Cowboys and gunslingers typically wear Stetson hats, spurs, cowboy boots and buckskins. Other characters include Native Americans, lawmen, bounty hunters, mounted cavalry, Westerns often stress the harshness of the wilderness and frequently set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains. Often, the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a. mythic vision of the plains, specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Many Westerns use a plot of depicting a crime, showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution. The Western was the most popular Hollywood genre, from the early 20th century to the 1960s, Western films first became well-attended in the 1930s. John Fords landmark Western adventure Stagecoach became one of the biggest hits in 1939, Westerns were very popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Many of the most acclaimed Westerns were released during this time – including High Noon, The Searchers, the Western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice–frontier justice–dispensed by gunfights.
These honor codes are played out through depictions of feuds or individuals seeking personal revenge or retribution against someone who has wronged them. The popular perception of the Western is a story that centers on the life of a semi-nomadic wanderer, a showdown or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotypical scene in the popular conception of Westerns. In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the descendants of the knight errant which stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the Arthurian Romances. And like knights errant, the heroes of Westerns frequently rescue damsels in distress, the wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern Japanese culture. The Western typically takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, Westerns often stress the harshness and isolation of the wilderness and frequently set the action in an arid, desolate landscape. Apart from the wilderness, it is usually the saloon that emphasizes that this is the Wild West, it is the place to go for music, gambling, drinking and shooting.
The American Film Institute defines western films as those set in the American West that embodies the spirit, the struggle, the term Western, used to describe a narrative film genre, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World Magazine. Most of the characteristics of Western films were part of 19th century popular Western fiction and were firmly in place before film became an art form. Protagonists ride between dusty towns and cattle ranches on their trusty steeds, Western films were enormously popular in the silent film era. With the advent of sound in 1927-28, the major Hollywood studios rapidly abandoned Westerns, leaving the genre to smaller studios and these smaller organizations churned out countless low-budget features and serials in the 1930s. Released through United Artists, Stagecoach made John Wayne a mainstream star in the wake of a decade of headlining B westerns
Tommy Cook (actor)
Tommy Cook is an American actor and former child actor of films and radio. He played a villainous tribesboy opposite Johnny Weissmuller in Tarzan and the Leopard Woman, Cook played Little Beaver on the radio series Red Ryder. On television, Cook had voice-over roles on animated series such as Kid Flash on The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure, Augie on The Funky Phantom, in the 1950s, Cook was a corporal in the United States Marine Corps. Kid Flash / Wally West The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn TV series, additional voices The Banana Splits Adventure Hour TV series. Mike Carter The Funky Phantom TV series, S. Melvin Farthinghill Jabberjaw TV series. Additional voices Fred Flintstone and Friends TV series, the Moving Picture Boy, An International Encyclopaedia from 1895 to 1995, Michael Russell,1996, p.169. Tommy Cook at the Internet Movie Database Tommy Cook at Voice Chasers 1991 Audio Interview with Tommy Cook on Speaking of Radio. com
Sons of the Pioneers
The Sons of the Pioneers are one of the United States earliest Western singing groups. Since 1933, through changes in membership, the Sons of the Pioneers have remained one of the longest-surviving country music vocal groups. He entered a singing contest on a Los Angeles radio show called Midnight Frolics. In September 1931, Canadian-born Bob Nolan answered an ad in the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner that read, Yodeler for old-time act. The band was The Rocky Mountaineers, by led by Leonard Slye, after listening to the tall, tanned Nolan sing and yodel, Slye hired Nolan on the spot. Although Nolan stayed with the only a short time, he stayed in touch with Slye. Nolan was replaced by Tim Spencer, who had been working in a Safeway Stores warehouse, in the spring of 1932, Slye and another singer, Slumber Nichols, left the Rocky Mountaineers to form a trio, which soon failed. Throughout most of 1932, Slye and Spencer moved through a series of short-lived groups like the International Cowboys, Spencer left the O-Bar-O Cowboys and quit music for a while.
