A heliostat is a device that includes a mirror a plane mirror, which turns so as to keep reflecting sunlight toward a predetermined target, compensating for the sun's apparent motions in the sky. The target may be distant from the heliostat, or a direction in space. To do this, the reflective surface of the mirror is kept perpendicular to the bisector of the angle between the directions of the sun and the target as seen from the mirror. In every case, the target is stationary relative to the heliostat, so the light is reflected in a fixed direction. According to contemporary sources the heliostata, as it was called at first, was invented by Willem's Gravesande. Other contenders are Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. Nowadays, most heliostats are used for daylighting or for the production of concentrated solar power to generate electricity, they are sometimes used in solar cooking. A few are used experimentally. Before the availability of lasers and other electric lights, heliostats were used to produce intense, stationary beams of light for scientific and other purposes.
Most modern heliostats are controlled by computers. The computer is given the latitude and longitude of the heliostat's position on the earth and the time and date. From these, using astronomical theory, it calculates the direction of the sun as seen from the mirror, e.g. its compass bearing and angle of elevation. Given the direction of the target, the computer calculates the direction of the required angle-bisector, sends control signals to motors stepper motors, so they turn the mirror to the correct alignment; this sequence of operations is repeated to keep the mirror properly oriented. Large installations such as solar-thermal power stations include fields of heliostats comprising many mirrors. All the mirrors in such a field are controlled by a single computer. There are older types of heliostat which do not use computers, including ones that are or wholly operated by hand or by clockwork, or are controlled by light-sensors; these are now quite rare. Heliostats should be distinguished from solar trackers or sun-trackers that point directly at the sun in the sky.
However, some older types of heliostat incorporate solar trackers, together with additional components to bisect the sun-mirror-target angle. A siderostat is a similar device, designed to follow a fainter star, rather than the sun. In a solar-thermal power plant, like those of The Solar Project or the PS10 plant in Spain, a wide field of heliostats focuses the sun's power onto a single collector to heat a medium such as water or molten salt; the medium travels through a heat exchanger to heat water, produce steam, generate electricity through a steam turbine. A somewhat different arrangement of heliostats in a field is used at experimental solar furnaces, such as the one at Odeillo, in France. All the heliostat mirrors send parallel beams of light into a large paraboloidal reflector which brings them to a precise focus; the mirrors have to be located close enough to the axis of the paraboloid to reflect sunlight into it along lines parallel to the axis, so the field of heliostats has to be narrow.
A closed loop control system is used. Sensors determine if any of the heliostats is misaligned. If so, they send signals to correct it, it has been proposed that the high temperatures generated could be used to split water producing hydrogen sustainably. Smaller heliostats are used for heating. Instead of many large heliostats focusing on a single target to concentrate solar power, a single heliostat about 1 or 2 square meters in size reflects non-concentrated sunlight through a window or skylight. A small heliostat, installed outside on the ground or on a building structure like a roof, moves on two axes in order to compensate for the constant movement of the sun. In this way, the reflected sunlight stays fixed on the target. Genzyme Center, corporate headquarters of Genzyme Corp. in Cambridge, uses heliostats on the roof to direct sunlight into its12-story atrium. In a 2009 article, Bruce Rohr suggested that small heliostats could be used like a solar power tower system. Instead of occupying hundreds of acres, the system would fit in a much smaller area, like the flat rooftop of a commercial building, he said.
The proposed system would use the power in sunlight to heat and cool a building or to provide input for thermal industrial processes like processing food. The cooling would be performed with an absorption chiller. Mr. Rohr proposed that the system would be “more reliable and more cost-effective per square meter of reflective area” than large solar power tower plants, in part because it would not be sacrificing 80 percent of the power collected in the process of converting it to electricity. Heliostat costs represent 30-50% of the initial capital investment for solar power tower power plants depending on the energy policy and economic framework in the location country, it is of interest to design less expensive heliostats for large-scale manufacturing, so that solar power tower power plants may produce electricity at costs more competitive to conventional coal or nuclear power plants costs. Besides cost, percent solar reflectivity and environmental durability are factors that should be considered when comparing heliostat designs.
