Earl Eugene Scruggs was an American musician noted for popularizing a three-finger banjo picking style now called Scruggs style that is a defining characteristic of bluegrass music. His three-finger style of playing was different from the ways the five-string banjo had been historically played. He popularized the instrument in genres of music and elevated the banjo from its role as a background rhythm instrument or a comedians prop into featured solo status. Scruggs career began at age 21 when he was hired to play in a group called Bill Monroe, the name bluegrass stuck and eventually became the eponym for this entire genre of county music. Another band member, Lester Flatt resigned as well, and the two men paired up again in a new group they called Flatt and Scruggs and the Foggy Mountain Boys. The song won two Grammy Awards and in 2005 was selected for the Library of Congress National Recording Registry of works of unusual merit and Scruggs brought bluegrass music into mainstream popularity in the early 1960s with their country hit, The Ballad of Jed Clampett.
This song was the music for the successful network television sitcom The Beverly Hillbillies and was the first bluegrass recording to reach number one on the Billboard charts. Over their 20-year association and Scruggs recorded over 50 albums and 75 single records, each of them formed a new band that matched his own vision, but neither man ever regained the success they had reached as a team. Scruggs received four Grammy awards, the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, Scruggs was awarded a National Heritage Fellowship given by the National Endowment for the Arts, the highest honor in the folk and traditional arts in the US. Four works by Scruggs have been placed in the Grammy Hall of Fame, after Scruggs death in 2012 at age 88, the Earl Scruggs Center near his birthplace in Shelby, North Carolina was founded with the aid of a federal grant and corporate donors. The center is a $5.5 million facility which features the contributions of Scruggs and serves as an educational center providing classes.
Scruggs was born January 6,1924 just outside of Boiling Springs, North Carolina, in a community called Flint Hill and his father, George Elam Scruggs, was a farmer and a bookkeeper who died of a protracted illness when Scruggs was four years old. Upon his death, Scruggs mother, Georgia Lula Rupee, was left to care of the farm and five children. The family members all played music, mr. Scruggs had played an open back banjo using the frailing technique, but Earl, as an adult had no recollection of his fathers playing. Mrs. Scruggs played the pump organ, earls siblings, older brothers Junie and Horace, and older sisters Eula Mae and Ruby, all played banjo and guitar. Scruggs recalls a visit to his uncles home at age six to hear a banjo player named Mack Woolbright. This made an impression on Scruggs, who said, Hed sit in the rocking chair, I couldnt imagine — he was the first, what I call a good banjo player. Scruggs took up the instrument — he was too small to hold one at the start and he moved it around depending on what part of the neck he was playing
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture, the librarys main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař, the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers, as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague, the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years, the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new building on Letna plain. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, in 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Later in 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water. Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building, there was a fire at the library in December 2012, but nobody was injured in the event. List of national and state libraries Official website
Scruggs style is the most common style of playing the banjo in bluegrass music. It is a method, known as three-finger style. It is named after Earl Scruggs, whose approach and technical mastery of the instrument have influenced generations of bluegrass banjoists ever since he was first recorded in 1946. Scruggs-style banjo is played with picks on the thumb and middle fingers, the strings are picked rapidly in repetitive sequences or rolls, the same string is not typically picked twice in succession. Melody notes are interspersed among arpeggios, and musical phrases typically contain long series of staccato notes, the music is generally syncopated, and may have a subtle swing or shuffle feel, especially on mid-tempo numbers. The result is lively, rapid music, which lends itself both as an accompaniment to other instruments and as a solo, scruggs-style back-up is effective for any. break when it is played with the deeper tones of the banjo. However, it is particularly effective. fiddle, because these licks were widely copied by players, they have become one of the defining attributes of the style, and give it its characteristic sound.
