Record Store Day
Record Store Day is an annual event inaugurated in 2008 and held on one Saturday every April and every "Black Friday" in November to "celebrate the culture of the independently owned record store". The day brings together fans and thousands of independent record stores across the world. A number of records are pressed for Record Store Day, with a list of releases for each country, are only distributed to shops participating in the event; the event remains headquartered there. Record Store Day has official international organizers in the United Kingdom, France, The Netherlands, Italy, Mexico, Australia and Poland. Pitched as an idea to create an event similar to Free Comic Book Day by Bull Moose Music's Chris Brown and Criminal Record's Eric Levin, the concept for Record Store Day was created during a brainstorming session at a meeting of independent record store owners in Baltimore, Maryland. Record Store Day was founded in 2007 by Eric Levin, Michael Kurtz, Carrie Colliton, Amy Dorfman, Don Van Cleave, is now celebrated at stores around the world, with hundreds of recording and other artists participating in the day by making special appearances, performances and greets with their fans, the holding of fund raisers for community non-profits, the issuing of special vinyl and CD releases along with other promotional offerings to mark the occasion.
Each store holds its own event for the day. Although Record Store Day, the day, only occurs once a year, Record Store Day, the organization, provides promotions and other opportunities for stores throughout the year, maintaining a website, social media and other means of promulgating its views about the value of independent record stores. Record Store Day is managed on a day-to-day basis by the Dept. of Record Stores, along with the Coalition of Independent Music Stores and the Alliance of Independent Media Stores. Universal Music's sales manager, Marc Fayd’Herbe, has described Record Store Day as "the single best thing that has happened" for independent record shops; the 2013 event was credited with the highest U. S. vinyl sales, the 2014 edition resulted in independent retailers recording the highest percentage of physical album sales, since the SoundScan system was introduced in 1991. In their 2015 Libera awards, the American Association of Independent Music awarded Record Store Day its "Marketplace Ally" award.
Record Store Day 2016 produced the biggest week of sales for the vinyl LP format since the introduction of SoundScan. The event has been criticized for catering to record collectors, rather than casual music fans, delaying the release of non-affiliated records by monopolizing the capacity of record pressing plants. Major labels have been accused of hijacking the event, the policy of shops being obliged to buy on a no-return basis has been criticized, along with many of the limited releases being re-sold online within hours, at inflated prices. Metallica kicked off the event at Rasputin Music in Mountain View, California, on April 19, 2008. There were 10 special Record Store Day releases in the first year, including releases by Death Cab For Cutie, R. E. M. Stephen Malkmus, Vampire Weekend, The Teenagers, Black Kids, Jason Mraz. 300 stores launched Record Store Day in the United States, including Waterloo Records, School Kids Records, Vintage Vinyl. English singer-songwriter Billy Bragg met Record Store Day co-founder Michael Kurtz in an airport and agreed to help kick off Record Store Day in the United Kingdom with a special live appearance.
The first organized involvement by UK stores included Piccadilly Records, Jumbo Records, Sister Ray, Rough Trade, Rapture and Avalanche Records. The second annual Record Store Day was celebrated on Saturday, April 18, 2009 with about 85 special releases and about 500 artist appearances, including those by Slayer, Tom Waits, Bob Dylan, Leonard Cohen, Iron & Wine, The Stooges, MC5, Disturbed, Killswitch Engage, Erykah Badu, Talib Kweli, The Eagles of Death Metal. Wilco made a surprise appearance on Record Store Day @ the Disc Exchange in Tennessee. Eagles of Death Metal made an appearance at Rhino Records. Mayor Mike Bloomberg announced that the City of New York recognized Record Store Day as a citywide event and the judges on American Idol talked about their favorite records in honor of Record Store Day in the episode of American Idol prior to the event. 95% of the special releases made for Record Store Day were for the USA. The third annual Record Store Day took place on Saturday, April 17, 2010.
