Dame Edith Margaret Emily Ashcroft, known professionally as Peggy Ashcroft, was an English actress whose career spanned more than sixty years, who, along with contemporaries John Gielgud, Laurence Olivier and Ralph Richardson, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. Born to a comfortable middle-class family, Ashcroft was determined from an early age to become an actress, despite parental opposition, she was working in smaller theatres before graduating from drama school, within two years thereafter she was starring in the West End. Ashcroft maintained her leading place in British theatre for the next fifty years. Always attracted by the ideals of permanent theatrical ensembles, she did much of her work for the Old Vic in the early 1930s, John Gielgud's companies in the 1930s and 1940s, the Royal Shakespeare Company from the 1950s and the National Theatre from the 1970s. While well regarded in Shakespeare, Ashcroft was known for her commitment to modern drama, appearing in plays by Bertolt Brecht, Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter.
Her career was wholly spent in the live theatre until the 1980s, when she turned to television and cinema with considerable success, winning an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and several British and European awards. Ashcroft was born in Croydon, the younger child and only daughter of William Worsley Ashcroft, a land agent, his wife, Violetta Maud, née Bernheim. According to her biographer Michael Billington Violetta Ashcroft was of Danish and German-Jewish descent and a keen amateur actress. Ashcroft's father was killed on active service in the First World War, she attended Woodford School, East Croydon, where one of her teachers encouraged her love of Shakespeare, but neither her teachers nor her mother approved of her desire to become a professional actress. Ashcroft was determined, at the age of sixteen, she enrolled at the Central School of Speech and Drama, run by Elsie Fogerty, from whom her mother had taken lessons some years before; the school's emphasis was on the voice and elegant diction, which did not appeal to Ashcroft or to her fellow pupil Laurence Olivier.
She learned more from reading My Life in Art by Constantin Stanislavski, the influential director of the Moscow Art Theatre. While still a student, Ashcroft made her professional stage debut at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in a revival of J. M. Barrie's Dear Brutus opposite Ralph Richardson, with whom she had been impressed when she saw him in Charles Doran's touring company while she was still a schoolgirl, she graduated from the Central School in 1927 with London University's Diploma in Dramatic Art. Never much drawn to the West End or stardom, she learned her craft with small companies in fringe theatres, her first notable West End role was Naemi in Jew Süss in 1929, an extravagantly theatrical production, in which she won praise for the naturalism and truth of her playing. In the same year she married Rupert Hart-Davis an aspiring actor a well-known publisher, he described the marriage as "a sad failure: we were much too young to know what we wanted... after much agony we parted and were duly divorced.
Nowadays Peggy and I lunch together once or twice a year in a Soho restaurant and have a lovely nostalgic-romantic talk of shared memories of long ago. She is a lovely person and the best actress living." In 1930 Ashcroft was cast as Desdemona in a production of Othello at the Savoy Theatre, starring Paul Robeson in the title role. The production was not well received; the production prompted a political awakening in Ashcroft, astonished to receive hate-mail for appearing onstage with a black actor. During the run she had a brief affair with Robeson, followed by another with the writer J. B. Priestley, put an end to her first marriage. Hart-Davis was granted a divorce in 1933, on the grounds of Ashcroft's adultery with the director Theodore Komisarjevsky. Among those impressed by Ashcroft's performance as Desdemona was John Gielgud established as a West End star, he recalled, "When Peggy came on in the Senate scene it was as if all the lights in the theatre had gone up". In 1932 he was invited by the Oxford University Dramatic Society to try his hand at directing, in the society's production of Romeo and Juliet.