These licks often contain fretting-hand embellishments such as slides, hammer-ons, or plucking the strings with the fretting hand, many licks make use of blue notes, giving the music a bluesier feel. There is some debate as to how much of the Scruggs style was invented by Scruggs. For example, Scruggs names Snuffy Jenkins as a major influence, but there is little doubt that he did more to popularize the style than any of his contemporaries, it is hard to overstate his influence. In 1968, the instructional manual Earl Scruggs and the 5-String Banjo was published and this made Scruggs technique more widely accessible, and as one of the earliest books of its kind for bluegrass banjo, helped spread Scruggs influence considerably
James Henry Jimmy Martin was an American bluegrass musician, known as the King of Bluegrass. Martin was born in Sneedville and was raised in the farming life of rural East Tennessee. He grew up near Sneedville, singing in church and with friends from surrounding farms and his mother and stepfather who used to sing gospel were his first influences. When he was in his teens he bought a guitar, Martin told The Big Book of Bluegrass, I learned the basic chords from an old hillbilly named Reuben Gibson, who lived in the hills around Sneedville, and I taught myself how to play. I heard Lester Flatt and Charlie Monroe both play runs, but I didnt try to top them, I mostly just developed them how I felt, when it came natural for a song. In his teens, he played guitar in a string band and appeared on radio with Tex Climer. In the winter of 1949, Mac Wiseman had just left Bill Monroes Blue Grass Boys, who wanted to apply for the vacant post as guitarist, rode the bus into Nashville. He sneaked in backstage at the Grand Ole Opry, while picking his guitar, he was overheard by Blue Grass Boys banjo player Rudy Lyle who brought him forward and presented him to Monroe.
Martin sang two songs with Monroe and was hired instantly, beginning in 1949 Martin was lead vocalist for Bill Monroes Blue Grass Boys. Martins high voice mixed with Monroes tenor came to be known as the high lonesome sound and his influence radically changed Monroes music from the fast-paced but smooth style of the original 1945 band with Flatt and Scruggs. Martin challenged Monroe to raise the pitch on many of his classics and to write new and this band with Rudy Lyle and Charlie Cline was one of the many high points of Monroes career. Martins lead was defining in lonesome songs such as Sitting Alone in the Moonlight, Memories of Mother and Dad and Im Blue, Martin had a famously high-strung and exuberant personality, and inevitably clashed with Monroes equally stubborn temperament. He left Monroe and worked briefly with the Osborne Brothers until he formed his own band, the classic lineup of this band, with J. D. He credited himself with inventing the G run- a guitar lick used widely in the bluegrass genre, aural evidence from the period before Martin began performing professionally clearly shows Lester Flatt using this run when backing Bill Monroe.
Among Martins biggest hits of the 1960s were Hit Parade of Love, Stepping Stones, Tennessee, in the 1960s and 1970s, Jimmy Martins Sunny Mountain Boys included singer and instrumentalist Gloria Belle, who is considered the first female lead singer in bluegrass. She toured Japan with Martin during 1975, in regards to her playing, Martin said jokingly, Shes not very good, but we let her sing with us cause we feel sorry for her. Martin was famous as an unpredictable but highly entertaining stage presence. He freely acknowledged his problems with drinking and volatile mood swings and he made frequent appearances on the Louisiana Hayride and Wheeling, West Virginias WWVA Jamboree, as well as the Grand Ole Opry, but was never invited to join the latter
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and a related genre of country music. Settlers from Britain and Ireland arrived in Appalachia during the 18th century and these traditions consisted primarily of English and Scottish ballads—which were essentially unaccompanied narrative—and dance music, such as Irish reels, which were accompanied by a fiddle. Many older bluegrass songs come directly from the British Isles, several Appalachian bluegrass ballads, such as Pretty Saro, Barbara Allen, Cuckoo Bird and House Carpenter, come from England and preserve the English ballad tradition both melodically and lyrically. Others, such as The Two Sisters, come from England, some bluegrass fiddle songs popular in Appalachia, such as Leather Britches, and Pretty Polly, have Scottish roots. The dance tune Cumberland Gap may be derived from the tune that accompanies the Scottish ballad Bonnie George Campbell and this is in contrast to old-time music, in which all instruments play the melody together or one instrument carries the lead throughout while the others provide accompaniment.
