Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Don Matteo is an Italian television series, airing on Rai 1, Italian national television's first channel, since 2000. The protagonist of the series is Father Matteo, a Catholic priest in a parish of the town of Gubbio, known for his unrivaled talent in investigating local crime stories. Father Matteo is a wise and respected person who manages to understand people's problems, always appears to be willing to help. Thanks to his charm and positivity, he helps criminals on their way to redeeming and he always convinces them to confess their crimes and to accept their responsibilities. Comedian Nino Frassica portrays Marshal Antonio Cecchini, a middle aged Carabiniere who happens to be Matteo's best friend. Cecchini is one of the main co-protagonists and provides the humor and comic relief in the series. Other notable cast members include Flavio Insinna, who portrayed Captain Flavio Anceschi from 2000 to 2006, Milena Miconi, who played Laura, the mayor of Gubbio as well as Anceschi's love interest and Simone Montedoro, playing the role of Captain Giulio Tommasi, successor to Anceschi, since the sixth season.
From season 8, Don Matteo is filmed in HDTV 1080i. The series is syndicated in the United States by MHz Networks; the plot revolves around the titular Matteo, a Catholic priest with an impressive insight in human nature, aiding the Carabinieri, the national as opposed to local police force personnel in solving crimes. In this he finds support in marshal Antonio Cecchini, a warrant officer who shares with him important details and clues, but hostility, in the figure of Cecchini's direct superior, captain Flavio Anceschi, who has little tolerance for the priest's continuous interference with the investigation. Terence Hill as Father Matteo Minelli-Bondini: The series' protagonist and a Catholic priest with an impressive insight in human nature, aiding the carabinieri station in solving crimes. Nino Frassica as Marshal Antonino "Nino" Cecchini: Marshal of Gubbio and Spoleto police stations and best friend of Father Matteo. Flavio Insinna as Captain Flavio Anceschi: Captain of Gubbio police station.
Simone Montedoro as Captain Giulio Tommasi: Captain of Gubbio and Spoleto police station, successor of Anceschi. Maria Chiara Giannetta as Captain Anna Olivieri: Captain of Spoleto police station, successor of Tommasi. Natalie Guetta as Natalina Diotallevi: Father Matteo's housekeeper. Francesco Scali as Pippo Gimignani-Zerfati: Father Matteo's sacristan. Caterina Sylos Labini as Caterina Cecchini: Wife of Marshal Cecchini. Pamela Saino as Patrizia Cecchini: First daughter of Marshall Cecchini and wife of Captain Giulio Tommasi, she was killed in a car accident. Giada Arena, Giusy Buscemi and Simona Di Bella as Assuntina Cecchini: Second daughter of Marshall Cecchini. Pietro Pulcini as Brigadier Piero Ghisoni: Carabiniere in Gubbio and Spoleto police stations. Giuseppe Sulfaro as Appuntato Severino Cecchini: Nephew of Marshal Cecchini and carabineer in Gubbio and Spoleto police station. Eleonora Sergio as Andrea Conti: Public minister of Gubbio. Giorgia Surina as Bianca "Bibba" Venezia: Public minister of Spoleto and friend of Tommasi that becomes a rival in Lia's love.
Dario Cassini as Gualtiero Ferri: New public minister of Spoleto which replaces Bianca Venezia. He leaves Spoleto when he discovers that Captain Tommasi get engaged to Margherita, return when the captain refused to marry her after falling in love with Lia. Maria Rosaria Russo as Lucrezia Volpi: New public minister of Spoleto which replaces Gualtiero Ferri Maurizio Lastrico as Marco Nardi: New public minister of Spoleto which replaces Lucrezia Volpi. Simona Marchini as Clara Tommasi: Mother of Captain Giulio Tommasi Nadir Caselli as Lia Cecchini: Niece of Marshall Cecchini who falls in love with Captain Tommasi. Emma Reale as Martina Tommasi: Daughter of Captain Giulio Tommasi and the late Patrizia Cecchini. Astra Lanz as Sister Maria: Friend of Father Matteo. Laura Glavan as Laura Belvedere: 16 years old pregnant girl hosted in Father Matteo's rectory, daughter of Antonio Belvedere, old friend of Matteo, she falls in love with Tomàs Martinez. Andrés Gil as Tomàs Martinez: Young boy, serving a year in prison in Father Matteo's rectory.
