Sunshine (1999 film)
Sunshine is a 1999 historical drama film directed by István Szabó and written by Israel Horovitz and Szabó. It follows five generations of a Hungarian Jewish family named Sonnenschein changed to Sors, during changes in Hungary, focusing on the three generations from the late 19th century through the mid-20th century; the family story traverses the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire through to the period after the 1956 Revolution, while the characters are forced to surrender much of their identity and endure family conflict. The central male protagonist of all three generations is portrayed by Ralph Fiennes; the film's stars include Rachel Weisz and John Neville, with the real-life daughter and mother team of Jennifer Ehle and Rosemary Harris playing the same character across a six-decade storyline. The film was an international co-production among companies from Germany, Austria and Canada, it won three European Film Awards, including Best Actor for Fiennes, three Canadian Genie Awards, including Best Motion Picture.
The mid-19th-century patriarch of the Hungarian-Jewish Sonnenschein family is a tavern owner who makes his own popular distilled herb-based tonic in Austria-Hungary. The tonic, called Taste of Sunshine, is commercially made by his son, bringing the family great wealth and prestige, he builds a large estate where his oldest son, falls in love with his first cousin, despite the disapproval of Emmanuel and Rose. Ignatz, while studying in law school, begins an affair with Valerie. Ignatz graduates and earns a place as a respected district judge, when he is asked by the chief judge to change his Jewish surname in order to be promoted to the central court; the entire generation – Ignatz, his physician brother Gustave and photographer cousin Valerie – change their last name to Sors, a more Hungarian-sounding name. Ignatz gets promoted when he tells the Minister of Justice a way to delay the prosecution of corrupt politicians. In the spring of 1899, when Valerie becomes pregnant and Ignatz marry before the birth of their son, Istvan.
Their second son, Adam, is born in 1902. Ignatz continues to support the Habsburg monarchy. Both brothers enlist in the Austro-Hungarian Army as officers during World War I. In the days after the war, Valerie leaves him for another man, the old monarchy collapses, Ignatz loses his judicial position under a series of short-lived socialist and communist regimes in which Gustave is involved; when a new monarchy emerges and asks Ignatz to oversee trials of retribution against the communists, he declines and is forced to retire. His health deteriorates and he dies, leaving Valerie as head of the family. Istvan and Adam both join the Jewish-run Civic Fencing Club. Adam becomes the best fencer in Hungary, General Jakofalvy invites him to convert to Roman Catholicism in order to join the nation's top military, non-Jewish, fencing club. While Adam and Istvan are converting, Adam meets Hannah, converting at the request of her fiancé, woos her into marrying him. Adam wins the national fencing championship two years in a row and goes on to lead the national team to the 1936 Olympic gold medal in Team Sabre in Nazi Germany, becoming a national hero in Hungary.
Istvan's wife, pursues Adam until they start a secret affair. New Hungarian laws are passed discriminating against people with any near Jewish ancestors, the Sors family is shielded by the exceptions in the laws. However, Adam is soon expelled from the military fencing club. Greta convinces the family that they must emigrate to save their children, but they are too late to get exit visas; when Germany occupies Hungary and Hannah are moved into the Budapest Ghetto. Hannah escapes and hides in a friend's attic, but is betrayed. Adam and his son Ivan are sent to a labor camp, where Adam is beaten, stripped naked and hosed with water until he freezes to death. Istvan and their son are summarily shot by Nazis. After the war, the surviving Sors family returns to the Sonnenschein estate; the elderly Gustave returns from exile and is invited into the communist government, Valerie manages the household, Ivan becomes a state policeman, working for police Major General Knorr rounding up fascists from the wartime regime.
Ivan rises in the communist ranks and begins an affair with Carole, the wife of a high-ranking communist official. Army General Kope asks Ivan to start vigorously arresting Jews, including Knorr, who are suspected of inciting conspiracies against the current government. After Gustave dies, Kope informs Ivan; when Stalin dies in 1953, Ivan feels guilty for helping Kope and not saving Knorr. He swears to fight the communist regime. In the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, he is imprisoned after it fails. Released at the end of the decade, he returns to live together with Valerie in a single room of the former family estate, she falls ill while they search for the tonic recipe—after she dies, he fruitlessly continues the search. Ivan changes his name from Sors back to Sonnenschein, concludes his storytelling after the end of the communist regime in 1989. Psychologist Diana Diamond identified themes in the film as "Trauma and historical", how it has lasting effects on the individual's psychology; the character Ivan's status as narrator reflects this theme, as he witnesses Adam's death in the concentration camp.
