An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Francis Albert Sinatra was an American actor and singer, one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide. Born to Italian immigrants in Hoboken, New Jersey, Sinatra began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943, becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers", he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack, his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Songs for Swingin' Lovers!, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice'n' Easy.
Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own record label, Reprise Records, released a string of successful albums. In 1965, he recorded the retrospective September of My Years and starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music. After releasing Sinatra at the Sands, recorded at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Vegas with frequent collaborator Count Basie in early 1966, the following year he recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Tom Jobim, the album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim, it was followed by 1968's Francis Edward K. with Duke Ellington. Sinatra retired for the first time in 1971, but came out of retirement two years and recorded several albums and resumed performing at Caesars Palace, reached success in 1980 with "New York, New York". Using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until shortly before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor.
After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm, received critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate. He appeared in various musicals such as On the Town and Dolls, High Society, Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he became associated with playing detectives, including the title character in Tony Rome. Sinatra would receive the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1971. On television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Sinatra was heavily involved with politics from the mid-1940s, campaigned for presidents such as Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. In crime, the FBI investigated his alleged relationship with the Mafia. While Sinatra never learned how to read music, he had an impressive understanding of it, he worked hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music.
A perfectionist, renowned for his dress sense and performing presence, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Sinatra led a colorful personal life, was involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner, he married Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976. Sinatra had several violent confrontations with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements, he was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, the Congressional Gold Medal in 1997. Sinatra was the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, he was collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him "the greatest singer of the 20th century", he continues to be seen as an iconic figure.
Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey, the only child of Italian immigrants Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa and Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra. Sinatra weighed 13.5 pounds at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek and ear, perforated his eardrum—damage that remained for life. Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism at St. Francis Church in Hoboken was delayed until April 2, 1916. A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that further scarred his face and neck. Sinatra was raised Roman Catholic. Sinatra's mother was energetic and driven, biographers believe that she was the dominant factor in the development of her son's personality traits and self-confidence. Sinatra's fourth wife Barbara would claim that Dolly was abusive to him as a child, "knocked him around a lot".
Dolly became influential in local Democratic Party circles. She worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, according to Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelley ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls, for which she was nicknamed "Hatpin Dolly", she had a gift for languages and served as a local interpreter. Sinatra's illiterate father was a bantamweight boxer who fought under the name Mar
Matthew Loveland Dennis was an American singer, band leader and writer of music for popular songs. Dennis was born in Seattle, United States, his mother was a violinist and his father a singer, the family was in vaudeville, so he was early exposed to music. In 1933 he joined Horace Heidt's orchestra as a pianist. On, he formed his own band, with Dick Haymes as vocalist, he became vocal coach and accompanist for Martha Tilton, worked with a new vocal group, The Stafford Sisters. Jo Stafford, one of the sisters, joined the Tommy Dorsey band in 1940 and persuaded Dorsey to hire Dennis as arranger and composer. Dennis wrote prolifically, with 14 of his songs recorded by the Dorsey band in one year alone, including "Everything Happens to Me", an early hit for Frank Sinatra. After four years in the United States Air Force in World War II, Dennis returned to music writing and arranging, getting a boost from his old friend Dick Haymes, who hired him to be the music director for his radio program. With lyricist Tom Adair he wrote songs for Haymes' program.