The official ambassador for the event was Joshua Homme. The official book of the event was Last Shop Standing: Whatever Happened to Record Shops? by Graham Jones. KCRW's Gary Calamar and Phil Gallo released their self-published book, "Record Store Days", about independent record stores, with artist quotes provided by www.recordstoreday.com used throughout the book, a chapter devoted to Record Store Day. NYC Mayor Mike Bloomberg and New York City once again honored the day. Anything Anything with Rich Russo released a vinyl album of local bands performing on his radio show and organized a bus tour visiting New York and New Jersey record stores. Several artists made in-store appearances to mark the event: The Smashing Pumpkins
Mark Ramos Nishita, known professionally as Money Mark, is an American producer and musician, best known for his collaborations with the Beastie Boys from 1992 until 2011. Born in Detroit to a Japanese-Hawaiian father and a Chicano mother, he moved to the West Coast when he was six, his first album Mark's Keyboard Repair, was made up of keyboard driven pop-funk songs recorded at demo quality. Guy Ritchie used a song from the album in Two Smoking Barrels. MKR was followed up by the Third Version EP in 1996 and Push the Button in 1998, for which Mark received critical praise. Whereas his 1996 EP was similar to his debut, Push the Button was eclectic, combining aspects of rock music and pop with soul and hip hop; this LP was met with good reviews, as was his 2001 follow up Change is Coming which had a tropical yet danceable disco and funk sound. Mark met the Beastie Boys during their migration to the West Coast, through mutual friend Mario Caldato Jr. who asked Mark to fix the wooden gate at the entrance of the property where the band were staying when they were recording Paul's Boutique.
He helped them build a studio, became a principal collaborator. He has performed and collaborated on every Beastie Boys album from 1992's Check Your Head to the group's final album, 2011's Hot Sauce Committee Part Two. Mark co-authored the Grammy Award winning album The Mix-Up. Money Mark contributed the keyboard phrase that opens and underpins "Where It's At" from Beck's 1996 album, Odelay, he played keyboards on tour for the Omar Rodriguez-Lopez Quintet in support of their self-titled album. He has since become a full member of the quintet, appearing on the live EP with Damo Suzuki called Please Heat This Eventually and several other albums, with his debut full-length collaboration with the group being the Quintet's second LP release, The Apocalypse Inside of an Orange. In 1996, Money Mark contributed the song "Use Your Head" to the AIDS benefit album Red Hot + Rio produced by the Red Hot Organization, he contributed songs to Red Hot's Silencio=Muerte: Red Hot + Latin and Red Hot + Rhapsody a tribute to George Gershwin.
In 2004 Mark scored and played all instruments for HBO's first documentary prime time series, "Family Bond's," directed by Steve Santor. In that same year, Mark contributed original songs and score cues for "Along Came Polly," "Fun With Dick and Jane," and "The Devil Wears Prada." In September 2006, Money Mark signed to Jack Johnson's Brushfire Records label. Brand New By Tomorrow, his first album with Brushfire, was released in February 2007. In late 2006, he opened for Gnarls Barkley at the Riviera Theatre in Chicago. In 2007, Money Mark and The Woodrow Jackson Orchestra recorded a cover version of Love Unlimited Orchestra's "Love's Theme" for Engine Room Recordings' compilation album Guilt by Association. Money Mark composed original music for the 2008 documentary film Beautiful Losers. Mark scored and played all instruments for HBO's first documentary prime time series, "Family Bond's," directed by Steve Santor. In 2011, he contributed the Mario C. Remix of "Tropicaliá" with Beck and Seu Jorge, played Hammond B-3 organ on "Look Around" from the Red Hot Chili Peppers album I'm With You, as well as a version of the song "Tropical Affair" with Thalma de Freitas and João Parahyba for Red Hot Organization's most recent charitable album "Red Hot+Rio 2."
