Critic's Choice (play)
Critic's Choice is a play written by Ira Levin. It opened at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre on December 14, 1960 and ran for 189 performances, closing on May 27, 1961. Levin's inspiration was then-New York Herald Tribune drama critic Walter Kerr and his playwright wife Jean. Otto Preminger directed. Oleg Cassini provided the costumes. A play in three acts, Critic's Choice tells the story of theater critic Parker Ballantine whose second wife, writes a play, produced on Broadway; the play is awful and Parker must decide whether or not to review the play honestly. Reviewing for The New York Times, Howard Taubman wrote, "Ira Levin's new comedy, which opened at the Ethel Barrymore last night, is not much of a play." And, "Otto Preminger's staging discloses a seasoned hand, although his pacing turns languid and his ideas for comedy run thin, like the playwright's." In 1963, the play was made into a film of the same name starring Lucille Ball. Parker Ballantine: a theater critic in his late 30s or early 40s.
Angela Ballantine: Parker's second wife. John Ballantine: twelve years old, Parker's son with his first wife Ivy. Dion Kapakos: twenty-nine or thirty, the director of Angela's new play. Essie: the Ballantine's black maid. Charlotte Orr: Angela's mother. Ivy London: Parker's first wife, Mother of John. In her mid-to-late thirties; the action takes place in the Ballantines’ Washington Square duplex apartment in Manhattan. Act One opens on Parker and John Ballantine at the breakfast table. John reports that Dr. von Hagedorn, is writing a play. This prompts Angela to announce, it would be based on her memories of her Uncle Ben. Parker is skeptical; this gives Parker the idea to write an article for Harper’s magazine entitled "Don’t Write That Play!"—a piece that would discourage amateur playwrights. As Angela begins to write, Parker starts dictating his article into a tape recorder. Angela completes her play, entitled “The Gingerbread World”, sends it off to a producer. While awaiting his response, she asks Parker to read it.
He does, tells Angela that the play is horrendous. Angela reacts angrily, but when she phones the producer, S. P. Champlain, she learns that he loves the play and wants to produce it, with Dion Kapakos as director. Kapakos, feels the play needs work, he demands a rewrite, including a change of title, to “A Houseful of Silence.” Among his other artsy and grandiose changes is the addition of a Greek chorus and a new ending: the suicide of Uncle Ben. The play's first run-through is attended by John. John reports to Parker that the play is the worst thing he's seen and questions his father about whether he would review the play were it to open in New York. John worries that Parker will repeat the mistake he made with the first Mrs. Ballantine: that he'll write a favorable review of a bad play just because it was written by his wife. John is concerned. Parker assures John that, unlike his first marriage and Angela's is a strong one and secure enough to weather an honest review. Parker explains that were he to lie about Angela's play, he would lose his own self-respect and become angry with Angela and the whole world as a result.
As Angela prepares to depart with Dion to New Haven and Boston for the out-of-town try-outs of “A Houseful of Silence,” they learn that Parker intends to review the play in New York. Angela becomes furious, she storms out of the apartment after recriminating with Parker over writing the Harper's piece. Parker sits down with his tape recorder and begins to erase the entire tape of his article as the curtain falls on Act One. Charlotte, Angela's mother, has been staying in the apartment to cook for Parker and John while Angela is out of town. Charlotte begs Parker to give the play a positive review for the sake of the marriage; the doorbell rings and Ivy London, Parker's first wife, appears. She has learned, from a phone call to Parker's maid. Angela reports to Parker that she has just come from Boston where she was in the same hotel as Angela and Dion and she believes that the two are having an affair. Ivy tells Parker that she still love him. Ivy Charlotte re-enters. Charlotte admits she's been eavesdropping on the conversation with Ivy, tells Parker she believe what Ivy has reported: that it is that Angela and Dion are having an affair.