Dennis made six albums. Pianist Dave Brubeck and his quartet recorded an entire album of Dennis's compositions, released as Angel Eyes in 1965. In 2012, Jasmine Records re-released four of Dennis' records as "Welcome Matt"; the collection included "Plays and Sings Matt Dennis", a 1958 live performance by Dennis' piano trio, of twelve tunes that Dennis had co-authored. Dennis died in Riverside, California at the age of 88. "Angel Eyes" "Compared to You" "Everything Happens to Me" "It Wasn't the Stars" "Junior and Julie" "Let's Get Away from It All" "Little Man with a Candy Cigar" "Love Turns Winter to Spring" "Show Me the Way to Get Out of This World" "The Night We Called It a Day" "Violets for Your Furs" "Will You Still Be Mine" Biography of Matt Dennis Matt Dennis and Angel Eyes Matt Dennis at AllMusic Matt Dennis discography at Discogs Matt Dennis on IMDb
From Here to Eternity
From Here to Eternity is a 1953 American romantic drama film directed by Fred Zinnemann, written by Daniel Taradash, based on the novel of the same name by James Jones. The picture deals with the tribulations of three U. S. Army soldiers, played by Burt Lancaster, Montgomery Clift, Frank Sinatra, stationed on Hawaii in the months leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Deborah Kerr and Donna Reed portray the women in their lives, the supporting cast includes Ernest Borgnine, Philip Ober, Jack Warden, Mickey Shaughnessy, Claude Akins, George Reeves; the film won eight Academy Awards out of 13 nominations, including awards for Best Picture, Best Director, Adapted Screenplay, Supporting Actor, Supporting Actress. The film's title comes from a quote from Rudyard Kipling's 1892 poem "Gentlemen-Rankers", about soldiers of the British Empire who had "lost way" and were "damned from here to eternity". In 2002, From Here to Eternity was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
In 1941, bugler and career soldier Private Robert E. Lee Prewitt transfers to a rifle company at Schofield Barracks on the island of Oahu. Captain Dana "Dynamite" Holmes has heard he is a talented middleweight boxer, wants him to join his regimental team to secure a promotion for Holmes. Prewitt refuses, having stopped fighting because he blinded his sparring partner and close friend over a year before. Holmes makes life as miserable as possible for Prewitt, hoping that he will change his mind, orders First Sergeant Milton Warden to prepare general court-martial papers, after Sergeant Galovitch first insults Prewitt and gives an unreasonable order that Prewitt refuses to obey. Warden suggests, that he try to get Prewitt to change his mind by doubling up on company punishment; the other non-commissioned officers join in the hazing, Prewitt is supported only by his close friend, Private Angelo Maggio. Meanwhile, Warden, at the risk of a prison sentence, begins an affair with Holmes' neglected wife, Karen.
Sergeant Maylon Stark has told Warden about Karen's many previous affairs at Fort Bliss, including with himself, though he adds "There's something mighty strange about that woman." As their relationship develops, Warden asks Karen about her affairs to test her sincerity, Karen relates that Holmes has been unfaithful to her most of their marriage. She miscarried one night when Holmes returned home from seeing a hat-check girl and unable to call a doctor, rendering her barren, she affirms her love for Warden, tells him that if he became an officer, she could divorce Holmes and marry him. Prewitt and Maggio spend their liberty at the New Congress Club, a gentlemen's club where Prewitt falls for Lorene, she wants to marry a "proper" man with a "proper" job, live a "proper" life. Maggio and Staff Sergeant James R. Judson nearly come to blows at the club over Judson's loud piano playing. Judson provokes Maggio by taking his photograph of his sister from him, kissing it, whispering in Prewitt's ear.
Maggio smashes a barstool over Judson's head. Judson pulls a switchblade, but Warden intervenes. Judson backs down, but warns Maggio that sooner or he will end up in the stockade, where Judson is in charge. During a weekend liberty, while Prewitt is with Lorene at the New Congress Club, Maggio walks in drunk and in uniform having deserted his post; the military police arrest Maggio, he is sentenced to six months in the stockade. Sergeant Galovitch picks a fight with Prewitt while he is on detail, a crowd gathers as the two start fighting. At first, Prewitt resorts only to body blows, then pulling his punches, but his fighting spirit reemerges and he comes close to knocking Galovitch out before Holmes, watching for some time from outside the crowd steps in and stops the fight. Galovitch accuses Prewitt of starting the fight, but when the man in charge of the detail says that it was Galovitch, Holmes abruptly lets him off the hook and disperses the crowd; the entire incident is witnessed by the base commander, who orders an investigation by the Inspector General.
When the truth about Holmes is revealed to the commander he orders a court martial, but when Holmes begs for an alternative, an aide suggests that Holmes resign his commission. Holmes' replacement, Captain Ross, reprimands the others involved in the hazing and orders the boxing team's framed photographs and trophies be destroyed. Maggio escapes from the stockade and, after telling of the abuse he suffered at Judson's hands, dies in Prewitt's arms. After tearfully playing Taps in tribute to his friend, Prewitt hunts Judson down and kills him with the same switchblade Judson pulled on Maggio earlier, but in so doing sustains a serious stomach wound, so he goes into hiding at Lorene's house; the military is caught by surprise on Sunday morning when the Japanese commence a pre-dawn attack on Pearl Harbor. Against Lorene's wishes, Prewitt attempts to rejoin his company under cover of darkness, but is shot dead by a patrol guarding against possible saboteurs. Warden sadly notes the irony of the boxing tournament being canceled because of the attack.