Ashcroft as Juliet and Edith Evans as the nurse won golden notices, although their director notorious for his innocent slips of the tongue, referred to them as "Two leading ladies, the like of whom I hope I shall never meet again." Ashcroft joined the Old Vic company for the 1932–33 season. The theatre, in an unfashionable area of London south of the Thames, was run by Lilian Baylis to offer plays and operas to a working-class audience at low ticket prices, she paid her performers modest wages, but the theatre was known for its unrivaled repertory of classics Shakespeare, many West End stars took a large pay cut to work there. It was, in the place to learn Shakespearean technique and try new ideas. During the season Ashcroft played five Shakespeare heroines, as well as Kate in She Stoops to Conquer, Mary Stuart in a new play by John Drinkwater, Lady Teazle in The School for Scandal. In 1933 she made The Wandering Jew, she was not attracted to the medium of cinema and made only four more films over the next quarter-century.
During her professional and personal relationship with Komisarjevsky, whom she married in 1934 and left in 1936, Ashcroft learned from him what Billington calls "the vital importance of discipline and the idea that t
A facade is one exterior side of a building the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face". In architecture, the facade of a building is the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it sets the tone for the rest of the building. From the engineering perspective of a building, the facade is of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical facades, many local zoning regulations or other laws restrict or forbid their alteration; the word comes from the French foreign loan word façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face from post-classical Latin facia. The earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is 1656, it was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new facade. For example, in the city of Bath, The Bunch of Grapes in Westgate Street appears to be a Georgian building, but the appearance is only skin deep and some of the interior rooms still have Jacobean plasterwork ceilings.
This new construction has happened in other places: in Santiago de Compostela the 3-metres-deep Casa do Cabido was built to match the architectural order of the square, the main Churrigueresque facade of the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, facing the Praza do Obradoiro, is encasing and concealing the older Portico of Glory. In modern highrise building, the exterior walls are suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include precast concrete walls; the facade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another. In general, the facade systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, but due to their cost and susceptibility to panel edge staining these have not been popular. Whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration.
The melting point of aluminium, 660 °C, is reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified, too. Putting fire sprinkler systems on each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls; some building codes limit the percentage of window area in exterior walls. When the exterior wall is not rated, the perimeter slab edge becomes a junction where rated slabs are abutting an unrated wall. For rated walls, one may choose rated windows and fire doors, to maintain that wall's rating. On a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only facades, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, not subject to building codes. In film sets, they are held up with supports from behind, sometimes have boxes for actors to step in and out of from the front if necessary for a scene. Within theme parks, they are decoration for the interior ride or attraction, based on a simple building design. Façades: Principles of Construction.
By Ulrich Knaack, Tillmann Klein, Marcel Bilow and Thomas Auer. Boston/Basel/Berlin: Birkhaüser-Verlag, 2007. ISBN 978-3-7643-7961-2 ISBN 978-3-7643-7962-9 Giving buildings an illusion of grandeur Facades of Casas Chorizo in Buenos Aires, Argentina Poole, Thomas. "Façade". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company; the article outlines the development of the facade in ecclesiastical architecture from the early Christian period to the Renaissance
Shaftesbury Avenue is a major street in the West End of London, named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. It runs north-easterly from Piccadilly Circus to New Oxford Street, crossing Charing Cross Road at Cambridge Circus. From Piccadilly Circus to Cambridge Circus, it is in the City of Westminster, from Cambridge Circus to New Oxford Street, it is in the London Borough of Camden. Shaftesbury Avenue was built between 1877 and 1886 by the architect George Vulliamy and the engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette to provide a north-south traffic artery through the crowded districts of St. Giles and Soho, it was part of a slum clearance measure, to push impoverished workers out of the city centre. Charles Booth's Poverty Map shows the neighbourhood makeup shortly, it is considered the heart of London's West End theatre district, with the Lyric, Apollo and Queen's theatres clustered together on the west side of the road between Piccadilly Circus and Charing Cross Road. At the intersection of Shaftesbury Avenue and Charing Cross Road there is the large Palace Theatre.