Slye joined Jack LeFevre and His Texas Outlaws, who were an act on a local Los Angeles radio station. In early 1933, Slye and Spencer formed a group called the Pioneer Trio, the three young singers rehearsed for weeks honing their singing. While Slye continued to work with his singing group, Spencer. By early 1934, the group consisted of Leonard Slye, Bob Nolan, during that time, fiddle player Hugh Farr joined the group, adding a bass voice to the groups vocal arrangements. He sang lead on some songs, that year, the Pioneers Trio became the Sons of the Pioneers through a radio station announcers chance remark. Asked why hed changed their name, the said they were too young to have been pioneers. The name was received well and fit the group, who were no longer a trio and they signed a recording contract with the newly founded Decca label, and on August 8,1934, the Sons of the Pioneers made their first commercial recording. That same day, the popular crooner Bing Crosby made his first Decca session.
One of the first songs recorded by the Sons of the Pioneers during that first August session was written by Bob Nolan, Tumbling Tumbleweeds, the original title Tumbling Leaves was changed to give the song a western character. Over the next two years the group would record 32 songs for Decca and their output includes a 1937 recording of The Blue Juniata, by Marion Dix Sullivan
Robert Mitchell (organist)
Robert Mitchell was an American organist and choir director whose career spanned 85 years, from 1924 to 2009. He was one of the last original silent film accompanists, having accompanied films from 1924 to 1928, Mitchell revived the art from 1992 until his death in 2009, usually to wild acclaim. During the 1930s, he organized the Robert Mitchell Boys Choir, Mitchells Victorian era mother found the new art form of silent film cheap and vulgar. However, as a music lover, she allowed him to take music lessons with the reasoning he could accompany church services. At the age of 12 he was allowed to take a stint at The Strand Theatre in Pasadena, however, he did not stop playing once the film started, and his career as an accompanist began. He played for four years until the arrival of talkies made accompanists irrelevant, at age 18 in 1930, Mitchell became the youngest person to become a Fellow of the American Guild of Organists, the highest level of professional certification awarded by the organization.
In 1932 Mitchell won a scholarship to the Eastman School of Music and he stayed in New York City performing gigs that varied from church accompaniment to speakeasies and radio. Returning to Los Angeles, he started the Mitchell Singing Boys, noted film composer Dimitri Tiomkin said of them, Bob Mitchell’s boys represent the unusual combination of musicianship and versatility. Bob Mitchell’s genius is ever present and it was a great pleasure to have them sing and appear in The Great Waltz. Tony Butala, the founder of The Lettermen, was Mitchells most notable student, the film was nominated for an Academy Award. In December 1949 Mitchell was honored on the series, This Is Your Life. On Christmas Eve 1953, the choir appeared on Wheres Raymond, an American Broadcasting Company sitcom starring Ray Bolger. On Christmas night 1954, the choir appeared as the only guest on NBCs The Donald OConnor Show, a directory of the film soundtracks that incorporated performances of the Boys Choir lists 70 films from That Girl from Paris through All Night Long.
The Choir itself appears in at least six of these films, from 1962 to 1966 Mitchell played the organ for the Los Angeles Dodgers. Mitchell was musical director for several churches, St. Ann, St. Brendan, St. Kevin, and St. Peter in Los Angeles, from 1992 until his death in 2009 Mitchell regularly accompanied silent films in revival houses, particularly in California. He performed at The Orpheum and played a stint at The Silent Movie Theatre. True to his art Mitchell noted, I never play anything that wasnt published before the picture was made, he says, Mitchells accompaniments were well known, and he received wild acclaim for his performances. After a bout with pneumonia his health began to decline, Mitchell hated missing a performance and according to a friend he tried to check himself out of the hospital weeks before his death so he could perform
Gordon Alexander Forster was a provincial politician from Alberta, Canada. He served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta from 1921 to 1935 sitting with the United Farmers caucus in government, Forster ran for a seat to the Alberta Legislature in the 1921 Alberta general election as a United Farmers candidate in the electoral district of Hand Hills. He defeated incumbent Robert Eaton in a two way race with one of the biggest margins of victory polled in the election, Forster ran for re-nomination at a party convention held on June 5,1926 in Hanna, Alberta. He defeated three candidates to run for the United Farmers. He ran for a term in office in the 1926 Alberta general election. His popular vote was almost cut in half, but he held his seat easily defeating two other candidates. Forster ran for a term in office in the 1930 Alberta general election. He would survive a two way race hanging on to his seat in a close contest over Independent candidate J. L. Newman, Forster retired from provincial office at dissolution of the Assembly in 1935 and died in 1964.