The album is a follow-up to the 1996 "Red Hot + Rio." Proceeds from the sales will be donated to raise awareness and money to fight AIDS/HIV and related health and social issues. Mark scored the Slamdance Audience Award- winning and critically acclaimed documentary film, Getting Up: The Tempt One Story. Money Mark, working with Mike McCready and Stefan Lessard, contributed to many of the tracks used in the soundtrack to the 2011 film Horrible Bosses, he performed in 2011 with Karen O on her pop opera Stop the Virgens. Over the course of his career, Mark has done recording sessions with the Rolling Stones, Iggy Pop, Nile Rodgers, Yoko Ono, Carlos Santana, Lee Scratch Perry, Jorge Ben, Moby, Mixmaster Mike, the Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Seu Jorge, Jack Johnson, The Mars Volta, he is now on DVDASA, a podcast with David Choe and Asa Akira every Tuesday and Thursday. He is part of the band Mangchi with David Choe and Steven Lee. In the spring of 2016, it was announced that Money Mark would be touring with The Claypool Lennon Delirium, a collaboration between Les Claypool and Sean Lennon.
From the Prawn Song Newsletter, "Les Claypool and Sean Lennon’s newly formed band The Claypool Lennon Delirium will hit the road this summer for an extensive tour of the United States. Rounding out the band with Les and Sean will be Money Mark on keyboards and Paulo Baldi on drums. In addition to playing Bonnaroo and Peach festivals, The Claypool Lennon Delirium will play a number of headline shows across the country." Mark's Keyboard Repair Push the Button Change Is Coming Father Demo Square Brand New by Tomorrow Stand Up for Your Rice! Songs from Studio D Mark on the Mike Performing Chicken EP Legitimate Pop Songs? - Money Mark Live at Rough Trade Third Version EP Love Stains: A Demo Demo? Or Demolition? EP "Insects Are All Around Us" / "Cry" "Cry" "Hand in Your Head" "Maybe I'm Dead" "Burn Away" "Pick Up the Pieces" "Spiders" Dimension Mix: A Tribute to Dimension 5 Records - Eenie Meenie Records MW 034 LP Mark's Keyboard Repair LP MW 090 Push Th
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California in 1967 by Jann Wenner, still the magazine's publisher, the music critic Ralph J. Gleason, it was first known for political reporting by Hunter S. Thompson. In the 1990s, the magazine shifted focus to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors, popular music. In recent years, it has resumed its traditional mix of content. Rolling Stone Press is the magazine's associated book publishing imprint. Straight Arrow Press was the magazine's associated book publishing imprint, Straight Arrow Publishing Co. Inc. was the publishing company that published Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone magazine was founded in San Francisco in 1967 by Ralph Gleason. To get it off the ground, Wenner borrowed $7,500 from his own family and from the parents of his soon-to-be wife, Jane Schindelheim; the first issue carried a cover date of November 9, 1967, was in newspaper format with a lead article on the Monterey Pop Festival.
The cover price was 25¢. In the first issue, Wenner explained that the title of the magazine referred to the 1950 blues song "Rollin' Stone", recorded by Muddy Waters, Bob Dylan's hit single "Like a Rolling Stone": You're wondering what we're trying to do. It's hard to say: sort of a sort of a newspaper; the name of it is Rolling Stone which comes from an old saying, "A rolling stone gathers no moss." Muddy Waters used the name for a song. The Rolling Stones took their name from Muddy's song. "Like a Rolling Stone" was the title of Bob Dylan's first rock and roll record. We have begun a new publication reflecting what we see are the changes in rock and roll and the changes related to rock and roll."—Jann Wenner, Rolling Stone, November 9, 1967, p. 2 Some authors have attributed the name to Dylan's hit single: "At Gleason's suggestion, Wenner named his magazine after a Bob Dylan song." Rolling Stone identified with and reported the hippie counterculture of the era. However, it distanced itself from the underground newspapers of the time, such as Berkeley Barb, embracing more traditional journalistic standards and avoiding the radical politics of the underground press.