The north-eastern end of the road has another large theatre, the Shaftesbury Theatre. The former Saville Theatre is on Shaftesbury Avenue. Another cinema, the Soho Curzon, is located about halfway along the street. Between 1899 and 1902, no. 67 Shaftesbury Avenue was the location of the Bartitsu School of Arms and Physical Culture, the first commercial Asian martial arts training school in the Western world. Shaftesbury Avenue marks the boundary of three discrete West End areas; the subsection of the road from Piccadily Circus to Cambridge Circus marks the southern border of Soho. Of that subsection a shorter stretch thereof, from Great Windmill Street to Cambridge Circus, denotes the southern edge of the Soho gay village. Overlapping the gay village boundary, the still-shorter part of the street from Wardour Street to Greek Street marks the interface between gay Soho and London's Chinatown; however some Chinese businesses can be found north of Shafestbury Avenue, whilst some gay bars can be done without them.
The number of Chinese businesses on the street has been on the increase. On the ground level alone in Aug 2007, there were 2 traditional Chinese medicine practices, 5 Chinese restaurants, 3 Chinese supermarkets, 3 Chinese travel agents, 2 Chinese mobile phone outlets, 1 Chinese cake shop, 2 Chinese hair salons, 1 Chinese fishmonger, 1 Chinese newsagent, 1 Chinese bureau de change and 3 Chinese banks.-->In the evening, street artists gather on the pavement outside the HQ of ICE - International Currency Exchange and Raphaels Bank at the Piccadilly Circus end of Shaftesbury Avenue, produce portraits for the tourists. List of London theatres Chinatown, London List of eponymous roads in London Shaftesbury Avenue London W1 — TourUK information Survey of London — detailed architectural history Lyric Theatre Apollo Theatre Gielgud Theatre Queen's Theatre Palace Theatre Shaftesbury Theatre
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
The Gielgud Theatre is a West End theatre, located on Shaftesbury Avenue in the City of Westminster, London, at the corner of Rupert Street. The house has 986 seats on three levels; the theatre was designed by W. G. R. Sprague and opened on 27 December 1906 as the Hicks Theatre, named after Seymour Hicks, for whom it was built; the first play at the theatre was a hit musical called The Beauty of Bath co-written by Hicks. Another big success was A Waltz Dream in 1908. In 1909, the American impresario Charles Frohman became manager of the theatre and renamed the house the Globe Theatre – a name that it retained for 85 years. Call It a Day opened in 1935 and ran for 509 performances, a long run for the slow inter-war years. There's a Girl in My Soup, opening in 1966, ran for three years, a record for the theatre, not surpassed until Daisy Pulls It Off opened in April 1983 to run for 1,180 performances. Refurbished in 1987, the theatre has since presented several Alan Ayckbourn premieres, including Man of the Moment, as well as a notable revival of An Ideal Husband in 1992.
During reconstruction of Shakespeare's Globe theatre on the South Bank, in 1994 the theatre was renamed the Gielgud Theatre in honour of John Gielgud. Another refurbishment was completed in 2008; the Globe's theatre cat, became famous enough to receive a front-page obituary in the theatrical publication The Stage in 1995. The theatre opened on 27 December 1906 as the Hicks Theatre in honour of actor and playwright Seymour Hicks, for whom it was built. Designed by W. G. R. Sprague in Louis XVI style, the theatre had 970 seats, but over the years boxes and other seats have been removed; the theatre is a pair with the Queen's Theatre. The first play at the theatre was a musical called The Beauty of Bath by Cosmo Hamilton. My Darling, another Hicks musical, followed in 1907, followed by the original London production of Brewster's Millions, the next year, the long-running London premiere production of the Straus operetta, A Waltz Dream. An astonishing event occurred midway through the run of the theatre's next major work, a musical titled The Dashing Little Duke, produced by Hicks.