Charlotte calls Parker naïve for not believing the rumor and warns him that if he gives Angela's play a bad review that night, he will lose Angela forever. Angela and Dion return to the apartment before going to the theater for the opening of the show. Once again, Angela begs Parker not to review the play, she reminds Parker that he lied about Ivy's bad performances six times while Parker was married to Ivy. She tells Parker, she repeats Parker's words that during the opening of the play they are not husband and wife, but critic and playwright. She asks whether she should come home after the play that night. Parker backs down, gives his tickets back to Angela, says he won’t review the play after all. Angela and Dion leave for the theater and Parker begins to drink heavily. John becomes angry at Parker for going back on his word about reviewing the play and about staying honest to himself. Parker continues to drink, calls Ivy, invites her to the apartment to give him a backrub. Ivy is busy making dinner for Parker.
Ivy again proclaims her love to Parker and tells him they will get back together. Parker becomes drunk and maudlin about n
The Dakota known as the Dakota Apartments, is a cooperative apartment building located on the northwest corner of 72nd Street and Central Park West in the Upper West Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States. Its construction was completed in 1884; the Dakota was the home of John Lennon, a former member of the Beatles, from 1973 until his murder in the archway of the building in 1980. The Dakota was constructed between October 25, 1880, October 27, 1884. Henry Janeway Hardenbergh's architectural firm was commissioned to create the design for Edward Cabot Clark, head of the Singer Manufacturing Company; the building purportedly was named The Dakota because at the time of its construction, the area was sparsely inhabited and considered remote from the inhabited area of Manhattan, just as the Dakota Territory was considered remote. The earliest appearance of this story, was in a 1933 newspaper interview with The Dakota's long-time manager; this was quoted as follows in Christopher Gray's book New York Streetscapes: "Probably it was called'Dakota' because it was so far west and so far north".
Gray believed that the building's name stemmed from Clark's fondness for the names of the new western states and territories. The Dakota was designated a New York City Landmark in 1969; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1976. The building's facade was renovated in 2015; the building's high gables and deep roofs with a profusion of dormers, terracotta spandrels and panels, niches and balustrades give it a German Renaissance character and an echo of a Hanseatic town hall. Its layout and floor plan, were influenced by French architectural trends in housing design that had become known in New York City in the 1870s. High above the 72nd Street entrance sits the face of a Dakota Indian; the Dakota is a square building built around a central courtyard. The arched main entrance is a porte-cochère large enough for the horse-drawn carriages that once entered and allowed passengers to disembark sheltered from the weather.
Many of these carriages were housed in a multi-story stable building built in two sections between 1891 and 1894, at the southwest corner of 77th Street and Amsterdam Avenue, where elevators lifted them to the upper floors. The "Dakota Stables" building was in operation as a garage until February 2007, when it was slated to be transformed by the Related Companies into a condominium residence. Since the large condominium building The Harrison occupies its spot; the general layout of the apartments is in the French style of the period, with all major rooms connected to each other, in enfilade, accessible from a hall or corridor. The arrangement allows a natural migration for guests from one room to another on festive occasions, yet gives service staff discreet separate circulation patterns that offer service access to the main rooms; the principal rooms, such as parlors or the master bedroom, face the street, while the dining room and other auxiliary rooms are oriented toward the courtyard. Apartments thus are aired from two sides, a relative novelty in Manhattan at the time.
Some of the drawing rooms are 49 feet long, many of the ceilings are 14 feet high. The floors are inlaid with mahogany and cherry; the Dakota had 65 apartments with four to 20 rooms, no two apartments being alike. These apartments are accessed by staircases and elevators placed in the four corners of the courtyard. Separate service stairs and elevators serving the kitchens are located in mid-block. Built to cater to the well-to-do, The Dakota featured many amenities and a modern infrastructure, exceptional for the time; the building has a large dining hall. Meals could be sent up to the apartments by dumbwaiters. Electricity was generated by an in-house power plant, the building has central heating. Beside servant quarters, there was a gymnasium under the roof. In years, these spaces on the tenth floor were converted into apartments; the Dakota property contained a garden, private croquet lawns, a tennis court behind the building between 72nd and 73rd Streets. All apartments were let before the building opened, but it was a long-term drain on the fortune of Clark, who died before it was completed, his heirs.