Breakdowns are often characterized by rapid tempos and unusual instrumental dexterity, there are three major subgenres of bluegrass and one unofficial subgenre. Traditional bluegrass has musicians playing folk songs, tunes with traditional chord progressions, progressive bluegrass groups may use electric instruments and import songs from other genres, particularly rock & roll. Examples include Cadillac Sky and Bearfoot, another subgenre, Bluegrass gospel uses Christian lyrics, soulful three- or four-part harmony singing, and sometimes the playing of instrumentals. Bluegrass music has attracted a following worldwide. Bluegrass pioneer Bill Monroe characterized the genre as, Scottish bagpipes and its Methodist and Holiness and Baptist. Its blues and jazz, and it has a high lonesome sound, unlike mainstream country music, bluegrass is traditionally played on acoustic stringed instruments. The fiddle, five-string banjo, guitar and upright bass are often joined by the resonator guitar and this instrumentation originated in rural dance bands and is the basis on which the earliest bluegrass bands were formed.
The guitar is now most commonly played with a style referred to as flatpicking, unlike the style of bluegrass guitarists such as Lester Flatt. Banjo players often use the three-finger picking style made popular by such as Don Reno. Fiddlers frequently play in thirds and fifths, producing a sound that is characteristic to the bluegrass style, bassists almost always play pizzicato, occasionally adopting the slap-style to accentuate the beat. A bluegrass bass line is generally a rhythmic alternation between the tonic and dominant of each chord, with walking bass excursions. Instrumentation has been a topic of debate. Traditional bluegrass performers believe the correct instrumentation is used by Bill Monroes band
RCA Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, Inc. It is one of SMEs three flagship labels, alongside Columbia Records and Epic Records. The label has released multiple genres of music, including pop, hip hop, R&B, jazz, the companys name is derived from the initials of the labels former parent company, the Radio Corporation of America. It is the second oldest recording company in US history, after sister label Columbia Records, RCAs Canadian unit is Sonys oldest label in Canada. It was one of only two Canadian record companies to survive the Great Depression, Enrique Iglesias, Foo Fighters, Kings of Leon, Miley Cyrus, Giorgio Moroder, Jennifer Hudson, DAngelo, Tinashe, G-Eazy, Pitbull and Wizkid. In 1929, the Radio Corporation of America purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company, the worlds largest manufacturer of phonographs and phonograph records. The company became RCA Victor but retained use of the Victor Records name on their labels until the beginning of 1946 when the labels were finally switched over to RCA Victor.
With Victor, RCA acquired New World rights to the famous Nipper His Masters Voice trademark, in Shanghai, China, in 1931, RCA Victors British affiliate the Gramophone Company merged with the Columbia Graphophone Company to form EMI. This gave RCA head David Sarnoff a seat on the EMI board, in September 1931, RCA Victor introduced the first 33⅓ rpm records sold to the public, calling them Program Transcriptions. In the depths of the Great Depression, the format was a commercial failure, during the early part of the depression, RCA made a number of attempts to produce a successful cheap label to compete with the dime store labels. The first was the short-lived Timely Tunes label in 1931 sold at Montgomery Ward, in 1932, Bluebird Records was created as a sub-label of RCA Victor. It was originally an 8-inch record with a blue label. In 1933, RCA reintroduced Bluebird and Electradisk as a standard 10-inch label, another cheap label, was produced. The same musical couplings were issued on all three labels and Bluebird Records still survives eight decades after Electradisk and Sunrise were discontinued, RCA produced records for Montgomery Ward label during the 1930s.