Legislative Assembly of Alberta Members Listing
Bob Nolan was a Canadian-born American singer and actor. He was a member of the Sons of the Pioneers. He is generally regarded as one of the finest Western songwriters of all time, as an actor and singer he appeared in scores of Western films. Robert Clarence Nobles was born April 13,1908 in Winnipeg, Canada to Harry Nobles, the couple separated in 1915, and Flora raised her two little boys in Winnipeg. In the summer of 1916 Flora temporarily moved her children to her husbands home in Hatfield Point, New Brunswick. In the summer of 1919 Bob went to live with his aunt in Boston, there he attended The Belmont School until 1921, when, at the age of thirteen, he moved to Tucson, Arizona to live with his father Harry, a United States Army officer. He attended Safford Junior High School until 1922, transferred to Roskruge Junior High, in high school he was an average student, was a member of the Arion Club choral group, and excelled in athletics. He graduated from Tucson High School in May 1928, on July 7,1928, less than two months after he graduated high school, Bob Nolan married his high school sweetheart, 16-year-old Tennie Pearl Fields.
Thirteen months later, daughter Roberta Irene was born to them, after he left school, Bob Nolan drifted around the country, finding work where he could and always writing songs. He took a job in Los Angeles in 1929. His father had changed his name to Nolan and it was as Bob Nolan that he began a career as a singer on the Chautauqua tent-show circuit, in September 1931 Bob Nolan answered a classified ad in The Los Angeles Herald-Examiner that read Yodeler for old-time act, to travel. The band was The Rocky Mountaineers, led by a singer named Leonard Slye. After listening to the tall, tanned Nolan sing and yodel, although he stayed with the group only a short time, he stayed in touch with Slye. In 1934, Bob Nolan co-founded the Sons of the Pioneers with Leonard Slye, the singing group became very popular and produced numerous recordings for Columbia, and RCA Victor. The Sons of the Pioneers began performing Nolans original songs on a syndicated radio show. Tumbling Tumbleweeds became their signature tune and a Western standard, and was one of the first songs the group recorded when it signed with Decca in 1934.
In 1937, Leonard Slye took the name Roy Rogers and was forced by his new employers, Republic Pictures, the Pioneers continued to function as a cooperative partnership, with no formal leader, until they rejoined Rogers at Republic in 1941. Bob Nolan reluctantly became the front man because his face and voice were the most recognizable in the group
Sarah Edwards (actress)
Sarah Edwards was a Welsh-born American film and stage actress. She often played dowagers or spinsters in numerous Hollywood movies of the 1930s and 1940s, the Welsh-born Sarah Edwards started her acting career as a stage actress, she was described in 1916 by a newspaper article as a leading actress very popular with West End theatre-goers. She eventually settled in the United States and appeared in six Broadway plays between 1919 and 1931, primarily in comedies like The Merry Malones by George M. Cohan. Among her first movies was the New York-filmed 1929 musical Glorifying the American Girl and she came to Hollywood in the mid-1930s where she appeared in about 190 films until her retirement 1951, mostly in uncredited, small character roles. Sarah Edwards died in Hollywood in 1965, aged 83, Edwards seemed older than she was and often portrayed a kindly grandmother, imperious dowager, hardy pioneer wife, ill-tempered teacher and strict governess. She remains perhaps best-known to modern audiences as the mother of Mary Hatch in Frank Capras film classic Its a Wonderful Life who tries to keep her daughter away from George Bailey.