In the first edition, Wenner wrote that Rolling Stone "is not just about the music, but about the things and attitudes that music embraces". In the 1970s, Rolling Stone began to make a mark with its political coverage, with the likes of gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson writing for the magazine's political section. Thompson first published his most famous work Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas within the pages of Rolling Stone, where he remained a contributing editor until his death in 2005. In the 1970s, the magazine helped launch the careers of many prominent authors, including Cameron Crowe, Lester Bangs, Joe Klein, Joe Eszterhas, Ben Fong-Torres, Patti Smith and P. J. O'Rourke, it was at this point that the magazine ran some of its most famous stories, including that of the Patty Hearst abduction odyssey. One interviewer, speaking for a large number of his peers, said that he bought his first copy of the magazine upon initial arrival on his college campus, describing it as a "rite of passage".
In 1977, the magazine moved its headquarters from San Francisco to New York City. Editor Jann Wenner said San Francisco had become "a cultural backwater". During the 1980s, the magazine began to shift towards being a general "entertainment" magazine. Music was still a dominant topic, but there was increasing coverage of celebrities in television and the pop culture of the day; the magazine initiated its annual "Hot Issue" during this time. Rolling Stone was known for its musical coverage and for Thompson's political reporting. In the 1990s, the magazine changed its format to appeal to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors and popular music; this led to criticism. In recent years, the magazine has resumed its traditional mix of content, including in-depth political stories, it has expanded content to include coverage of financial and banking issues. As a result, the magazine has seen its circulation increase and its reporters invited as experts to network television programs of note.
The printed format has gone through several changes. The first publications, in 1967–72, were in folded tabloid newspaper format, with no staples, black ink text, a single color highlight that changed each edition. From 1973 onwards, editions were produced on a four-color press with a different newsprint paper size. In 1979, the bar code appeared. In 1980, it became a large format magazine; as of edition of October 30, 2008, Rolling Stone has had a smaller, standard-format magazine size. After years of declining readership, the magazine experienced a major resurgence of interest and relevance with the work of two young journalists in the late 2000s, Michael Hastings and Matt Taibbi. In 2005, Dana Leslie Fields, former publisher of Rolling Stone, who had worked at the magazine for 17 years, was an inaugural inductee into the Magazine Hall of Fame. In 2009, Taibbi unleashed an acclaimed series of scathing reports on the financial meltdown of the time, he famously described Goldman Sachs as "a great vampire squid".
Bigger headlines came at the end of June 2010. Rolling Stone caused a controversy in the White House by publishing in the July issue an article by journalist Michael Hastings entitled, "The Runaway General", quoting criticism by General Stanley A. McChrystal, commander of the International Security Assistance Force and U. S. Forces-Afghanistan commander, about Vice President Joe Biden and oth
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
Vimeo is an ad-free open video platform, headquartered in New York City. The company provides creators with tools and technology to host and monetize videos. In 2007, Vimeo became the first video sharing site to support high-definition video and has since launched a number of products that enable quality video creation at scale, most with the launch of Vimeo Stock in fall of 2018. Vimeo is a SaaS business and offers subscription. Vimeo was founded in November 2004 by Zach Klein. Anjali Sud has been CEO of Vimeo since July 2017. Vimeo was founded in November 2004 by Zach Klein; the name Vimeo was created as a play on the words video and me. Vimeo is an anagram of the word movie. IAC purchased Vimeo in August 2006, as part of its acquisition of Connected Ventures. In January 2009, Dae Mellencamp joined IAC as general manager of Vimeo, she served as CEO until March 19, 2012, when Kerry Trainor joined Vimeo as CEO. In 2017, IAC promoted general manager Anjali Sud as the CEO; as of December 2013, Vimeo attracts more than 100 million unique visitors per month and more than 22 million registered users.
Fifteen percent of Vimeo's traffic comes from mobile devices. As of February 2013, Vimeo accounted for 0.11% of all Internet bandwidth, following far behind video sharing sites YouTube and Facebook. The community of Vimeo includes their fans; the Vimeo community has adopted the name "Vimeans", meaning a member of the Vimeo community one, active and engaged with fellow users on a regular basis. The White House posts high-definition versions of its broadcasts to Vimeo. Vimeo has helped to offload traffic from Improv Everywhere's servers after new pranks are announced, continues to host most of their videos. Vimeo was the original location of Noah Kalina's "everyday" video, a popular viral video. On July 21, 2008, Vimeo announced. Vimeo cited a few reasons, including that the unusually long duration of gaming videos was holding back transcoder wait times; the ban was lifted in October 2014. Until all new uploads were subject to the rule, but machinima videos with a story of their own were still permitted.