When Karen finds out that Warden never applied for officer training, she realizes they have no future together, regretfully sails back to the mainland with her husband. On board the ship and Karen meet, Lorene says that her fiancé, named Prewitt, was a bomber pilot, heroically killed during
An extended play record referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of The Denver Post said, "EPs—originally extended-play'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of maximum length and no more than four tracks. EPs were released in various sizes in different eras; the earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records, were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records.
By 1949, when the 45 rpm single and 331⁄3 rpm LP were competing formats, seven-inch 45 rpm singles had a maximum playing time of only about four minutes per side. As an attempt to compete with the LP introduced in 1948 by rival Columbia, RCA Victor introduced "Extended Play" 45s during 1952, their narrower grooves, achieved by lowering the cutting levels and sound compression optionally, enabled them to hold up to 7.5 minutes per side—but still be played by a standard 45 rpm phonograph. These were 10-inch LPs split onto two seven-inch EPs or 12-inch LPs split onto three seven-inch EPs, either sold separately or together in gatefold covers; this practice became much less common with the advent of triple-speed-available phonographs. Some classical music albums released at the beginning of the LP era were distributed as EP albums—notably, the seven operas that Arturo Toscanini conducted on radio between 1944 and 1954; these opera EPs broadcast on the NBC Radio network and manufactured by RCA, which owned the NBC network were made available both in 45 rpm and 331⁄3 rpm.
In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact discs. RCA had success in the format with their top money earner, Elvis Presley, issuing 28 Elvis EPs between 1956 and 1967, many of which topped the separate Billboard EP chart during its brief existence. During the 1950s, RCA published several EP albums of Walt Disney movies, containing both the story and the songs; these featured the original casts of actors and actresses. Each album contained two seven-inch records, plus a illustrated booklet containing the text of the recording so that children could follow along by reading; some of the titles included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and what was a recent release, the movie version of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, presented in 1954. The recording and publishing of 20,000 was unusual: it did not employ the movie's cast, years a 12 in 33⅓ rpm album, with a nearly identical script, but another different cast, was sold by Disneyland Records in conjunction with the re-release of the movie in 1963.
Because of the popularity of 7" and other formats, SP records became less popular and the production of SPs in Japan was suspended in 1963. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were compilations of singles or album samplers and were played at 45 rpm on seven-inch discs, with two songs on each side. Other than those published by RCA, EPs were uncommon in the United States and Canada, but they were sold in the United Kingdom, in some other European countries, during the 1950s and 1960s. Record Retailer printed the first EP chart in 1960; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Music Echo and the Record Mirror continued to list EPs on their respective singles charts. The Beatles' Twist and Shout outsold most singles for some weeks in 1963; when the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to compile a chart it was restricted to singles and EPs disappeared from the listings. In the Philippines, seven-inch EPs marketed as "mini-LPs" were introduced in 1970, with tracks selected from an album and packaging resembling the album they were taken from.
This mini-LP format became popular in America in the early 1970s for promotional releases, for use in jukeboxes. Stevie Wonder included a bonus four-song EP with his double LP Songs in the Key of Life in 1976. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was less standardization and EPs were made on seven-inch, 10-inch or 12-inch discs running either 331⁄3 or 45 rpm; some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors, a few of them were picture discs. Alice in Chains was the first band to have an EP reach number one on the Billboard album chart, its EP, Jar of Flies, was released on January 25, 1994. In 2004, Linkin Park and Jay-Z's collaboration EP, Collision Course, was the next to reach the number one spot after Alice in Chains. In 2010, the cast of the television series Glee became the first artist to have two EPs reach number one, with Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna on the week of May 8, 2010, Glee: The Music, Journey to Regionals on the week of June 26, 2010. In 2010, Warner Bros. Records revived the format with their "Six-Pak" offering of six songs on a compact disc.
The first EPs were seven-inch vinyl records with more tracks than a normal single. Although they shared size and speed with singles, they were a recognizably different format than the seven-inch single. Alth
Johnny Burke (lyricist)
John Francis Burke was a lyricist and prolific between the 1920s and 1950s. His work is considered part of the Great American Songbook, his song "Swinging on a Star", from the Bing Crosby film Going My Way, won an Academy Award for Best Song in 1944. Burke was born in California; when he was still young, his family moved to Chicago, where Burke's father founded a construction business. As a youth, Burke studied drama, he attended Crane College and the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he played piano in the orchestra. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1927, Burke joined the Chicago office of the Irving Berlin Publishing Company in 1926 as a pianist and song salesman, he played piano in dance bands and vaudeville. Irving Berlin Publishing transferred Burke to its New York City office, where he began to write lyrics in collaboration with composer Harold Spina. In 1932, they wrote "Shadows on the Swanee", followed in 1933 by "Annie Doesn't Live Here Anymore", their first big hit for the Guy Lombardo Orchestra.