For the high society of Manhattan, it became fashionable to live in the building, or at least to rent an apartment there as a secondary city residence, The Dakota's success prompted the construction of many other luxury apartment buildings in Manhattan. An entrance to the 72nd Street station of the New York City Subway's B and C trains is outside the building. Notable residents of The Dakota have included: Although home to many creative or artistic people, the building and its co-op board of directors were criticized in 2005 by former resident Albert Maysles, he attempted to sell his ownership to actors Melanie Griffith and Antonio Banderas, who were rejected by the board. Maysles expressed his "disappointment with the way the building seems to be changing" by telling The New York Times: "What's so shocking is that the building is losing its touch with interesting people. More and more, they're moving away from creative people and going toward people who just have the money." Before this, Gene Simmons, Billy Joel, Carly Simon were denied residency by the board.
In 2002, the board rejected Dennis Mehiel, the corrugated cardboard magnate and Democratic Party nominee for lieutenant governor of New York. The south entrance of the building was the location of the murder of John Lennon, it is prominently featured in Andrew Piddington's 2006 film The Killing of
Yoko Ono is a Japanese-American multimedia artist, singer and peace activist. Her work encompasses performance art, which she performs in both English and Japanese and filmmaking. Singer-songwriter John Lennon of the Beatles was her third husband. Ono grew up in Tokyo and spent several years in New York City, she studied at Gakushuin University, but withdrew from her course after two years and moved to New York in 1953 to live with her family. She spent some time at Sarah Lawrence College and became involved in New York City's downtown artists scene, which included the Fluxus group, she first met Lennon in 1966 at her own art exhibition in London, they became a couple in 1968 and wed the following year. With their performance Bed-Ins for Peace in Amsterdam and Montreal in 1969, Ono and Lennon famously used their honeymoon at the Hilton Amsterdam as a stage for public protests against the Vietnam War; the feminist themes of her music have influenced musicians as diverse as the B-52s and Meredith Monk.
She achieved commercial and critical acclaim in 1980 with the chart-topping album Double Fantasy, a collaboration with Lennon, released three weeks before his murder. Public appreciation of Ono's work has shifted over time and was helped by a retrospective at a Whitney Museum branch in 1989 and the 1992 release of the six-disc box set Onobox. Retrospectives of her artwork have been presented at the Japan Society in New York City in 2001, in Bielefeld and the UK in 2008, Bilbao, Spain, in 2013 and The Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 2015, she received a Golden Lion Award for lifetime achievement from the Venice Biennale in 2009 and the 2012 Oskar Kokoschka Prize, Austria's highest award for applied contemporary art. As Lennon's widow, Ono works to preserve his legacy, she funded Strawberry Fields in Manhattan's Central Park, the Imagine Peace Tower in Iceland, the John Lennon Museum in Saitama, Japan. She has made significant philanthropic contributions to the arts, peace and Japan disaster relief, other causes.
In 2012, Ono received the Dr. Rainer Hildebrandt Human Rights Award; the award is given annually in recognition of nonviolent commitment to human rights. Ono continued her social activism when she inaugurated a biennial $50,000 LennonOno Grant for Peace in 2002, she co-founded the group Artists Against Fracking in 2012. She has a daughter, Kyoko Chan Cox, from her marriage to Anthony Cox and a son, Sean Taro Ono Lennon, from her marriage to Lennon, she collaborates musically with Sean. Ono was born on February 18, 1933, in Tokyo, Japan, to Isoko Ono and Eisuke Ono, a wealthy banker and former classical pianist. Isoko's maternal grandfather Zenjiro Yasuda was an affiliate of the Yasuda clan and zaibatsu. Eisuke came from a long line of samurai warrior-scholars; the kanji translation of Yōko means "ocean child". Two weeks before Ono's birth, Eisuke was transferred to San Francisco by his employer, the Yokohama Specie Bank; the rest of the family followed soon with Ono meeting her father when she was two.