Hicks' wife, Ellaline Terriss, played the title role. When she missed several performances due to illness, Hicks stepped into the role – the only case in the history of musical theatre where a husband succeeded to his wife's role. In 1909, the American impresario Charles Frohman became sole manager of the theatre and renamed the house Globe Theatre; the reopening production was His Borrowed Plumes, written by Lady Randolph Churchill, Winston Churchill's mother. During the First World War, the musical Peg O' My Heart was a success at the theatre. Noël Coward debuted his Fallen Angels here in 1925. Call It a Day by Dodie Smith opened in 1935 and ran for 509 performances, an unusually long run for the slow inter-war years. Shakespeare and classic plays, as well as musicals, were seen at the theatre in the decades that followed. In 1938, actor John Gielgud directed and starred in a revival of The Importance of Being Earnest, "regarded at the time as the definitive production of the 20th century." Gielgud took his production of The Lady's Not for Burning, by Christopher Fry, to the Globe Theatre in 1949 for a successful West End premiere.
In 1960, A Man For All Seasons had its stage premiere here. Terence Frisby's There's a Girl in My Soup, opening in 1966, ran for 1,064 performances at the theatre, a record, not surpassed until Andrew Lloyd Webber's production of the Olivier Award-winning comedy Daisy Pulls It Off by Denise Deegan opened in April 1983 to run for 1,180 performances, the theatre's longest run. In 1987 Peter Shaffer's play Lettice and Lovage had a hit London premiere, starring Maggie Smith and Margaret Tyzack, running for two years. One of several Coward revivals in recent decades, Design for Living, starring Rachel Weisz, transferred to the theatre in 1995; when Lloyd Webber rewrote Tell Me on a Sunday, he relaunched it at the theatre to good notices. The Globe was the home of a resident theatre cat named Beerbohm, after actor Herbert Beerbohm Tree; the tabby's portrait still hangs in the corridor near the stalls. Beerbohm appeared on stage at least once in every production, he always chose to occupy certain actors' dressing rooms while they were at the theatre, including Peter Bowles, Michael Gambon and Penelope Keith.
Beerbohm was mentioned several times on Desert Island Discs, he was the only cat to have received a front-page obituary in the theatrical publication, The Stage. He died in March 1995 at the age of 20. Refurbished in 1987, with extensive work on the gold leaf in the auditorium, the theatre is notable for its beautiful circular Regency staircase, oval gallery and tower; the theatre has presented several Alan Ayckbourn premieres, including Man of the Moment. Oscar Wilde's classic comedy, An Ideal Husband and One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest saw notable revivals, the Royal Shakespeare Company and others have brought several Shakespeare and classic play revivals to the theatre in recent decades; the 2007 production of Equus attracted considerable press for the nude appearance of 17-year-old Daniel Radcliffe, still filming the Harry Potter films. The production ran to 2009 there. Musicals returned in 2009 with a transfer of Avenue Q, a transfer from Broadway of Hair the next year, followed by the West End premiere of the stage version of Yes, Prime Minister bef
Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich was a German-American actress. Throughout her long career, which spanned from the 1910s to the 1980s, she continually reinvented herself. In 1920s Berlin, Dietrich acted in silent films, her performance as Lola-Lola in The Blue Angel brought her an international profile and a contract with Paramount Pictures. Dietrich starred in Hollywood films such as Morocco, Shanghai Express, Desire, she traded on her glamorous persona and "exotic" looks, became one of the highest-paid actresses of the era. Throughout World War II, she was a high-profile entertainer in the United States. Although she still made occasional films after the war, Dietrich spent most of the 1950s to the 1970s touring the world as a marquee live-show performer. Dietrich was known for her humanitarian efforts during the war, housing German and French exiles, providing financial support and advocating their U. S. citizenship. For her work on improving morale on the front lines during the war, she received several honors from the United States, France and Israel.