In December 2014, Vimeo introduced 4K support, though it would only allow downloading due to the low market penetration of 4K displays at the time. Streaming of 4K content launched the following year, along with adaptive bitrate streaming support. In March 2017, Vimeo introduced 360-degree video support, including support for virtual reality platforms and smartphones, stereoscopic video, an online video series providing guidance on filming and producing 360-degree videos. On May 2, 2016, Vimeo announced the acquisition of VHX, a platform for premium over-the-top subscription video channels. On September 26, 2017, Vimeo announced that it would introduce a live streaming platform, that it had acquired the existing service Livestream to bolster its associated staff and technology. On October 9, 2007, Vimeo announced support for high definition playback in 1280×720, becoming the first video sharing site to support consumer HD. Uploaded HD videos were automatically converted into 720/30p VP6 Flash video.
Since August 2010, all videos are encoded into H.264 for HTML5 support. All videos uploaded. Non-Plus users can upload up to 500 MB of videos per week, up to one HD video per week. Non-HD videos are re-encoded at a maximum of 30 frames per second, but suffer in image quality, inline with the low bit rate for videos in the 640×360 size; the video content is re-encoded to bit rate below 0.5 Mbit/s. This is not enough to reproduce the fine details that can be captured from, e.g. a consumer video camera or a smartphone. Vimeo began its service with each limited to 20 MB of video uploads weekly; this limit was raised to 30 MB in 2006 to 250 MB in January 2007 and to the current level of 500 MB in October 2007. On January 22, 2018, the limit for Basic accounts was changed for the first time in 11 years. Accounts were limited to a lifetime video storage limit of 5 GB; those which exceeded this limit prior to its implementation can keep uploaded videos online, but cannot upload new videos. The storage limit was implemented just two days after YouTube announced the demonetization of smaller channels, those with fewer than 1,000 lifetime subscribers and 4,000 annual hours of watch time, though Vimeo has yet to confirm that this directly caused the new limit.
In October 2008, Vimeo Plus launched for $60 annual fee and a 2 GB weekly allowance, raised to the current level of 5 GB on January 4, 2011. The latter allowance allows 2.5 hours of 720p video. As of July 22, 2010, the site offers unlimited HD embeds. On August 1, 2011, Vimeo introduced the PRO account type for business and commercial use, which allows 50GB of storage, 250k plays, advanced analytics, third-party video player support and more; as of January 27, 2018, Vimeo offers the following plans: Vimeo Plus is the only paid plan available on a month-to-month basis. Other paid plans require an annual payment. Vimeo Basic and Vimeo Plus prohibit commercial use, unless the account holder is a "small-scale independent production company, non-profit, or artist," and the account is used to present original creative works. Vimeo's first annual Vimeo Awards took place October 8 and 9, 2010 in New York City, dedicated towards showcasing and awarding creative video content hosted on the site. Festival judges for the nine competitive categories included David Lynch, Morgan Spurlock, Rian Johnson, M.
I. A. and Charlie
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Shout (Devo album)
Shout is the sixth studio album by American new wave band Devo. It was released in October 1984, on the labels Warner Bros. and Virgin, two years after their previous album, Oh, No! It's Devo; the album was recorded over a period of ten months between July 1983 and Feb 1984, in sessions that took place at the Record Plant in Los Angeles, California. The album retained the synth-pop sound of their previous few records, with an extensive focus on the then-new Fairlight CMI Series IIx digital sampling synthesizer. Despite the popularity of synth-pop in 1984, the album was a critical and commercial failure, peaking at only No. 83 on the Billboard 200 and leading to Warner Bros. dropping the band from their label. Shout was the second Devo album in which co-founder and bass player Gerald Casale sang the majority of the lead vocals, which are performed by Mark Mothersbaugh. Following its release, the band went on hiatus for four years. Although the band would release two studio albums through Enigma Records, they would not release another album through Warner Bros. until Something for Everybody in 2010.