Her younger brother Keisuke was born in December 1936. Ono was enrolled in piano lessons from the age of 4. In 1937, the family was transferred back to Japan and Ono enrolled at Tokyo's elite Gakushuin, one of the most exclusive schools in Japan; the family moved to New York City in 1940. The next year, Eisuke was transferred from New York City to Hanoi, the family returned to Japan. Ono was enrolled in an exclusive Christian primary school run by the Mitsui family, she remained in Tokyo throughout World War II and the great fire-bombing of March 9, 1945, during which she was sheltered with other family members in a special bunker in Tokyo's Azabu district, away from the heavy bombing. Ono went to the Karuizawa mountain resort with members of her family. Starvation was rampant in the destruction. Ono said it was during this period in her life that she developed her "aggressive" attitude and understanding of "outsider" status. Other stories tell of her mother bringing a large number of goods with them to the countryside, where they were bartered for food.
In one anecdote, her mother traded a German-made sewing machine for 60 kilograms of rice to feed the family. During this time, Ono's father, in Hanoi, was believed to be in a prisoner of war camp in China. However, unbeknownst to them, he remained in the city. Ono told Amy Goodman of Democracy Now on October 16, 2007, that "He was in French Indochina, Vietnam actually.... in Saigon. He was in a concentration camp."By April 1946, Gakushuin was reopened and Ono re-enrolled. The school, located near the Tokyo Imperial Palace, had not been damaged by the war, Ono found herself a classmate of Prince Akihito, the future emperor of Japan, she graduated in 1951 and was accepted into the philosophy program of Gakushuin University as the first woman to enter the department. However, she left the school after two semesters. After the war ended in 1945, Ono remained in Japan when her family moved to the United States and settled in Scarsdale, New York, an affluent town 25 miles north of midtown Manhattan.
When Ono rejoined her family, she enrolled at nearby Sarah Lawrence College. Ono's parents approved of her college choice but she said that they disapproved of her lifestyle and chastised her for befriending people that they felt were beneath her. In spite of her parents' disapproval, Ono loved meeting artists
No Time for Sergeants
No Time for Sergeants is a 1954 best-selling novel by Mac Hyman, adapted into a teleplay on The United States Steel Hour, a popular Broadway play and 1958 motion picture, as well as a 1964 television series. The book chronicles the misadventures of a country bumpkin named Will Stockdale, drafted into the U. S. Army during World War II and assigned to the United States Army Air Forces. Hyman was in the Army Air Forces during World War II. Ira Levin adapted Hyman's novel for a one-hour teleplay that appeared as an episode on The United States Steel Hour television series in 1955. An expanded version appeared on Broadway at the Alvin Theatre that year. In 1958, a film version was released. Ira Levin's adaptation of the novel appeared live on 15 March 1955, on The United States Steel Hour, a television anthology series.. It starred Andy Griffith as Will Stockdale, Harry Clark as his nemesis and inadvertent mentor Sergeant Orville King, Robert Emhardt, Eddie Le Roy, Alexander Clark; the kinescope recording of the broadcast is available.
An expanded version of the play, written by Ira Levin, opened on Broadway at the Alvin Theatre on October 20, 1955, produced by Maurice Evans and directed by Morton DaCosta. Griffith reprised his role, Myron McCormick played Sgt. King, Roddy McDowell played Will's army buddy Ben, Don Knotts made his Broadway debut as Corporal Manual Dexterity. Scenic designer Peter Larkin won a Tony Award in 1956, Andy Griffith was nominated for a Tony for Best Featured Actor; the play ran for a total of 796 performances, closing on September 14, 1957. See No Time for Sergeants No Time for Sergeants was filmed and released by Warner Bros. in 1958. The film was directed by Mervyn LeRoy and starred Griffith, McCormick and most of the rest of the original Broadway cast. Warner Brothers contract stars Nick Adams as Stockdale's fellow draftee Benjamin B. Whitledge and Murray Hamilton as Irving S. Blanchard joined the cast. No Time for Sergeants came to the small screen in the fall of 1964. By this point and Knotts were both established as stars of The Andy Griffith Show and were no longer available.
