A songwriter is a musician who professionally composes musical compositions and writes lyrics for songs. A songwriter can be called a composer, although the latter term tends to be used for individuals from the classical music genre and film scoring, but is associated writing and composing the original musical composition or musical bed. A songwriter who writes the lyrics for a song is referred to as lyricist; the pressure from the music industry to produce popular hits means that songwriting is an activity for which the tasks are distributed between a number of people. For example, a songwriter who excels at writing lyrics might be paired with a songwriter with the task of creating original melodies. Pop songs may be composed by group members from the band or by staff writers – songwriters directly employed by music publishers; some songwriters serve as their own music publishers. The old-style apprenticeship approach to learning how to write songs is being supplemented by university degrees and college diplomas and "rock schools".

Knowledge of modern music technology, songwriting elements and business skills are now necessary requirements for a songwriter. Several music colleges offer songwriting degrees with music business modules. Since songwriting and publishing royalties can be substantial sources of income if a song becomes a hit record; the legal power to grant these permissions may be sold or transferred. This is governed by international copyright law. Songwriters can be employed to write either the lyrics or the music directly for or alongside a performing artist, or they present songs to A&R, publishers and managers for consideration; such as Gary Growden, aka Gary Hart, a staff writer for a publishing company in Nashville for many years. Song pitching can be done on a songwriter's behalf by their publisher or independently using tip sheets like RowFax, the MusicRow publication and SongQuarters. Skills associated with song-writing include creativity. Staff writers do not get printed credit for their contributions to the song.

As a creative writer the author of private work includes rights agreement in terms of service declares releases any creative Commons from liability of expressive performances bearing similarities in any connection with unrelative party of experiences of instances relieves indifferencies can bound parties by arbitration legal court of law. In the form of contract agreement as a songwriter a publisher can appoint a duty of publication of copyrighted works for"staffs. Being a staff writer means that, during the term of the songwriter's contract with the publisher, all their songs are automatically published by that company and cannot be published elsewhere. In the Nashville country music scene, there is a strong staff writer culture where contracted writers work normal "9-to-5" hours at the publishing office and are paid a regular salary, says staff writer Gary Growden; this salary is in effect the writer's "draw", an advance on future earnings, paid on a monthly basis and enables them to live within a fixed budget.

The publisher owns the copyright of songs written during the term of the agreement for a designated period, after which the songwriter can reclaim the copyright. In an interview with HitQuarters, songwriter Dave Berg extolled the benefits of the set-up: "I was able to concentrate on writing the whole time and have always had enough money to live on."Unlike contracted writers, some staff writers operate as employees for their respective publishers. Under the terms of these work for hire agreements, the compositions created are owned by the publisher; because the recapture provision of the United States Copyright Act of 1976 does not apply to "works made for hire," the rights to a song created under an employment contract cannot be "recaptured" by the writer after 35 years. In Nashville, young writers are strongly encouraged to avoid these types of contracts. Staff writers are common across the whole industry, but without the more office-like working arrangements favored in Nashville. All the major publishers employ writers under contract.

Obtaining a staff writer contract with a publisher can be a first step for any professional songwriting career, with some writers with a desire for greater independence outgrowing this set-up once they achieve a degree of success. Songwriter Allan Eshuijs described his staff writer contract at Universal Music Publishing as a starter deal, his success under the arrangement allowed him to found his own publishing company, so that he could "keep as much as possible and say how it's going to be done." Songwriters are often skilled musicians. In part, this is because the process of "working out" a song or arrangement requires a songwriter to play an instrument the guitar or the piano, to hear how the chord progression sounds and to hear how well a given set of chords supports a melody. In addition to selling their songs and musical concepts for other artists to sing, some songwriter-musicians create songs to perform themselves. Songwriters need to create a number of elements for a song, including an introduction, various verses and a chorus.