One way that engineers and researchers are attempting to lower the costs of heliostats is by replacing the conventional heliostat design with one that uses fewer, lighter materials. A conv
University of Colorado Denver
The University of Colorado Denver is a public research university in the U. S. state of Colorado. It is part of the University of Colorado system; the University of Colorado Denver is the largest research institution in Colorado, attracting more than $375 million in research grants annually and granting more graduate degrees than any other institution in the state. The university has two campuses—one in downtown Denver at the Auraria Campus, the other at the Anschutz Medical Campus located nearly 10 miles away in neighboring Aurora. Additionally, the Anschutz Medical Campus shares its campus with the Children's Hospital and University of Colorado Hospital; the dual campus nature of the university is the result of the 2004 consolidation of the University of Colorado Denver and the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. There are more than 18,000 students at the school's two physical campuses in downtown Denver and in Aurora; the school offers classes via CU Online. CU Denver, along with University of Colorado Hospital and University Physicians, Inc. employs more than 12,200 Coloradans, making it one of the metro Denver area's top employers.
The university serves more than 500,000 patients a year through clinical services. The University of Colorado created the Department of Medicine and Surgery in September 1883 in the Old Main building on the Boulder campus; the Department of Nursing opened in 1898. By 1892, the last two years of classes were taught in Denver because the larger population afforded more practical experience; this practice triggered something of a turf battle with the University of Denver's medical school and the subsequent legal battle went to the state Supreme Court. In 1897, the court found. However, in 1910, CU got an amendment to the state Constitution passed which allowed them to move back to Denver. In 1911, the School of Medicine combined with the Denver and Gross Medical College to form a larger school with a more comprehensive program, paving the way for the school's permanent move to Denver. In 1925, the School of Medicine moved to the campus on Ninth Avenue and Colorado Boulevard in Denver; this would become the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.
In 1995, the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center was put on the Base Realignment and Closure list, after which officials from the Health Sciences Center, University of Colorado Hospital and the City of Aurora presented a proposal to the Department of Defense in Washington, D. C. to repurpose the decommissioned base as an academic health center. In 1999, the Army base was closed under Closure action. In 2004, the first UCHSC labs moved from Denver to the research towers on the Fitzsimons campus. In 2006, the Fitzsimons campus of UCHSC was renamed the Anschutz Medical Campus in recognition of philanthropic donations from Philip and Nancy Anschutz. By the end of 2008, academic and research operations of all CU Denver health sciences schools and colleges relocated from the Ninth Avenue and Colorado Boulevard campus to the new Anschutz campus, joining the affiliated University of Colorado Hospital and Children's Hospital. In 2011, the Regents approved the name University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus.
The University of Colorado Denver began as the Extension Center of University of Colorado's Department of Correspondence and Extension, established in 1912. In 1938, the Extension Center acquired permanent quarters in Denver in the C. A. Johnson Building at 509 17th Street, where a single, full-time faculty member ran the school with the help of part-time teachers. In 1947, the Extension Center moved into the Fraternal Building at 1405 Glenarm Place. In 1956, the University acquired the Denver Tramway Company Building at Arapahoe Streets. In 1964, the Extension Center was renamed the University of Colorado – Denver Center. On January 11, 1973, upon proclamation of the governor, amended the state constitution to establish additional CU campuses, transforming the University of Colorado—Denver Center into the University of Colorado Denver. Between 1973 and 1976, the State of Colorado built the Auraria Higher Education Center on a 127-acre downtown campus to be shared by the University of Colorado Denver, the Metropolitan State University of Denver and the Community College of Denver.
In 1977, the Denver campus expanded to the newly opened AHEC, to several buildings extending into downtown Denver. In the summer of 2004, the University of Colorado Denver and the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center merged to create the University of Colorado Denver and Health Sciences Center. On October 29, 2007, the board of regents voted to rename UCDHSC as the University of Colorado Denver, consisting of the Anschutz Medical Campus and the Denver Campus. In August 2011, the regents approved a name change to the University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus, while the legal name of the dual institution remained University of Colorado Denver. However, the Anschutz Medical Campus is independently referred to as CU Anschutz or CU Anschutz Medical Campus in official materials, the Denver Campus is independently referred to as CU Denver in official materials; the marketing campaign ALL FOUR:COLORADO emphasizes the distinct identities of the Denver and Anschutz campuses alongside the other CU institutions and Colorado Springs.