Edwards played a customer in Ernst Lubitschs The Shop Around the Corner with James Stewart where she gets cheated and buys a cigarette box. She appeared in another Christmas classic, The Bishops Wife with Cary Grant, Edwards sometimes portrayed more substantial roles, for instance in the Charlie Chan movie Charlie Chan in the Secret Service. Sarah Edwards at the Internet Movie Database Sarah Edwards at the Internet Broadway Database
Trigger was a 15.3 hands palomino horse made famous in American Western films with his owner and rider, cowboy star Roy Rogers. Trigger was born in San Diego, though often mistaken for a Tennessee Walking Horse, his sire was a Thoroughbred and his dam a grade mare who, like Trigger, was a palomino. Horses other than Golden Cloud portrayed Trigger over the years, none of which was related to Golden Cloud, though Trigger remained a stallion his entire life, he was never bred and has no descendants. On the other hand, Roy Rogers used Trigger Jr, Golden Cloud made an early appearance as the mount of Maid Marian, played by Olivia de Havilland in The Adventures of Robin Hood. A short while later, when Roy Rogers was preparing to make his first movie in a role, he was offered a choice of five rented movie horses to ride. Rogers bought him eventually in 1943 and renamed him Trigger for his quickness of both foot and mind, Trigger learned 150 trick cues and could walk 50 feet on his hind legs. They were said to have run out of places to cue Trigger, Trigger became such a ham that as soon as he heard applause he would start bowing and ruin that trick.
He could sit in a chair, sign his name X with a pencil, lie down for a nap, Rogers most carefully guarded trade secret was to get Trigger housebroken. Spending as much time as he does in hotels and hospitals, —Glenn Randall, wrangler with Hudkins Stables. Trigger became the most famous horse in film entertainment, even having his own Dell comic book recounting his exploits, Roy Rogers made many personal appearances with Trigger in tow. More than once Rogers escorted Trigger up 3-4 flights of stairs at hospitals to visit sick children. After the original Trigger died in 1965 at Rogers Hidden Hills, California ranch, Rogers arranged for Everett Wilkensen of Bischoffs Taxidermy in Los Angeles, the mount was moved with the museum to first Victorville, California in 1976, and to Branson, Missouri in 2003. At some point, a 24-foot replica of a rearing Trigger was produced to sit atop the Roy Rogers Museum in Victorville, the 1300-pound replica could be seen from the freeway and served as a landmark until the museum closed and moved to Branson.
When the fiberglass replica of Trigger was being made, Rogers was approached by the owners of the Denver Broncos, Rogers allowed another statue to be made and broke the mold. Bucky the Bronco, Triggers twin, stands above the scoreboard of the Denver Broncos stadium. After the closing of the Victorville museum in 2009, its contents were placed at public auction on July 14–15,2010, Triggers preserved taxidermy remains sold for $266,500 to television channel RFD-TV, which plans to start a Western museum. Bob Tinsley, a Victorville developer who had built Roy Rogers home in nearby Apple Valley, tinsleys plan is to make the statue a part of historic Apple Valley Village. He explained, I just couldnt see letting him go anywhere else
Lyle Talbot was an American actor on stage and screen, best known for his long career in film from 1931 to 1960 and for his frequent appearances on television in the 1950s and 1960s. He played Ozzie Nelsons friend and neighbor, Joe Randolph, for ten years in the ABC situation comedy, The Adventures of Ozzie and he began his movie career under contract with Warner Brothers in the early days of sound film. He appeared in more than 150 films, first as a young matinée idol and as a character actor and he was a founding member of the Screen Actors Guild and served on its board. Talbots long career as an actor is recounted in a book by his youngest daughter, The New Yorker writer Margaret Talbot, entitled The Entertainer, Magic and My Fathers Twentieth Century. Born Lisle Henderson in Pittsburgh, Talbot was reared in Brainard, Nebraska and he left home at 17, and began his career as a magicians assistant, becoming a leading actor in traveling tent shows in the American Midwest. He briefly established his own company in Memphis, Tennessee.