In 1934, Burke and Spina wrote "You're Not the Only Oyster in the Stew", a novelty hit for Fats Waller, as was "My Very Good Friend, the Milkman". Burke and Spina wrote many songs that were played by leading bands of the day, including those led by Ben Pollack, Paul Whiteman and Ozzie Nelson; the Burke - Spina partnership ended in 1936 when Burke left for Hollywood. Burke's first partner in Hollywood was Arthur Johnston, he worked with Jimmy Monaco, but he was to make his mark in collaboration with Jimmy Van Heusen. The team of Burke and Van Heusen turned out some of the great hit tunes of the 1940s. Burke signed a contract with Paramount in 1939, spent his entire career with the same studio. Burke's primary function as a lyricist was working on the films of Bing Crosby. Of the 41 films on which he worked, 25 starred Bing Crosby. Seventeen songs were substantial hits, including "Pennies from Heaven", "I've Got a Pocketful of Dreams", "Only Forever", "Moonlight Becomes You" and "Sunday, Monday, or Always".
In 1939, Burke wrote the lyrics for "Scatterbrain", with music by Frankie Masters and "What's New?" with Bob Haggart. In 1955, Burke added lyrics to a standard by jazz pianist Erroll Garner entitled "Misty". Burke wrote the words and music to the Nat King Cole song "If Love Ain't There"; the film The Vagabond King was Burke's last Hollywood work. Eight years he died in New York City from a heart attack at the age of 55. Burke and Van Heusen's song "Swinging on a Star", from the Bing Crosby film Going My Way, won an Academy Award for Best Song in 1944, one of seven Academy Awards won by the film. Burke was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970. In 1995, Burke's life was depicted in the Broadway musical revue, "Swinging on a Star". Burke was married four times, he was married to Mary Mason in the 1960s. He was married to Bess Patterson from 1939–1955. Among the landmarks of Burke's songwriting career were: with Harold Spina: "Annie Doesn't Live Here Anymore" "You're Not the Only Oyster in the Stew" "My Very Good Friend, the Milkman" "Shadows on the Swanee" "The Beat of My Heart" "Now You've Got Me Doing It" "I've Got a Warm Spot in My Heart for You" with Arthur Johnston: "Pennies from Heaven" "One Two, Button Your Shoe" "Double or Nothing" "The Moon Got in My Eyes" "All You Want to Do Is Dance" with Jimmy Monaco: "Only Forever" "I've Got a Pocketful of Dreams" "Don't Let That Moon Get Away" "An Apple for the Teacher" "On the Sentimental Side" "My Heart Is Taking Lessons" "Scatterbrain" "That Sly Old Gentleman from Featherbed Lane" "Sing a Song of Sunbeams" "East Side of Heaven" "Where the Turf Meets the Surf" with Jimmy Van Heusen: "Too Romantic" "Sweet Potato Piper" "Polka Dots and Moonbeams" "Imagination" "Moonlight Becomes You" "Sunday, Monday, or Always" "Going My Way" "Swinging on a Star" "It Could Happen to You" "And His Rockin' Horse Ran Away" "The First One Hundred Years" "But Beautiful" "Apalachicola, Fla" "Here's That Rainy Day" "It's an Old Spanish Custom" "Oh, You Crazy Moon" "To See You Is to Love You" "Suddenly It's Spring" "Like Someone in Love" " Road to Morocco" "You May Not Love Me" "It's Always You" Johnny Burke at the Songwriters Hall of Fame Johnny Burke's entry at ASCAP A collection of material relating to Burke is housed in the Great American Songbook Foundation archives
Riviera (hotel and casino)
Riviera was a hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Winchester, which operated from April 1955 to May 2015. It was last owned by the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority, which decided to demolish it to make way for the Las Vegas Global Business District; the hotel had more than 2,100 rooms. The casino had 110,000 sq ft of gaming space; the casino was first proposed by Detroit mobster William Bischoff as the Casa Blanca, received a gaming license in 1952. Bischoff withdrew from the project, taken over by Miami businessman Samuel Cohen. By March 1955, identified as a member of Miami's S & G gambling syndicate, was no longer part of the investment group, though rumors persisted that he secretly maintained an involvement. Marx Brothers Harpo and Gummo held minority interests at the opening; the Riviera opened on April 20, 1955 as the first high-rise at 9 stories, the ninth resort on the Las Vegas Strip. Liberace cut the opening ribbon, became the first resident performer; the Riviera became one of the most famous casino resorts in Las Vegas Valley.