The band themselves have been quite vocal in that they were not satisfied with the completed album, in response to a question from a fan on Twitter, Casale once said that recording the album was "too painful to talk about."As with every Devo album, the band developed a new look for the album, eschewing the black T-shirts and slacks with white "Spud Ring" collars of the Oh, No! It's Devo period and replacing them with "Chinese-American Friendship Suits." Shout was the first of two Devo albums to use the other being 1988's Total Devo. These approaches further pushed the sound of the guitar into the background of their music. Shout was the final album by the 1976–1985 line-up of Devo, with their third and most prominent drummer, Alan Myers, leaving the band shortly after the album's release. According to the book We Are Devo, Myers cited a lack of creative fulfillment as his reason for leaving the band, something that he had felt since Devo's move to Los Angeles in the late 1970s. Devo's increased use of drum machines and electronics through the years had reduced Myers' role in the band, although Gerald Casale has said that he begged Myers not to leave.
One of Shout's singles is "Are You Experienced?", a Jimi Hendrix cover that carried on the Devo tradition of radically transforming notable songs which began with their 1977 cover of the Rolling Stones song " Satisfaction." The chorus melody of another Hendrix song, "Third Stone from the Sun," is transformed into a backwards guitar solo partway through the track. "The 4th Dimension" incorporates the guitar hook from the Beatles' song "Day Tripper", "Jurisdiction of Love" contains a few notes from "Love Machine" by the Miracles and "Here to Go" quotes a bit of the music to Wilson Pickett hit "Land of a Thousand Dances." In a 2007 interview with Billboard magazine, Gerald Casale stated that Shout was the biggest regret of his career, "because the Fairlight just kind of took over everything on that record. I mean, I loved the songwriting and the ideas, but the Fairlight kind of determined the sound." According to a 2005 interview with the band's guitarist Bob Mothersbaugh, "Mark and Jerry kept saying in interviews that the guitar was obsolete and wanted to prove it with the Shout album."
The album cover photograph, taken by Karen Filter, is a head shot of Timothy Leary's son Zachary Chase on a composite background with his left hand raised by his open mouth in a "shout" gesture. The album's back cover depicts a head shot photo of guitarist Bob Mothersbaugh's daughter Alex with her eyes focused upwards and her left hand raised by her ear in a listening gesture. It's notably their first album since 1978's Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! not to feature any of the band's members on the outside cover. A lavish music video for "Are You Experienced?" was produced by the band in conjunction with Ivan Stang of the Church of the SubGenius. The video featured Devo as floating blobs of wax in a lava lamp and Jimi Hendrix stepping out of his coffin to play a guitar solo, as well as the cover children Chase and Alex. Despite being one of Devo's most visually complex and expensive music videos, it wasn't included on the 2003 DVD music video collection The Complete Truth About De-Evolution.
In an interview with Gerald Casale for Earcandymag.com, he explained: E. C.: Speaking of de-evolution, why didn't the Hendrix estate give you permission to put the "Are You Experienced?" Video on the DVD? Gerald Casale: Further de-evolution. You understand that the consortium of people that now represent the Hendrix estate are run by lawyers. Lawyers always posit the worst-case scenarios. Though that video was loved for years by anybody who saw it including the man who commissioned it —Chuck Arroff, a luminary in the music business, who still claims to this day that it was one of his five most favorite videos ever—, they didn't get it and assumed we were making fun of Jimi. That's like saying; this is so stupid. As the band were dropped by their record label and went on hiatus following Shout's release, there was no tour to promote it; the only songs to be performed live from the album are the title track, as part of the "Somewhere With Devo" suite performed from 1988 to 1991, a one-off performance of "Here to Go" in 1991.
Devo had planned a tour show with a video projection backdrop, similar to the Oh, No! It's Devo tour of 1982; the album received negative reviews upon its release. Writing for