He went to Hollywood in 1931, when the industry began producing movies with sound. His screen test at Warner Bros. was watched and appreciated by studio production chief Darryl F. Zanuck and, even more so, Talbot became a contract player at Warners along with the likes of Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart. Most notable among Talbots film work were his appearances in Three on a Match and 20,000 Years in Sing Sing. He played a star running back in College Coach with Pat OBrien and Dick Powell, romanced opera singer Grace Moore in One Night of Love in 1934 and he was a gangster in Ladies They Talk About and Heat Lightning and a doctor kicking a drinking habit in Mandalay. He co-starred with Pat OBrien in Oil for the Lamps of China, Talbot would appear in some 150 movies. Talbots activism in SAG union affairs reportedly hurt his career, Warner Bros. dropped him from its roster, and Talbot seldom received starring roles again. He became a character actor, playing affable neighbors or crafty villains with equal finesse.
Talbots supporting roles spanned the gamut, as he played cowboys, detectives, surgeons, soldiers, newspaper editors and boxers. In years, he would claim to have never rejected a single role offered to him and his last film role was in 1960 in Sunrise at Campobello. He starred in Preston Jones The Last Meeting of the Knights of the White Magnolia at the Alley Theater in Houston, although Talbot once starred in a film called Trapped by Television, the invention of TV actually revived his acting career, as his movie roles faded. Talbot was a frequent presence on American television from the 1950s well into the 1970s with occasional appearances in the 1980s, from 1955–66, he appeared in some seventy episodes of The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, as neighbor Joe Randolph. He had a role as Robert Cummingss characters buddy from the Air Force, Paul Fonda
George "Gabby" Hayes
George Francis Gabby Hayes was an American radio and television actor. He was best known for his numerous appearances in Western films as the sidekick of the leading man. Hayes was born the third of seven children in his fathers hotel in Stannards, New York and he was the son of Elizabeth Morrison and Clark Hayes. His mothers brother was George F. Morrison, vice president of General Electric, Hayes did not come from a cowboy background, he did not know how to ride a horse until he was in his forties and had to learn for film roles. His father, Clark Hayes, operated the Hayes Hotel in Stannards and was involved in oil production. George Hayes grew up in Stannards and attended Stannards School and he played semiprofessional baseball while in high school. He ran away from home in 1902, at 17, joined a company, apparently traveled for a time with a circus. Hayes married Olive E. Ireland, the daughter of a New Jersey glass finisher and she joined him in vaudeville, performing under the name Dorothy Earle.
Hayes had become so successful that by 1928, at age 43, he was able to retire to a home on Long Island in Baldwin and he lost all his savings the next year in the 1929 stock-market crash. Earle persuaded Hayes to try his luck in films, and the moved to Los Angeles. They remained together until her death on July 5,1957, after his move to Los Angeles, according to interviews, Hayes had a chance meeting with the producer Trem Carr, who liked his look and gave him 30 roles over the next six years. In his early career, Hayes was cast in a variety of roles, including villains and he found a niche in the growing genre of Western films, many of which were series with recurring characters. Ironically, Hayes would admit he had never been a big fan of Westerns, from 1935 to 1939, Hayes played the part of Windy Halliday, the sidekick to Hopalong Cassidy. In 1939, Hayes left Paramount Pictures in a dispute over his salary, Paramount held the rights to the name Windy Halliday, so the nickname Gabby was created for Hayess character.
Hayes was repeatedly cast as a sidekick of the Western stars Randolph Scott, Hayes played Waynes sidekick in Raoul Walshs Dark Command, which featured Roy Rogers in a supporting role. Hayes became a performer and consistently appeared among the 10 favorite actors in polls taken of moviegoers of the period. The Western film genre declined in the late 1940s, and Hayes made his last film appearance in The Cariboo Trail. He moved to television and hosted The Gabby Hayes Show, a Western series, from 1950 to 1954 on NBC and, in a new version in 1956, on ABC
In 1998 it became a subsidiary of Amazon Inc, who were able to use it as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. As of January 2017, IMDb has approximately 4.1 million titles and 7.7 million personalities in its database, the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20,2017. Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb. A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. These badges range from total contributions made, to independent categories such as photos, bios, if a registered user or visitor happens to be in the entertainment industry, and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO.
Actors and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro. PRO can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is $19.99 USD per month, or if paid annually, $149.99, which comes to approximately $12.50 per month USD. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own.
Needham subsequently started an Actors List, while Dave Knight began a Directors List, and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the Actress List. Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17,1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. arts. movies movie database