The Riviera broke new ground in its design: Strip resorts resembled roadside motor courts. The opening of the Riviera, along with The Dunes and the Royal Nevada casino resorts within a month were the subject of a famous issue of Life magazine, on June 20, 1955 with a Moulin Rouge showgirl on its cover; the headline was "Las Vegas—Is Boom Overextended?" and a story about how Las Vegas had built too many hotel rooms to be profitable. The Riviera casino went bankrupt just three months after opening. A group of former Flamingo Hotel managers led by Gus Greenbaum took over operation of the property, leasing it from the ownership group. Greenbaum had retired, it was suspected that he was coerced to return to work by threats from Chicago mob boss Tony Accardo. Among Greenbaum's staff was entertainment director William Nelson, soon discovered to be mob informer Willie Bioff, leading to his murder in November 1955. Greenbaum's drug and gambling addictions led to his embezzling from the casino. In December 1958, Greenbaum and his wife were murdered in their Phoenix, Arizona home on the orders of either Meyer Lansky or Tony Accardo.
An 8 story expansion was made off the south side of the original 9 story tower in the early 1960s. A 12 story tower was added off the south west side of the 8 story tower in 1966. Mob fixer Sidney Korshak played a major role in the property's management. Law enforcement agencies suspected that he represented the Chicago Outfit's interest in the Riviera, was responsible for skimming the casino's revenue and delivering the proceeds to Chicago; the Riviera was purchased in June 1968 by a group including bankers E. Parry Thomas and Jerome Mack, investors tied to the Parvin-Dohrmann Corp. owner of the Aladdin and Fremont casinos. In 1969, a deal was made to sell the Riviera to the Parvin-Dohrmann Corp. but the sale was blocked by the Nevada Gaming Control Board due to the company's previous failure to report a change of ownership. Dean Martin was hired in 1969 to perform in the casino's showroom, was given a 10% interest in the Riviera. Martin left in 1972, after management refused his request to cut his performance schedule from two nightly shows to one.
In 1973, the Riviera was purchased for $60 million by AITS Inc. a Boston-based travel company controlled by Meshulam Riklis and Isidore Becker. The Riviera is the setting for the movie Fake-Out, financed by Riklis and starring his wife, Pia Zadora; the 17 story Monte Carlo Tower was constructed circa 1974. The tower was designed by Martin Stern Jr. & Associates. The 6 story San Remo Tower was constructed in 1977 by the Del E. Webb Corporation; the Riviera filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1983. Riklis pledged money to keep the business in operation, appointed Jeffrey Silver as CEO to turn the Riviera around. Silver began shifting the Riviera's marketing focus away from high rollers, towards middle- and working-class gamblers, he opened a Burger King franchise in the first fast food chain outlet in a casino. The Riviera underwent an expansion from 1988 to 1990 this included the 24 story Monaco Tower designed by Martin Stern Jr. and two parking garages. The project went over budget, leading the parent company to file again for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1991.
The business emerged from bankruptcy in 1993 as Riviera Holdings Corp. owned by the previous secured creditors. On July 12, 2010, Riviera Holdings filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, its bankruptcy included a reorganization plan under which secured lenders, led by Starwood Capital Group, would receive new debt and stock. The plan was negotiated with holders of 2/3 of the secured debt worth over $275 million, which included a $225 million term loan, unpaid interest and amounts owing on a swap agreement. Riviera Holdings listed liabilities of $100 to $500 million each. Under the terms of the agreement negotiated by Starwood, secured lenders would receive a new $50 million loan plus 80% of the new stock. Lenders who provide $20 million in a so-called new money loan would receive 8% of the new stock plus warrants for another 10%. Creditors who provide a $10 million working capital loan would receive 7% of the new stock; the last 5% of the new stock goes to the lenders in return for providing a backstop insuring availability for the $30 million in loans.
Existing Riviera shareholders received nothing. The Riviera lost $4.5