Besides manufacturing records for themselves, RCA Victor operated RCA Custom which was the leading record manufacturer for independent record labels, RCA Custom pressed record compilations for The Readers Digest Association. RCA sold its interest in EMI in 1935, but EMI continued to distribute RCA recordings in the UK, RCA manufactured and distributed HMV classical recordings on the RCA and HMV labels in North America. During World War II, ties between RCA and its Japanese affiliate JVC were severed, the Japanese record company is today called Victor Entertainment and is still a JVC subsidiary. From 1942 to 1944, RCA Victor was seriously impacted by the American Federation of Musicians recording ban, virtually all union musicians could not make recordings during that period
Knoxville is a city in the U. S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Knox County. The city had an population of 185,291 in 2015. Knoxville is the city of the Knoxville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The KMSA is, in turn, the component of the Knoxville-Sevierville-La Follette Combined Statistical Area. First settled in 1786, Knoxville was the first capital of Tennessee, the city struggled with geographic isolation throughout the early 19th century. The arrival of the railroad in 1855 led to an economic boom, during the Civil War, the city was bitterly divided over the secession issue, and was occupied alternately by both Confederate and Union armies. Following the war, Knoxville grew rapidly as a wholesaling and manufacturing center. The citys economy stagnated after the 1920s as the manufacturing sector collapsed, Knoxville is the home of the flagship campus of the University of Tennessee, whose sports teams, called the Volunteers or Vols, are extremely popular in the surrounding area. The first people to form settlements in what is now Knoxville arrived during the Woodland period.
One of the oldest artificial structures in Knoxville is a burial mound constructed during the early Mississippian culture period, the earthwork mound is now surrounded by the University of Tennessee campus. By the 18th century, the Cherokee had become the dominant tribe in the East Tennessee region, although they were consistently at war with the Creek, the Cherokee people called the Knoxville area kuwandatalunyi, which means Mulberry Place. Most Cherokee habitation in the area was concentrated in the Overhill settlements along the Little Tennessee River, the first Euro-American traders and explorers were recorded as arriving in the Tennessee Valley in the late 17th century. There is significant evidence that Hernando de Soto visited Bussell Island in 1540, the end of the French and Indian War and confusion brought about by the American Revolution led to a drastic increase in Euro-American settlement west of the Appalachians. By the 1780s, Euro-American settlers were established in the Holston.
The U. S. Congress ordered all illegal settlers out of the valley in 1785, as settlers continued to trickle into Cherokee lands, tensions between the settlers and the Cherokee rose steadily. In 1786, James White, a Revolutionary War officer, and his friend James Connor built Whites Fort near the mouth of First Creek, on land White had purchased three years earlier. In 1790, Whites son-in-law, Charles McClung—who had arrived from Pennsylvania the previous year—surveyed Whites holdings between First Creek and Second Creek for the establishment of a town, mcClung drew up 640. 5-acre lots. The waterfront was set aside for a town common, two lots were set aside for a church and graveyard
William Smith Monroe was an American mandolinist and songwriter who created the style of music known as bluegrass. Because of this he is referred to as the Father of Bluegrass. The genre takes its name from his band, the Blue Grass Boys, Monroes performing career spanned 69 years as a singer, instrumentalist and bandleader. Monroe was born on his familys farm near Rosine and his mother and her brother, Pendleton Pen Vandiver, were both musically talented, and Monroe and his family grew up playing and singing at home. Because his older brothers Birch and Charlie already played the fiddle and guitar and he recalled that his brothers insisted he should remove four of the mandolins eight strings so he would not play too loudly. Monroes mother died when he was ten, followed by his six years later. This experience inspired one of Monroes most famous compositions, Uncle Pen, recorded in 1950, on that album, Monroe recorded a number of traditional fiddle tunes he had often heard performed by Vandiver.