The television series No Time for Sergeants starred Sammy Jackson who had had one line in the film version. When Jackson read that Warner Brothers was going to produce a television sitcom version of No Time for Sergeants for ABC he wrote directly to Jack L. Warner saying that he was the best choice for the role and asked Warner to watch a certain episode of the series Maverick as proof. Ten days Jackson was told to come to the studio to test for the role. Jackson won the role over several actors including the better known Will Hutchins, a Warner Brothers Television contract star who played the sympathetic Sugarfoot and had been in the No Time for Sergeants film. Unlike Jim Nabors' Gomer Pyle, Jackson's Stockdale was no idiot, his knowledge of farming leads him to give a better image interpretation analysis of an aerial photograph than Air Force Intelligence. The Air Force attempts to demonstrate the efficiency of its survival training by pitting an Air Force survival trained group against an untrained group including Stockdale in the wilderness.
Stockdale, with his backwoods knowledge, takes charge and gives his party a comfortable time similar to being in a resort, while the trained group survives. Stockdale accepts latrine details as challenges rather than punishments and impresses the drill sergeant by how well he cleans the latrine. Stockdale demonstrates another more appealing quality over Gomer Pyle when he unflinchingly takes punches to his stomach from a karate expert with a smile and a good natured lecture to his assailant until Stockdale ends his lecture by knocking the karate expert through a window. Stockdale has no reservations about drinking alcohol. However, the drill sergeant's attempts at getting Will drunk fail, with the implication that Will has built up a resistance to intoxication from a lifetime of drinking moonshine whiskey; the series had an unusual episode, "Two Aces in a Hole", which resembled the 1964's films Dr Strangelove and Fail Safe combined with a black comedy parody of the hypnosis of The Manchurian Candidate.
Stockdale and his friend Ben witness a stage hypnotist's show from backstage and are accidentally hypnotized to respond to code words that will turn them into World War II bomber pilots or revert them to their own selves. Under the effects of hypnosis, the two airmen appropriate a bomber loaded with weapons, with which they attempt to nuke the now-friendly Germans. Part of the William T. Orr-produced stable of Warner Bros. Television programs, the series was produced by George Burns's production company, it preceded Burns' own Me sitcom on ABC's Monday night schedule. But, opposite The Andy Griffith Show, the series headlined by the original star of all the earlier versions of No Time For Sergeants, it was trounced in the ratings and only lasted one season, it was shown in the UK on ITV from 1965 to 1969. Andy Clyde of The Real McCoys, had a supporting role in the television series as Grandpa Jim Anderson. Ann McCrea, while appearing as a regular on The Donna Reed Show was cast as Amelia Taggert in the 1964 episode "O Krupnick, My Krupnick".
A Dell Four Color Issue 914 comic book version of this story, illustrated by Alex Toth and published in July 1958, follows the movie's narrative. Three follow up issues in the 1960s tied into the short-lived TV series that starre
Deathtrap is a play written by Ira Levin in 1978 with many plot twists and which references itself as a play within a play. It is in two acts with five characters, it holds the record for the longest-running comedy-thriller on Broadway, was nominated for four Tony Awards, including Best Play. Deathtrap was well received by many and has been revived, it was adapted into a film starring Christopher Reeve, Michael Caine, Dyan Cannon in 1982. Act I, Scene 1Sidney Bruhl, a successful playwright, has had a series of box office flops and is having trouble writing. Sidney mimics reading a play that he tells his wife, Myra, he has received from a student of his, Clifford Anderson. Sidney asserts. Interspersed with reassurances that he is only kidding, he frightens Myra with suggestions that he may kill Clifford in order to steal the script. Sidney telephones Clifford to invite him over to give him suggestions on improving the play. Clifford's play is, like the actual play itself, entitled Deathtrap, is a one set, five character thriller.