In exploring the relationship between Ignatz and their brother Gustave and alleged adultery, the film portray
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Carl Sonnenschein was a German writer, the founder of the Catholic student movement in Germany. He was died in Berlin; the Catholic Fraternities in Germany created the annual Carl Sonnenschein prize to award outstanding scientific research in Germany. Die sozialstudentische Bewegung, 1909 Notizen, Berlin 1926 - 1928 Sonntagsevangelien, Berlin 1928 Alfred Kumpf: Ein Leben für die Großstadt, Leipzig 1980 Ernst Thrasolt: Carl Sonnenschein. Der Mensch und 1930 Ernst Thrasolt: Dr. Carl Sonnenschein. Erinnerungen und Geschichtsversuche, 1929 Carl Sonnenschein in the German National Library catalogue Winners of the Carl Sonnenschein prize
Hugo Sonnenschein was an Austrian writer from Bohemia. He contributed to the Czech-language Communist newspaper Průkopník svobody. Die Legende vom weltverkommenen Sonka, 1920 Media related to Hugo Sonnenschein at Wikimedia Commons Sonnenschein, Hugo auch H. Sonka
Edward Adolf Sonnenschein
Edward Adolf Sonnenschein was an English classical scholar and writer on Latin grammar and verse. Sonnenschein was educated at University College School and in 1868 at University College London, he was appointed Oxford professor of Greek and Latin at Mason College in 1883, staying there until 1918. He was a Plautine scholar, publishing editions of Captivi and Rudens, he took up the reform of grammar teaching, published the "Parallel Grammar" series. With John Percival Postgate, he founded the Classical Association in 1903. Much of his grammatical research was summed up in The Unity of the Latin Subjunctive and The Soul of Grammar, he insisted upon the humanities taking their proper place in the modern university, took up the question of war-guilt during the European war. Sonnenschein was born in London in 1851, the eldest son of a teacher, Adolphus Sonnenschein from Moravia and Sarah Robinson Stallybrass. Edward Adolf Sonnenschein married Edith Annesley Bolton and they had three children: Edward Jamie, who took the surname Somerset.
William Swan Sonnenschein, Adolfus Sonnenschein's third son and Edward's younger brother, founded the family publishing firm, to become known as Swan Sonnenschein. As a young man William was apprenticed to the firm of Williams and Norgate, where he gained experience of second hand bookselling before founding his own company, W. Swan Sonnenschein & Allen, with the first of several partners, J. Archibald Allen, in 1878; this partnership was dissolved in 1882 when William married and the firm's name changed to W Swan Sonnenschein & Co. The firm specialized in sociology and politics. Sonnenschein was published their literature. In 1895 Swan Sonnenschein became a limited liability company, in 1902 William Swan Sonnenschein left to work at George Routledge and Sons, at Kegan Paul. Swan Sonnenschein was amalgamated with George Allen & Co in 1911, he changed his'German' surname during the First World War to Stallybrass. He died in 1934. Sonnenschein was an influential classical scholar during his time at Mason College between 1883 and 1918, where he wrote prolifically.
He edited several plays by Plautus, collaborated with John Percival Postgate, forming the Classical Association in 1903, becoming its Secretary. He contributed to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, his views differed from Otto Jespersen a Danish linguist, which he explained in his 1927 book, The Soul of Grammar, as his answer to Jespersen's 1924 Philosophy of Grammar. C. T. Onions, the last editor of the original Oxford English Dictionary, was one of his pupils. T. Macci Plavti Rvdens by Titus Maccius Plautus, 38 editions between 1891 and 1989. Mostellaria by Titus Maccius Plautus, 23 editions between 1884 and 1970; the Soul of Grammar, 5 editions between 1927 and 1929. A new English Grammar based on the recommendations of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology, 17 editions between 1916 and 1962. Through German Eyes, 11 editions between 1914 and 1915. T. Macci Plauti Captivi by Titus Maccius Plautus, 30 editions between 1879 and 1903. Bentley's Plautine emendations from his copy of Gronovius by Richard Bentley, 6 editions between 1883 and 1963.