The domain name for the whole institution is ucdenver.edu, while the previous domain name cudenver.edu was turned off in July 2010. CU Denver, part of the Auraria Campus, is located to the southwest of downtown Denver in the Auraria Neighborhood, on Spe
University of Colorado Hospital
UCHealth University of Colorado Hospital or University Hospital is part of UCHealth and is a Level I trauma center and the principal teaching hospital for the University of Colorado School of Medicine, located in Aurora, Colorado. In the 2017–2018 U. S. News and World Report hospital rankings, UCHealth University of Colorado Hospital ranked in the top 50 for 11 medical specialties and was rated the #15 overall adult hospital in the country. In 2005, UCH was redesignated by the American Nurses Credentialing Center as a magnet facility. In 2010, the hospital received its third redesignation of Magnet status; the hospital is pursuing its fourth Magnet designation. The Anschutz Inpatient Pavilion The Anschutz Outpatient Pavilion The Anschutz Cancer Pavilion Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute May Bonfils Stanton Clinics Center for Dependency and Rehabilitation The Lone Tree Health Center Six primary care clinics located in Aurora, Westminster and Lone Tree The University of Colorado University Hospital was created on 1 October 1989 as a nonprofit corporation pursuant to an act of the Colorado General Assembly, after the act was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court in 1990, was recreated in 1991 as the University of Colorado Hospital Authority as a government agency.
University of Colorado Health was formed on 1 July 2012 as a joint operating company between the authority and Poudre Valley Health
University of Colorado Boulder
The University of Colorado Boulder is a public research university located in Boulder, United States. It is the flagship university of the University of Colorado system and was founded five months before Colorado was admitted to the Union in 1876. In 2015, the university comprised nine colleges and schools and offered over 150 academic programs and enrolled 17,000 students. Twelve Nobel Laureates, nine MacArthur Fellows, 20 astronauts have been affiliated with CU Boulder as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history; the university received nearly $454 million in sponsored research in 2010 to fund programs like the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, JILA. The Colorado Buffaloes compete in 17 varsity sports and are members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference; the Buffaloes have won 28 national championships: 20 in skiing, seven total in men's and women's cross country, one in football. 900 students participate in 34 intercollegiate club sports annually as well. On March 14, 1876, the Colorado territorial legislature passed an amendment to the state constitution that provided money for the establishment of the University of Colorado in Boulder, the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, the Colorado Agricultural College in Fort Collins.
Two cities competed for the site of the University of Colorado: Cañon City. The consolation prize for the losing city was to be home of the new Colorado State Prison. Cañon City was at a disadvantage as it was the home of the Colorado Territorial Prison; the cornerstone of the building that became Old Main was laid on September 20, 1875. The doors of the university opened on September 5, 1877. At the time, there were few high schools in the state that could adequately prepare students for university work, so in addition to the University, a preparatory school was formed on campus. In the fall of 1877, the student body consisted of 15 students in the college proper and 50 students in the preparatory school. There were 38 men and 27 women, their ages ranged from 12–23 years. During World War II, Colorado was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission; the main CU Boulder campus is located south of the Pearl Street Mall and east of Chautauqua Auditorium.
It consists of residential buildings as well as research facilities. The East Campus is about a quarter mile from the main campus and is composed of athletic fields and research buildings. CU Boulder's distinctive architecture style, known as Tuscan Vernacular Revival, was designed by architect Charles Klauder; the oldest buildings, such as Old Main and Macky Auditorium, were in the Collegiate Gothic style of many East Coast schools, Klauder's initial plans for the university's new buildings were in the same style. A month or so after approval, Klauder updated his design by sketching in a new wrap of rough, textured sandstone walls with sloping, multi-leveled red-tiled roofs and Indiana limestone trim; this formed the basis of a unified style, used in the design of fifteen other buildings between 1921 and 1939 and still followed on the campus to this day. The sandstone used in the construction of nearly all the buildings on campus was selected from a variety of Front Range mountain quarries.