In 1999, the American Film Institute named Dietrich the ninth greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema. Dietrich was born on 27 December 1901 at Leberstraße 65 in the neighborhood of Rote Insel in Schöneberg, now a district of Berlin, her mother, Wilhelmina Elisabeth Josephine, was from an affluent Berlin family who owned a jewelry and clock-making firm. Her father, Louis Erich Otto Dietrich, was a police lieutenant. Dietrich had one sibling, one year older. Dietrich's father died in 1907, his best friend, Eduard von Losch, an aristocratic first lieutenant in the Grenadiers, courted Wilhelmina and married her in 1914, but he died soon afterwards, in July 1916, from injuries sustained during the First World War. Von Losch never adopted the Dietrich sisters, so Dietrich's surname was never von Losch, as has sometimes been claimed. Dietrich's family nicknamed her "Lena" and "Lene". Aged about 11, she combined her first two names to form the name "Marlene". Dietrich attended the Auguste-Viktoria Girls' School from 1907 to 1917 and graduated from the Victoria-Luise-Schule in Berlin-Wilmersdorf, in 1918.
She became interested in theater and poetry as a teenager. A wrist injury curtailed her dreams of becoming a concert violinist, but by 1922 she had her first job, playing violin in a pit orchestra for silent films at a Berlin cinema, she was fired after only four weeks. The earliest professional stage appearances by Dietrich were as a chorus girl on tour with Guido Thielscher's Girl-Kabarett vaudeville-style entertainments, in Rudolf Nelson revues in Berlin. In 1922, Dietrich auditioned unsuccessfully for theatrical director and impresario Max Reinhardt's drama academy, she did not attract any special attention at first. Dietrich's film debut was a small part in the film The Little Napoleon, she met her future husband, Rudolf Sieber, on the set of Tragedy of Love in 1923. Dietrich and Sieber were married in a civil ceremony in Berlin on 17 May 1923, her only child, daughter Maria Elisabeth Sieber, was born on 13 December 1924. Dietrich continued to work in film both in Berlin and Vienna throughout the 1920s.
On stage, she had roles of varying importance in Frank Wedekind's Pandora's Box, William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew, A Midsummer Night's Dream, as well as George Bernard Shaw's Back to Methuselah and Misalliance. It was in musicals and revues such as Broadway, Es Liegt in der Luft, Zwei Krawatten, that she attracted the most attention. By the late 1920s, Dietrich was playing sizable parts on screen, including roles in Café Elektric, I Kiss Your Hand and The Ship of Lost Souls. In 1929, Dietrich landed her breakthrough role of Lola Lola, a cabaret singer who caused the downfall of a hitherto respectable schoolmaster, in the UFA production of The Blue Angel, shot at Babelsberg film studios. Josef von Sternberg thereafter took credit for having "discovered" Dietrich; the film introduced Dietrich's signature song "Falling in Love Again", which she recorded for Electrola and made further recordings in the 1930s for Polydor and Decca Records. In 1930, on the strength of The Blue Angel's international success, with encouragement and promotion from Josef von Sternberg, established in Hollywood, Dietrich moved to the United States under contract to Paramount Pictures, the U.
S. film distributor of The Blue Angel. The studio sought to market Dietrich as a German answer to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Swedish sensation, Greta Garbo. Sternberg welcomed her with gifts, including a green Rolls-Royce Phantom II; the car appeared in their first U. S. film Morocco. Dietrich starred in six films directed by von Sternberg at Paramount between 1930 and 1935. Sternberg worked with Dietrich to create the image of a glamorous and mysterious femme fatale, he coached her intensively as an actress. She willingly followed his sometimes imperious direction in a way that a number of other performers resisted. In Morocco, Dietrich was again cast as a cabaret singer; the film is best remembered for the sequence in which she performs a song dressed in a man's white tie and kisses another woman, both provocative for the era. The film earned Dietrich her only Academy Award nomination. Morocco was followed by Dishonored, a major success with Dietrich cast as a Mata Hari-like spy. Shanghai
Gertrude Lawrence was an English actress, singer and musical comedy performer known for her stage appearances in the West End of London and on Broadway in New York. Lawrence was born Gertrude Alice Dagmar Klasen, Alexandra Dagmar Lawrence-Klasen, Gertrude Alexandra Dagmar Klasen or some variant, of English and Danish extraction, in Newington, London, her father was a basso profondo. His heavy drinking led her mother Alice to leave him soon after Gertrude's birth. In 1904, her stepfather took the family to Bognor on the Sussex coast for the August bank holiday. While there, they attended a concert. At her mother's urging, young Gertrude sang a song and was rewarded with a gold sovereign for her effort, it was her first public performance. In 1908, to augment the family's meagre income, Alice accepted a job in the chorus of the Christmas pantomime at Brixton Theatre. A child who could sing and dance was needed to round out the troupe, Alice volunteered her daughter. While working in the production Alice heard of Italia Conti, who taught dance and the rudiments of acting.