Scene 2Sidney arrives back at his den. After socializing Sidney determines that there are no other carbon copies or xeroxes of the play in existence and escalates the sense that he may kill Clifford. To the horror of his wife, Sidney appears to choke the young man to death and drags him off to bury him. Scene 3As Sidney returns from disposing of Clifford's body, psychic Helga ten Dorp comes to the Bruhl home to warn Sidney and Myra that she is having visions of terrible pain coming from the Bruhl home. Helga wanders around the house revealing visions that appear to be only correct. Sidney, relieved that Helga has not envisioned the murder, reassures Myra to the point that she admits her own secret wish that Sidney was going to go through with the murder to steal the script; as Sidney and Myra are about to go to bed, covered in mud, snatches Sidney from behind, beats Sidney to death. Myra and terrified, collapses and dies, victim of a heart attack. Clifford confirms Myra's death and exclaims to Sidney that their plan has been successful: Clifford's murder had been staged to shock and kill Myra.
Act II, Scene 1Two weeks have elapsed, Clifford is working on his manuscript but Sidney continues to suffer from writer's block. Porter Milgrim, Sidney's attorney, throws suspicions on Clifford by alerting Sidney that he has seen Clifford locking his manuscript into his desk drawer. Sidney surreptitiously reads Clifford's manuscript and discovers that Clifford is writing a play called Deathtrap based directly on the plot to cause Myra's heart attack. Sidney confronts Clifford, who threatens to move out and write the play regardless of whether Sidney wants him to or not. Sidney agrees to help Clifford write his play. Scene 2Helga comes again to warn Sidney. Sidney tells Clifford that he has completed work on the second act but needs to see if what he's written will be believable. By "trying out" these bits, Sidney believes that he is laying the groundwork to make his intended murder of Clifford look like self-defense. Clifford, however, is several steps ahead of Sidney, he has put blanks in Sidney's gun and now forces Sidney to handcuff himself to a chair.
Sidney's attempt to kill Clifford has given Clifford the plot details. The handcuffs prove to be fake, Sidney escapes and shoots Clifford with a crossbow. Sidney starts to telephone the police, but Clifford rises up behind him, pulls the arrow from his own body, stabs Sidney. Both die. Scene 3Helga and Porter return to Sidney's den. Helga envisions what has occurred and tells Porter. Both realize that the story would make an excellent thriller and that the title Deathtrap is ideal, but argue and threaten each other over whether they will share in the rewards their "one set, five character" play, Deathtrap will undoubtedly reap. Following a Boston tryout at the Wilbur Theatre, Deathtrap enjoyed a four-year run on Broadway, opening under the direction of Robert Moore, February 26, 1978, at the Music Box Theatre, moving to the Biltmore Theatre January 7, 1982, closing on June 13 of that year, it received a rave review from New York Times theater critic Walter Kerr, who wrote that it contained "effrontery everywhere and fun straight through".
However, the Times' other theater critic, Richard Eder, panned the play. The opening cast featured: Sidney Bruhl – John Wood Myra Bruhl – Marian Seldes Clifford Anderson – Victor Garber Helga ten Dorp – Marian Winters Porter Milgrim – Richard WoodsSeldes appeared in every one of the play's 1,793 performances, a feat that earned her a mention in the Guinness Book of World Records as "most durable actress." Cast replacements as Sidney included Stacy Keach, John Cullum, Robert Reed, Farley Granger. The play ran in London's Garrick Theatre from 1978 to 1981. In 1982, Deathtrap was adapted into a film of the same name, it featured a romantic kiss between the two male leads. The two characters have been recognized as gay, though one theater publication noted in 1983 that "The homosexuality in mainstream plays such as Deathtrap do not command an audience's attention." According to Martin Andrucki, professor of theater at Bates College, "It is a gay relationship, but it's a tacit one."A revival, directed by Matthew Warchus, opened August 21, 2010, at London's Noël Coward Theatre starring Simon Russell Beale as Sidney, Claire Skinner as Myra, Jonathan Groff as Clifford, Estelle Parsons as Helga and Terry Beaver as Porter.
In 2012, the author's es
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the