He falls in love with Laura. Letizia Arnò as Ester Natalina Belvedere: Little daughter of Laura Belvedere and Giuliano Rovati. Claudio Ricci as Nerino Bertolacci: Children who lived in Father Matteo's rectory Evelina Gori as Grandma Elide: Sprightly grandmother of Nerino Sara Santostasi as Camilla: Bolivian little-girl who lived in Father Matteo's rectory Steven Manetto as Tommaso: Another child who lived in Father Matteo's rectory Andrea Pittorino as Agostino: Another child who lived in Father Matteo's rectory Dalila Pasquariello as Sabrina Esposito: Former convict who thanks to Father Matteo goes to work alongside Tomas. Gabriele De Pascali as Alberto Torre: Boyfriend of Laura for a short period. Andrea Cereatti as Appuntato Linetti: Carabiniere in Gubbio police station. Eleonora Sergio as Andrea Conti: District attorney of Gubbio police station. Dario Cassini as Gualtiero Ferri: District attorney of Spoleto police stati
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Marquise is a 1997 French dramatic film directed by Véra Belmont, starring Sophie Marceau, Bernard Giraudeau, Lambert Wilson. Written by Jean-François Josselin, Véra Belmont, Marcel Beaulieu, Gérard Mordillat, the film is about a glorious dancer and actress who rises from obscurity to win the hearts of some of France's most prominent citizens, including Moliere and King Louis XIV, she is helped in her career by a rotund comic, who falls in love with her, marries her, brings her to Paris to launch her career. Despite her intimate involvement with other men, she keeps a special place in her heart reserved only for her unlikely spouse. Set in seventeenth century France, the film was shot on location in Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna, from September through December 1996. Marquise was released on 20 August 1997 in France, on 12 September 1997 in the United States; the film received positive reviews, with Variety magazine's Lisa Nesselson calling it "entertaining without being taxing", Paul Fischer on the Urban Cinefile website calling it "masterful entertainment on a grand scale, an intelligent and fascinating insight into 17th century French society".
Marquise was nominated for the AFI Fest Grand Jury Prize, the British Independent Film Award for Best Foreign Independent Film, the César Award for Best Music. While four actresses from Molière's itinerant theatrical troupe set off looking for a latrine, Molière and his best friend Gros-Rene discover Marquise dancing before an eager crowd of men, her movements are heightened by a heavy rain that drenches her hair and clothes. The men offer her coins for her performance. Gros-Rene falls in love with Marquise. While an elderly gentlemen has his way with her, Gros-Rene proposes to her, promising that she will end up on a Paris stage if she accepts, which she does. Although the beautiful Marquise and the balding portly Gros-Rene make an unlikely couple, their relationship is sustained by his unquestioning adoration and her reciprocal affection. While Marquise continues to sleep with other men, her love for her husband is unchanging. Marquise is next attracted to the budding playwright Racine; when Louis XIV bans Molière's Tartuffe, Racine writes a new tragedy Andromaque and Marquise gets her big break.
Marquise's performance in Andromaque brings her acclaim. Written for his beloved in 1667, the tragedy assured Racine's reputation as a playwright; the performances take their toll on Marquise and lead to a tragic end. Marquise was filmed on location in Sabbioneta, Mantua in Lombardy, in Soragna, Parma in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Principal photography ran from September through the end of December 1996. Marquise was released on 20 August 1997 in France; the film was released in the United States the following month, on 12 September 1997. It was shown at the Venice International Film Festival from 27 August through 6 September 1997, at the Toronto International Film Festival 4–13 September 1997, at a special screening at the Tokyo International Film Festival 1–10 November 1997; the film received positive reviews. In her review for Variety magazine, Lisa Nesselson described the film as being "entertaining without being taxing". Nesselson went on to write: The unpretentious dramedy manages to make viewers feel sophisticated and involved without requiring an advanced degree in French history.
An attractive cast, bawdy subtext, lavish production design and peppy score are among the pleasures in Vera Belmont's energetically helmed pic, which should click nicely locally and offshore.... In her fourth outing behind the camera, who has produced nearly 30 films in as many years, including Quest for Fire and Farinelli, makes the era spring to life. Pic's first half is crammed full of incident and detail as if to say, "See—these were interesting times," and auds will agree. Frivolity gives way to deeper themes—artistic and romantic rivalry, remaining in favor at court, knowing when to be witty, when to be wily and when to weep. Dialogue remains grounded and accessible. Applauding the performances, Nesselson wrote, "Robust and spirited without showing off, Marceau has all the creamy-breasted allure and most of the grace required to turn heads and accrue glory; as her husband, Timsit is touching. And in a far from obvious casting choice, Lhermitte scores as the King." Nesselson praised Jordi Savall's score, calling it"a delight", applauded the "alacrity" of the cinematography and editing, which convey the "mud and rabble as well as the sumptuous pomp of the day."In her review for Urban Cinefile, Lousie Keller described the film as "a colourful period piece that captures the lusty spirit of the 17th century with its fire and passion."
Keller praised the entire "top notch" cast for their performances: Sophie Marceau is dazzling as the alluring Marquise: she captivates at every turn with her coquettish style and delicate beauty. Disarmingly casual about her morals, yet virtuous in spirit, Marquise is the epitome of the femme fatale: a goddess of feminine wiles, a bewitching enchantress. Patrick Timsit is poignant as her loyal and faithful husband, he is the theatre troope’s buffoon - the true sad clown. Keller praised the "excellent" production design, the "beguiling" cinematography, the director, Vera Belmont, who "invests passion and energy in this entertaining romp which delicately balances comedy and tragedy on the fickle seesaw of life."