A New Latin Grammar: based on the recommendations of the Joint Committee on Grammatical Terminology, 11 editions between 1912 and 1925. A Greek Grammar for Schools; the Unity of the Latin Subjunctive: a quest. Being a paper read in abstract before the Classical Association, 2 editions in 1910. Ora Maritima. Recommendations of the Classical Association on the teaching of Latin and Greek, 2 editions in 1912. What is Rhythm? An essay, 2 editions in 1925; the Gateway. The Oxford Concise Dictionary of National Biography: Sonnenschein, Edward Adolf. "Sonnenschein, Edward Adolf", Who's Who, 59: pp. 1643–1644. Edward Adolf Sonnenschein and the politics of linguistic authority in England 1880–1930, in A. Linn and N. McLelland, Flores Grammaticae: Essays in memory of Vivien Law, pp. 211–19. On Jevons’s logical machine. Edward Adolf Sonnenschein. Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Birmingham Philosophical Society, Vol. IV, Part 1. A paper read before the Society, 13 December 1883 Sonnenschein Family details Works by or about Edward Adolf Sonnenschein at Internet Archive Works by Edward Adolf Sonnenschein at LibriVox
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon; when the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light; the World Meteorological Organization uses the term "sunshine duration" to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per square meter. Other sources indicate an "Average over the entire earth" of "164 Watts per square meter over a 24 hour day"; the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has both positive and negative health effects, as it is both a requisite for vitamin D3 synthesis and a mutagen. Sunlight takes about 8.3 minutes to reach Earth from the surface of the Sun.
A photon starting at the center of the Sun and changing direction every time it encounters a charged particle would take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to get to the surface. Sunlight is a key factor in photosynthesis, the process used by plants and other autotrophic organisms to convert light energy from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be used to synthesize carbohydrates and to fuel the organisms' activities. Researchers can measure the intensity of sunlight using a sunshine recorder, pyranometer, or pyrheliometer. To calculate the amount of sunlight reaching the ground, both the eccentricity of Earth's elliptic orbit and the attenuation by Earth's atmosphere have to be taken into account; the extraterrestrial solar illuminance, corrected for the elliptic orbit by using the day number of the year, is given to a good approximation by E e x t = E s c ⋅, where dn=1 on January 1st. In this formula dn–3 is used, because in modern times Earth's perihelion, the closest approach to the Sun and, the maximum Eext occurs around January 3 each year.
The value of 0.033412 is determined knowing that the ratio between the perihelion squared and the aphelion squared should be 0.935338. The solar illuminance constant, is equal to 128×103 lux; the direct normal illuminance, corrected for the attenuating effects of the atmosphere is given by: E d n = E e x t e − c m, where c is the atmospheric extinction and m is the relative optical airmass. The atmospheric extinction brings the number of lux down to around 100 000 lux; the total amount of energy received at ground level from the Sun at the zenith depends on the distance to the Sun and thus on the time of year. It is 3.3 % lower in July. If the extraterrestrial solar radiation is 1367 watts per square meter the direct sunlight at Earth's surface when the Sun is at the zenith is about 1050 W/m2, but the total amount hitting the ground is around 1120 W/m2. In terms of energy, sunlight at Earth's surface is around 52 to 55 percent infrared, 42 to 43 percent visible, 3 to 5 percent ultraviolet. At the top of the atmosphere, sunlight is about 30% more intense, having about 8% ultraviolet, with most of the extra UV consisting of biologically damaging short-wave ultraviolet.
Direct sunlight has a luminous efficacy of about 93 lumens per watt of radiant flux. Multiplying the figure of 1050 watts per square metre by 93 lumens per watt indicates that bright sunlight provides an illuminance of 98 000 lux on a perpendicular surface at sea level; the illumination of a horizontal surface will be less than this if the Sun is not high in the sky. Averaged over a day, the highest amount of sunlight on a horizontal surface occurs in January at the South Pole. Dividing the irradiance of 1050 W/m2 by the size of the Sun's disk in steradians gives an average radiance of 15.4 MW per square metre per steradian. Multiplying this by π gives an upper limit to the irradiance which can be focused on a surface using mirrors: 48.5 MW/m2. The spectrum of the Sun's solar radiation is close to that of a black body with a temperature of about 5,800 K; the Sun emits EM radiation across most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the Sun produces gamma rays as a result of the nuclear-fusion process, internal absorption and thermalization convert these super-high-energy photons to lower-energy photons before they reach the Sun's surface and are emitted out into space.
As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays from this process, but it does emit gamma rays from solar flares. The Sun emits X-rays, vis