In 2011, Travel+Leisure named the Boulder campus one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States. Freshmen and others attending the University of Colorado Boulder have an option of 24 on- and off-campus residence halls. Residence halls have 17 varieties of room types from singles to four-person rooms and others with apartment style amenities. There are several communities of residence halls located throughout the campus, as well as in a separate area called Williams Village, located 1.5 miles off of main campus. There is a free bus service that transports students to main campus from Williams Village and vice versa; the University offers Residential Academic Programs in many of its Residence Halls. RAPs provide students with in-dorm classes tailored to academic interests; the Engineering Center on the North-East side of campus houses the nation's largest geotechnical centrifuge as well as ion-implantation and microwave-propagation facilities, spectrometers and other microscopes, a structural analysis facility.
Until 1903, the library collection was housed with the rest of the school in Old Main. The growing size of the library required a move, as the weight of the books was causing physical damage to the floor; the cornerstone for the first separate library building was laid in January 1903, the building was opened in January 1904. When the new Norlin Library opened in 1940, the old library turned over to the Theatre department, was converted into classrooms and a theatre. Norlin Library was the last building to be designed by Klauder. There are two inscriptions on the western face of the building. Both were composed by President Norlin; the larger inscription reads "Who knows only his own generation remains always a child," based on a Cicero quotation, while the smaller inscription on the marble just over the door reads "Enter here the timeless fellowship of the human spirit." Macky Auditorium is a large building on the north edge of the University of Colorado campus, near 17th Street and University Avenue, which plays host to various talks and musical performances.
Andrew J. Macky was a prominent businessman involved with the town of Boulder in the late 19th century. Macky
University of Colorado South Denver
University of Colorado South Denver known as CU South Denver, is a public university located in Lone Tree, about 10 miles south of Denver. Opened in 2014 as an extension of the University of Colorado, it is located on the property of The Wildlife Experience, now incorporated as part of the University. Classes are offered for degree-seeking and continuing education students and include courses in nursing, engineering and business; the Wildlife Experience is operated as part of the University of Colorado South Denver and includes an art and natural history museum and a large-screen movie theater. The museum offers K-12 museum education programs; the Wildlife Experience museum houses an extensive collection of natural history exhibits and sculpture, photography and large-format films. Rotating exhibits are devoted to wildlife conservation efforts and present a wide range of wildlife subjects and learning experiences. Effective January 2015, The Wildlife Experience was donated to the University of Colorado.
The collaboration between the University of Colorado and The Wildlife Experience began in April 2014 with 11,000 square feet of the natural history museum and art gallery scheduled for renovation. Since an upstairs gallery space has been transformed into two classrooms, a computer lab and a student and faculty resource center. Expansive storage space in the lower level has been converted into a state-of-the-art nursing simulation lab; the campus is now under the control of the University of Colorado and known as the University of Colorado South Denver. The campus features a 2,700-square-foot screen designed by Iwerks Entertainment; the screen is composed of a "proprietary reflective material", is contained in a wheelchair accessible, 315-seat theater. Official website CU South Denver on Facebook
Auraria Campus is an educational facility located near downtown Denver, Colorado in the United States. The campus houses facilities of three separate universities and colleges: the University of Colorado Denver, Community College of Denver, Metropolitan State University of Denver. There are around 63,000 students between the three schools; the campus houses Auraria Higher Education Center, the administrative body that handles parking and janitorial services. The campus is located southwest of downtown, on the east side of the South Platte River and south of Cherry Creek, near the site of the original Auraria mining camp settlement of 1859; the Auraria Campus is home to Tivoli Union, the historical and operating after a hiatus brewery. The Tivoli/Student Union houses a lounge, movie theater cafeteria, housing a significant number of student organizations for all three schools; the building has functioned as a mall at one point. The 9th St. Park borders the Campus to the west, housing community outreach programs, academic departments, other campus offices as well as a fast-food restaurant in the Mercantile building.
Student housing consists of three separate apartment complexes including The Regency, the Auraria Student Lofts, the Campus Village Apartments. The Lawrence Street Center houses CU Denver's School of Public Affairs, the School of Education and Human Development, as well as the Graduate School, it includes many classrooms, administrative offices, including the office of the chancellor and provost. The CU Denver Building houses CU Denver's College of Architecture and Planning, as well as the department of Digital Arts and Media, it contains classrooms, studio spaces, computer labs, a design fabrication lab, 3-D digital animation labs, a visual resource center, faculty and administration offices. CU Denver's Business School is accredited among the top 5% of Business Schools in the world; this state-of-the-art building was renovated and opened in 2012 and contains several classrooms, computer labs, study rooms, advising offices, as well as a public cafe and juice bar in the lobby. Built in 1987, the North Classroom building is the largest building in the CU Denver Neighborhood of campus at 257,500 square feet.
