of the Arkansas River share common traits and are collectively known as the "
Arlington is a city in the U. S. state of Texas, located in Tarrant County. It is part of the Mid-Cities region of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area 12 miles east of downtown Fort Worth and 20 miles west of downtown Dallas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau's estimate, the city had a population of 396,394 in 2017, making it the second-largest city in the county and the third-largest in the metropolitan area. Arlington is the forty-eighth-most populous city in the United States, the seventh-most populous city in the state of Texas, the largest city in the state, not a county seat. Arlington is home to the University of Texas at Arlington, a major urban research university, the Arlington Assembly plant used by General Motors, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Region IV, Texas Health Resources, American Mensa, D. R. Horton. Additionally, Arlington hosts the Texas Rangers at the Globe Life Park, the Dallas Cowboys at the AT&T Stadium, the Dallas Wings at the College Park Center, the International Bowling Campus, the theme parks Six Flags Over Texas and Hurricane Harbor.
Arlington borders Kennedale, Grand Prairie and Fort Worth, surrounds the smaller communities of Dalworthington Gardens and Pantego. European settlement in the Arlington area dates back at least to the 1840s. After the May 24, 1841 battle between Texas General Edward H. Tarrant and Native Americans of the Village Creek settlement, a trading post was established at Marrow Bone Spring in present-day Arlington; the rich soil of the area attracted farmers, several agriculture-related businesses were well established by the late nineteenth century. Arlington was founded in 1876 along the Pacific Railway; the city was named after General Robert E. Lee's Arlington House in Virginia. Arlington grew as a cotton-ginning and farming center, incorporated on April 21, 1884; the city could boast of water, natural gas, telephone services by 1910, along with a public school system. By 1925 the population was estimated at 3,031, it grew to over 4,000 before World War II. Large-scale industrialization began in 1954 with the arrival of a General Motors assembly plant.
Automotive and aerospace development gave the city one of the nation's greatest population growth rates between 1950 and 1990. Arlington became one of the "boomburbs", the fast-growing suburbs of the post-World War II era. U. S. Census Bureau population figures for the city tell the story: 7,692, 90,229, 261,721, 365,438 and 374,000 by 2011. Tom Vandergriff served as mayor from 1951 to 1977 during this period of robust economic development. Six Flags Over Texas opened in Arlington in 1961. In 1972 the Washington Senators baseball team relocated to Arlington and began play as the Texas Rangers and in 2009 the Dallas Cowboys began to play at the newly constructed Cowboys Stadium, now AT&T Stadium. According to the United States Census Bureau, Arlington has a total area of 99.7 square miles. Johnson Creek, a tributary of the Trinity River, the Trinity River itself, flow through Arlington. Arlington falls in the Cfa region of the Köppen climate classification system, a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F in 1980. The lowest recorded temperature was −8 °F in 1899; the maximum average precipitation occurs in May. Severe weather occurs April and May months. Located in the famous Tornado Alley Winters are mild with snow occurring During the April 3, 2012 tornado outbreak a severe thunderstorm produced an EF-2 tornado in Eastern Kennedale which moved North East across 287 near Stagetrail Drive and continued in a North North-Eastern direction; the tornado contained winds up to 135 MPH and damaged over 200 homes and businesses, including severe damage suffered by the Green Oaks Nursing and Rehabilitation Center, injured seven people before the tornado lifted on the shores of Lake Arlington. As of the census of 2010, there were 365,438 people, 133,072 households, 90,099 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,811 people per square mile. There were 144,805 housing units at an average density of 1,510 per square mile; the 2011 estimated racial makeup of the city was 59% White, 18.8% Black or African American, 6.8% Asian, 0.7% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 11.3% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.4% of the population. There were 133,072 households out of which 40% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 48% were married couples living together, 15% had a female householder with no husband present, 32% were non-families. 25% of all households were made up of individuals and 5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.7 and the average family size was 3.3. In the city, the 2010 population was spread out with 31% under the age of 20, 8% from 20 to 24, 30% from 25 to 44, 23% from 45 to 64, 8% who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 104 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94 males 18 and over; the median income for a household in the city was estimated to be $50,655 in 2011. Individual males working ful