At minimum, a songwriter must prepare a lead sheet for a song, which consists of one or more pieces of sheet music with the melody notes and chord progression indicated on it. The songwriter may expand upon the melody and chord progression by adding an instrumental melody and creating a more complex song structure (e.g. verse

Carol Ruckdeschel

Carol Ruckdeschel is a biologist, environmental activist and author. As a Cumberland Island resident, she was involved in the creation and preservation of Cumberland Island National Seashore, she is the subject of the book Untamed: The Wildest Woman in America and the Fight for Cumberland Island by Will Harlan. She does ongoing research on sea turtles and endangered and extinct species around the Georgia coast, her residence on the north part of Cumberland Island is owned by The National Park Service, on the condition of her remaining there until her death. Ruckdeschel, Carol. A Natural History of Cumberland Island. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780881466096. Retrieved 28 November 2018. Ruckdeschel, Carol. Sea Turtles of the Georgia Coast. Cumberland Island Museum. ISBN 9780967938806. Retrieved 23 September 2014. Robert Shoop, C. and Carol Ruckdeschel. "Increasing turtle strandings in the southeast United States: a complicating factor." Biological Conservation 23.3: 213-215. Frazier, J. G. Judith E. Winston, Carol A. Ruckdeschel.

"Epizoan communities on marine turtles. III. Bryozoa." Bulletin of marine science 51.1: 1-8. Http://

Greater flameback

The greater flameback known as greater goldenback, large golden-backed woodpecker or Malherbe's golden-backed woodpecker, is a woodpecker species. It occurs in the Indian subcontinent, eastwards to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and central Java and northeast Borneo. Recent taxonomic evidence suggested the species be split into the following species: Greater flameback, Crimson-backed flameback, of Sri Lanka. Javan flameback of eastern Java, Bali and Kangean Islands Luzon flameback of Luzon, Polillo and Marinduque in the northern Philippines Yellow-faced flameback of Negros, Panay and Ticao Philippine Islands Buff-spotted flameback of Bohol, Samar, Panaon, Mindando and Samal Philippine Islands Red-headed flameback of Balabac, Palawan and Calamian Philippine Islands The greater flameback is a large woodpecker, at 33 cm in length, it is of typical woodpecker shape, has a long neck. Coloration is variable between subspecies; the rump is red and the tail is black. The underparts are white with light brown.

The head is whitish with a black pattern. The straight pointed bill is long and -- like four-toed zygodactyl feet -- lead-grey; the eyes' irides are whitish to yellow. The adult male greater flameback always has a red crown. Females have a crown color varying between subspecies, such as black spotted with white, yellow, or brown with lighter dots. Young birds are like the female, but duller, with brown irides. White-and-black-headed greater flameback subspecies resemble some of the three-toed Dinopium flamebacks, but are not closely related. Unlike the black-rumped flameback and the common flameback, the greater flameback's dark moustache stripes are divided by white; those flamebacks are smaller, have a bill, shorter than the head, dark irises. Convergent evolution in plumage between a larger and a smaller species is found among other woodpeckers, such as the North American downy woodpecker and hairy woodpecker, the tropical American smoky-brown woodpecker and certain Veniliornis species, or the striped woodpecker and checkered woodpecker and some South American Piculus and "Picoides".

In all of these cases, these birds are neither gregarious nor known to be bad-tasting, due to their size difference and habitat preferences do not compete much. While the similar plumage may be due to sheer chance – as an atavism of plesiomorphic patterns – the facts that such cases are commonplace in the Picinae and that the species involved are sympatric suggests that there may well be some as yet undiscovered benefit to either or all of the taxa involved; this flameback is a species associated with a diversity of rather open forest habitat, such as found in the foothills of the Himalayas or in the Western Ghats. It seems to be well-adapted to particular forest types, while the similar-looking common flameback is more of a generalist. In Malaysian mangrove forest for example, the greater flameback has been found to prefer tall Avicennia alba for foraging, while the common flameback rather indiscriminately utilizes that species as well as Bruguiera parviflora and Sonneratia alba. Like other woodpeckers, the greater flameback uses its bill to dig out food from trees and its zygodactyl feet and stiff tail to provide support against tree trunks.

The long tongue can be darted forward to extract wood-boring arthropod prey. They nest in tree holes, laying four white eggs. Distributed and quite common in parts of its range, the Greater Flameback is classified as a Species of Least Concern by the IUCN. Media related to Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus at Richard. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.. ISBN 0-691-04910-6 Collar, N. J. 2011. Species limits in some Philippine birds including the Greater Flameback Chrysocolaptes lucidus. Forktail number 27: 29-38 Moore, William S.. & Agius, Andrea: Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the woodpecker genus Veniliornis and related genera implies convergent evolution of plumage patterns. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 87: 611–624. Doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00586.x PDF fulltext Noske, Richard A.: Field identification and ecology of the Greater Goldenback Chrysocolaptes lucidus in Malays