Gertrude auditioned for Conti. Lawrence joined Italia Conti's production of. At some point during this period, the child decided to adopt her father's professional surname as her own. Dean cast her in his next production, Gerhart Hauptmann's Hannele, where she first met Noël Coward, their meeting was the start of a close and sometimes tempestuous friendship and arguably the most important professional relationship in both their lives. Following Hannele, Lawrence reconnected with her father, living with a chorus girl, they agreed to let her tour with them in two successive revues, after which Arthur announced he had signed a year-long contract with a variety show in South Africa, leaving the two young women to fend for themselves. Lawrence, now aged sixteen, opted to live at the Theatrical Girls' Club in Soho rather than return to her mother and stepfather, she worked with various touring companies until 1916, when she was hired by impresario André Charlot to understudy Beatrice Lillie and appear in the chorus of his latest production in London's West End.
When it closed, she assumed Lillie's role on tour returned to London once again to understudy the star in another Charlot production, where she met dance director Francis Gordon-Howley. Although he was twenty years her senior, the two wed and soon after had a daughter Pamela, born on May 28, 1918, Lawrence's only child; the marriage was not a success, Lawrence took Pamela with her to her mother's home in Clapham. The couple did not divorce until ten years later. In 1918, either during Lawrence's pregnancy or shortly after she gave birth, she contracted lumbago, she was given two weeks to recuperate by Charlot. He saw Lawrence at an opening night party at Ivor Novello's invitation two days before she was cleared to return to work by her doctor. Charlot fired her; when the apparent reason for her dismissal became common knowledge among other West End theatrical producers, she was unable to find work. In early 1919, Lawrence accepted a job singing in the show at Murray's, a popular London nightclub, where she remained for the better part of the next two years.
While performing there she met a member of the Household Cavalry. He became her friend and lover, taught her how to dress and behave in high society. At the end of 1920, Lawrence left Murray's and began to ease her way back into the legitimate theater while touring in a music hall act as the partner of popular singer Walter Williams. In October 1921, Charlot asked her to replace an ailing Beatrice Lillie as star of his latest production, A to Z, opposite Jack Buchanan. In it the two introduced the song "Limehouse Blues," which went on to become one of Lawrence's signature tunes. In 1923, Noël Coward developed his first musical revue, London Calling! for Lawrence. Charlot agreed to produce it, but brought in more experienced writers and composers to work on the book and score. One of Coward's surviving songs was "Parisian Pierrot", a tune that would be identified with Lawrence throughout her career; the show's success led its producer to create André Charlot's London Revue of 1924, which he took to Broadway with Lawrence, Lillie and Constance Carpenter.
It was so successful it moved to a larger theatre to accommodate the demand for tickets and extended its run. After it closed, the show toured the United States and Canada, although Lawrence was forced to leave the cast when she contracted double pneumonia and pleurisy and was forced to spend fourteen weeks in a Toronto hospital recuperating. Charlot's Revue of 1926, starring Lawrence and Buchanan, opened on Broadway in late 1925. In his review, Alexander Woollcott singled out Lawrence, calling her "the personification of style and sophistication" and "the ideal star." Like its predecessor, it toured following the Broadway run. It proved to be Lawrence's last project with Charlot. In November 1926, she became the first British performer to star in an American musical on Broadway when she opened in Oh, Kay!, with music by George Gershwin, lyrics by Ira Gershwin, a book by Guy Bolton and P. G. Wodehouse. Following a run of 256 performances, the musical opened in the West End, where it ran