Uncle Pen has been credited with giving Monroe a repertoire of tunes that sank into Bills aurally trained memory, significant in Monroes musical life was Arnold Shultz, an influential fiddler and guitarist who introduced Monroe to the blues. In 1929, Monroe moved to Indiana to work at an oil refinery with his brothers Birch and Charlie, together with a friend Larry Moore, they formed the Monroe Brothers, to play at local dances and house parties. RCA Victor signed the Monroe Brothers to a contract in 1936. They scored a hit single with the gospel song What Would You Give in Exchange For Your Soul. After the Monroe Brothers disbanded in 1938, Bill Monroe formed The Kentuckians in Little Rock, but the group only lasted for three months. Monroe left Little Rock for Atlanta, Georgia, to form the first edition of the Blue Grass Boys with singer/guitarist Cleo Davis, fiddler Art Wooten, and bassist Amos Garren. Bill had wanted Old Hickory to become one of the members of his Blue Grass Boys. In October 1939, Monroe successfully auditioned for a spot on the Grand Ole Opry.
Hay with his performance of Jimmie Rodgerss Mule Skinner Blues. While the fast tempos and instrumental virtuosity characteristic of music are apparent even on these early tracks. He seldom sang lead vocals on his Victor recordings, often preferring to contribute high tenor harmonies as he had in the Monroe Brothers, a 1945 session for Columbia Records featured an accordion, soon dropped from the band
The banjo is a four-, five- or six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator, called the head. The membrane, or head, is made of plastic, although animal skin is still occasionally but rarely used. Early forms of the instrument were fashioned by Africans in America, the banjo is frequently associated with country, Irish traditional and bluegrass music. Historically, the banjo occupied a place in African American traditional music. The banjo, with the fiddle, is a mainstay of American old-time music and it is very frequently used in Traditional Jazz. The modern banjo derives from instruments that had used in the Caribbean since the 17th century by enslaved people taken from West Africa. Written references to the banjo in North America appear in the 18th century, the etymology of the name banjo is uncertain. The word could have come from the Yoruba word Bami jo and it may derive from the Kimbundu word mbanza. A Banza, a five double string courses Portuguese viuhela with two short strings, mbanza is a string African instrument that has been built after the Portuguese Banza.
Banza is quite similar to Banjo, various instruments in Africa, chief among them the kora, feature a skin head and gourd body. Banjos with fingerboards and tuning pegs are known from the Caribbean as early as the 17th century, 18th- and early 19th-century writers transcribed the name of these instruments variously as bangie, bonjaw and banjar. Instruments similar to the banjo have been played in many countries, another likely relative of the banjo is the akonting, a spike folk lute played by the Jola tribe of Senegambia, and the ubaw-akwala of the Igbo. Early, African-influenced banjos were built around a body and a wooden stick neck. These instruments had varying numbers of strings, though often including some form of drone, the five-string banjo was popularized by Joel Walker Sweeney, an American minstrel performer from Appomattox Court House, Virginia. In the 1830s Sweeney became the first white performer to play the banjo on stage and his version of the instrument replaced the gourd with a drum-like sound box and included four full-length strings alongside a short fifth string.
This new banjo was at first tuned dGdf♯a, though by the 1890s this had been transposed up to gcgbd, Banjos were introduced in Britain by Sweeneys group, the American Virginia Minstrels, in the 1840s, and became very popular in music halls. In the Antebellum South, many black slaves played the banjo, two techniques closely associated with the five-string banjo are rolls and drones. Rolls are right hand fingering pattern that consist of eight notes that subdivide each measure
Bobby Osborne is a bluegrass musician known for his mandolin playing and high lead vocals. Born in Leslie County, Osborne is known primarily for his collaborations with his brother Sonny Osborne in their band and he was a pioneer in conceiving the now-popular high lead vocal trio concept. He has released recordings since the 1950s. The Osborne Brothers recordings of Rocky Top, and Kentucky were named official state songs of Tennessee and Kentucky, Osborne was drafted into the U. S. Marine Corps in 1951 and served in the Korean War. He was wounded in action and received the Purple Heart, as of 2015, Osborne continues an active performance schedule with his band, the Rocky Top X-Press. The Osborne Brothers were made Grand Ole Opry members in 1964, Bobby now gives mandolin lessons at the Kentucky School of Bluegrass and Traditional Music that is in his home town Hyden, Kentucky. Bobby Osborne & the Rocky Top X-Press OMS Records - Bobby Osborne
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records