It is the primary classroom building for CU Denver, including over 30 classrooms, lecture halls, common areas for study, a two story glass brick atrium with the Courtyard Cafe. It houses the College of Engineering and Applied Science and the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, it is scheduled for a $33 million renovation which will update interior aesthetics and technology as well as building systems and efficiency improvements. The design phase is underway, with construction expected to start mid-2016; the Student Commons Building is a 146,000 square foot, building that opened in September, 2014 and cost $60.5 million. It serves the University of Colorado - Denver, includes the Admissions, Financial Aid, Student Affairs, Disability offices, as well as several classrooms and lecture halls; the building was named "Best New Building in Denver" by Westword Magazine. It was designed from the ground up with students in mind and contains many places to sit and study, it was designed to be a link between Denver's Larimer Square in downtown and the Auraria Campus.
The Student Success Building, funded by student-approved fees, will be the first building in the Metro State Neighborhood. The building will add an estimated 145,000 square feet of space on campus for classrooms and faculty offices for Metro State students and professors, and it will provide students with a central location for a wide range of Metro State support services. This 13 acre complex was completed in 2015 at a cost of $24 million, it includes a 20,000 square foot building containing locker room and a state-of-the-art weight room and athletic training room, student-athlete lounge, meeting rooms. Outside, there are facilities to accommodate MSU Denver's Roadrunners baseball, softball and tennis teams; the Center includes a professionally managed 150 room SpringHill Suites by Marriott International, conference center, academic building. The academic building has 30,000 square feet of space including classrooms, a student-run restaurant. Labs include a light sensory analysis lab for wine and beer classes, a 4,000 bottle wine cellar management lab, tourism lab, events lab.
It contains a high-tech food demonstration theater. The Confluence Building, opened May 2013, houses Community College of Denver's Registration and Financial Aid offices as well as 14 classrooms and testing center. Confluence is 87,000 sq.ft. and cost $38 million to build. The main classroom buildings in the CCD neighborhood of campus were renamed in 2013 to help differentiate them from the rest of campus. In addition to renaming them, CCD gave them each a facelift; the Arts Building is the home for CU Denver's College of Media. The College of Arts and Media at CU Denver was the first college in Colorado devoted to arts and entertainment, their record label, CAM Records signed bands such as The Fray and 303. The Arts Building houses many of MSU Denver's arts-related classes, including music and theater, visual arts. Art Studios in the building include Jewelry Design and Spatial Media, it is connected to the West Central Classroom buildings via the second floor. Most of MSU Denver's academic departments are housed in the West Classroom building, including Criminal Justice and Criminology, Health Care Management, Human Services, Health Professions and Teacher Education.
It is connected to the Arts Building and the Centra
JILA known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States. JILA is located on the University of Colorado Boulder campus. JILA was founded in 1962 as a joint institute of The University of Colorado Boulder and the National Institute of Standards & Technology JILA is one of the nation’s leading research institutes in the physical sciences; the world's first Bose-Einstein Condensate was created at JILA by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman in 1995. The first frequency comb demonstration was led by John L. Hall at JILA; the first demonstrations of a Fermionic condensate and BEC-BCS crossover physics were done by Deborah S. Jin. JILA's members hold faculty appointments in the Departments of Physics. JILA’s Quantum Physics Division of NIST members hold joint faculty appointments at CU in the same departments. Research at JILA addresses fundamental scientific questions about the limits of quantum measurements and technologies, the design of precision optical and X-ray lasers, the fundamental principles underlying the interaction of light and matter, the role of quantum physics in chemistry and biology, the processes that have governed the evolution of the Universe for nearly 14 billion years.
JILA's current faculty includes two Nobel laureates—Eric Cornell and John L. Hall—and two John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellows— Margaret Murnane and Ana Maria Rey. David J. Wineland and Carl Wieman, both previous affiliated with NIST and JILA were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, while Deborah Jin was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship; each year, JILA scientists publish more than 200 original research papers in national and international scientific journals and conference proceedings. JILA Homepage