Desert of Fire
Desert of Fire is a 1997 TV miniseries directed by Enzo G. Castellari, it is a European co-production between Italy and France. Anthony Delon as René / Ben Mandala Tayde as Amina Stéphane Freiss as Jacquot Arielle Dombasle as Magda Virna Lisi as Christine Duvivier Claudia Cardinale as Leila Vittorio Gassman as Tarek Marie Laforêt as Rama Fabio Testi as Diderot Giuliano Gemma as Tafud Franco Nero as Marcel Duvivier Mathieu Carrière as François Legrand Jean Sorel as Miller Christopher Buchholz as Dubai Orso Maria Guerrini as Alkan Luca Lionello as Selim Hans Peter Hallwachs as Jafar Desert of Fire on IMDb
Sofia Villani Scicolone, known professionally as Sophia Loren, is an Italian film actress and singer. Encouraged to enroll in acting lessons after entering a beauty pageant, Loren began her film career at age 16 in 1950, she appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, until her five-picture contract with Paramount in 1956 launched her international career. Notable film appearances around this time include The Pride and the Passion, It Started in Naples, her talents as an actress were not recognized until her performance as Cesira in Vittorio De Sica's Two Women. She holds the record for having earned six David di Donatello Awards for Best Actress: Two Women. After starting a family in the early 1970s, Loren chose to make only occasional film appearances. In years, she has appeared in American films such as Grumpier Old Men and Nine. Aside from the Academy Award, she has won a Grammy Award, five special Golden Globes, a BAFTA Award, a Laurel Award, the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival, the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival, the Honorary Academy Award in 1991.
In 1995, she received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievements, one of many such awards. In 1999, Loren was named by the American Film Institute as one of the 25 greatest female stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema, she is the only living actress on the list. Sofia Villani Scicolone was born on 20 September 1934 in the Clinica Regina Margherita in Rome, the daughter of Romilda Villani and Riccardo Scicolone, a construction engineer of noble descent. Loren's father Riccardo Scicolone refused to marry Villani, leaving the piano teacher and aspiring actress without financial support. Loren met with her father three times, at age five, age seventeen and in 1976 at his deathbed, citing that she forgave him but had never forgotten the abandonment of her mother. Loren's parents had another child together, her sister Maria, in 1938. Loren has two younger paternal half-brothers and Giuseppe. Romilda and Maria lived with Loren's grandmother in Pozzuoli, near Naples. During the Second World War, the harbour and munitions plant in Pozzuoli was a frequent bombing target of the Allies.
During one raid, as Loren ran to the shelter, she was wounded in the chin. After that, the family moved to Naples. After the war and her family returned to Pozzuoli. Loren's grandmother Luisa opened a pub in their living room. Romilda Villani played the piano, Maria sang, Loren waited on tables and washed dishes; the place was popular with the American GIs stationed nearby. At age 16, Loren as Sofia Lazzaro entered the Miss Italia 1950 beauty pageant and was assigned as Candidate #2, being one to the four sharing contestants representing the Lazio region, she was selected as one of the last three finalists and won the title of “Miss Elegance 1950”, while Liliana Cardinale won the title of “Miss Cinema” and Anna Maria Bugliari won the grand title of Miss Italia. In 2010, Loren returned as a judge in the 71st Miss Italia pageant. At age 17, as Sofia Lazzaro, she enrolled in acting class and was selected as an uncredited extra in Mervyn LeRoy's 1951 film Quo Vadis, filmed when she was 17 years old.
That same year, she appeared in Italian film Era lui... sì! sì!, where she played an odalisque, was credited as Sofia Lazzaro. She appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, including the La Favorita. Carlo Ponti changed her name and public image to appeal to a wider audience as Sophia Loren, being a twist on the name of the Swedish actress Märta Torén and suggested by Goffredo Lombardo, her first starring role was in Aida. After playing the lead role in Two Nights with Cleopatra, her breakthrough role was in The Gold of Naples, directed by Vittorio De Sica. Too Bad She's Bad released in 1954, became the first of many films in which Loren co-starred with Marcello Mastroianni. Over the next three years, she acted in many films, including Scandal in Sorrento, Lucky to Be a Woman, Boy on a Dolphin, Legend of the Lost and The Pride and the Passion. Loren became an international film star following her five-picture contract with Paramount Pictures in 1958. Among her films at this time were Desire Under the Elms with Anthony Perkins, based upon the Eugene O'Neill play.
In 1960, she starred in Vittorio De Sica's Two Women, a stark, gritty story of a mother, trying to protect her 12-year-old daughter in war-torn Italy. The two end up gang-raped inside a church as they travel back to their home city following cessation of bombings there. Cast as the daughter, Loren fought against type and was cast as the mother. Loren's performance earned her many awards, including the Cannes Film Festival's best performance prize, an Academy Award for Best Actress, the first major Academy Award for a non-English-language perf
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia