Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos and graphein, it has been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys, depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal. Many forms of shorthand exist. A typical shorthand system provides symbols or abbreviations for words and common phrases, which can allow someone well-trained in the system to write as as people speak. Abbreviation methods use different abbreviating approaches. Many journalists use shorthand writing to take notes at press conferences or other similar scenarios. In the computerized world, several autocomplete programs, standalone or integrated in text editors, based on word lists include a shorthand function for used phrases. Shorthand was used more in the past, before the invention of recording and dictation machines.
Shorthand was considered an essential part of secretarial training and police work, as well as useful for journalists. Although the primary use of shorthand has been to record oral dictation or discourse, some systems are used for compact expression. For example, healthcare professionals may use shorthand notes in medical charts and correspondence. Shorthand notes are temporary, intended either for immediate use or for typing, data entry, or transcription to longhand, although longer term uses do exist, such as encipherment: diaries are a common example; the earliest known indication of shorthand systems is from the Parthenon in Ancient Greece, where a mid-4th century BC marble slab was found. This shows a writing system based on vowels, using certain modifications to indicate consonants. Hellenistic tachygraphy is reported from the 2nd century BC onwards, though there are indications that it might be older; the oldest datable reference is a contract from Middle Egypt, stating that Oxyrhynchos gives the "semeiographer" Apollonios for two years to be taught shorthand writing.
Hellenistic tachygraphy consisted of word stem signs and word ending signs. Over time, many syllabic signs were developed. In Ancient Rome, Marcus Tullius Tiro, a slave and a freedman of Cicero, developed the Tironian notes so that he could write down Cicero's speeches. Plutarch in his "Life of Cato the Younger" records that Cicero, during a trial of some insurrectionists in the senate, employed several expert rapid writers, whom he had taught to make figures comprising numerous words in a few short strokes, to preserve Cato's speech on this occasion; the Tironian notes consisted of word ending abbreviations. The original Tironian notes consisted of about 4000 signs, but new signs were introduced, so that their number might increase to as many as 13,000. In order to have a less complex writing system, a syllabic shorthand script was sometimes used. After the decline of the Roman Empire, the Tironian notes were no longer used to transcribe speeches, though they were still known and taught during the Carolingian Renaissance.
After the 11th century, they were forgotten. When many monastery libraries were secularized in the course of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, long-forgotten manuscripts of Tironian notes were rediscovered. In imperial China, clerks used an abbreviated cursive form of Chinese characters to record court proceedings and criminal confessions; these records were used to create more formal transcripts. One cornerstone of imperial court proceedings was that all confessions had to be acknowledged by the accused's signature, personal seal, or thumbprint, requiring fast writing. Versions of this technique survived in clerical professions into the modern day, influenced by Western shorthand methods, some new methods were invented. An interest in shorthand or "short-writing" developed towards the end of the 16th century in England. In 1588 Timothy Bright published his Characterie. Bright's book was followed by a number of others, including Peter Bales' The Writing Schoolemaster in 1590, John Willis's Art of Stenography in 1602, Edmond Willis's An abbreviation of writing by character in 1618, Thomas Shelton's Short Writing in 1626.
Shelton's system became popular and is well known because it was used by Samuel Pepys for his diary and for many of his official papers, such as his letter copy books. It was used by Sir Isaac Newton in some of his notebooks. Shelton borrowed from his predecessors Edmond Willis; each consonant was represented by an arbitrary but simple symbol, while the five vowels were represented by the relative positions of the surrounding consonants. Thus the symbol for B with symbol for T drawn directly above it represented "bat", while B with T below it meant "but". A vowel at the end of a word was represented by a dot in the appropriate position, while there were additional symbols for initial vowels; this basic system was supplemented by further symbols representing common suffixes. One drawback of Shelton's system was that there was no way to distinguish long and short vowels or diphthongs; the reader needed to u
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is not different from "normal" sound in its physical properties, except that humans cannot hear it; this limit varies from person to person and is 20 kilohertz in healthy young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz. Ultrasound is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. Ultrasound imaging or sonography is used in medicine. In the nondestructive testing of products and structures, ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws. Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning and accelerating chemical processes. Animals such as bats and porpoises use ultrasound for locating prey and obstacles. Scientists are studying ultrasound using graphene diaphragms as a method of communication. Acoustics, the science of sound, starts as far back as Pythagoras in the 6th century BC, who wrote on the mathematical properties of stringed instruments.
Echolocation in bats was discovered by Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1794, when he demonstrated that bats hunted and navigated by inaudible sound, not vision. Francis Galton in 1893 invented the Galton whistle, an adjustable whistle that produced ultrasound, which he used to measure the hearing range of humans and other animals, demonstrating that many animals could hear sounds above the hearing range of humans; the first technological application of ultrasound was an attempt to detect submarines by Paul Langevin in 1917. The piezoelectric effect, discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880, was useful in transducers to generate and detect ultrasonic waves in air and water. Ultrasound is defined by the American National Standards Institute as "sound at frequencies greater than 20 kHz". In air at atmospheric pressure, ultrasonic waves have wavelengths of 1.9 cm or less. The upper frequency limit in humans is due to limitations of the middle ear. Auditory sensation can occur if high‐intensity ultrasound is fed directly into the human skull and reaches the cochlea through bone conduction, without passing through the middle ear.
Children can hear some high-pitched sounds that older adults cannot hear, because in humans the upper limit pitch of hearing tends to decrease with age. An American cell phone company has used this to create ring signals that are only audible to younger humans, but many older people can hear the signals, which may be because of the considerable variation of age-related deterioration in the upper hearing threshold; the Mosquito is an electronic device that uses a high pitched frequency to deter loitering by young people. Bats use a variety of ultrasonic ranging techniques to detect their prey, they can detect frequencies beyond 100 kHz up to 200 kHz. Many insects have good ultrasonic hearing, most of these are nocturnal insects listening for echolocating bats; these include many groups of moths, praying mantids and lacewings. Upon hearing a bat, some insects will make evasive manoeuvres to escape being caught. Ultrasonic frequencies trigger a reflex action in the noctuid moth that causes it to drop in its flight to evade attack.
Tiger moths emit clicks which may disturb bats' echolocation, in other cases may advertise the fact that they are poisonous by emitting sound. Dogs and cats' hearing range extends into the ultrasound; the wild ancestors of cats and dogs evolved this higher hearing range to hear high-frequency sounds made by their preferred prey, small rodents. A dog whistle is a whistle that emits ultrasound, used for calling dogs; the frequency of most dog whistles is within the range of 23 to 54 kHz. Toothed whales, including dolphins, can hear ultrasound and use such sounds in their navigational system to orient and to capture prey. Porpoises have the highest known upper hearing limit at around 160 kHz. Several types of fish can detect ultrasound. In the order Clupeiformes, members of the subfamily Alosinae have been shown to be able to detect sounds up to 180 kHz, while the other subfamilies can hear only up to 4 kHz. Ultrasound generator/speaker systems are sold as electronic pest control devices, which are claimed to frighten away rodents and insects, but there is no scientific evidence that the devices work.
An ultrasonic level or sensing system requires no contact with the target. For many processes in the medical, pharmaceutical and general industries this is an advantage over inline sensors that may contaminate the liquids inside a vessel or tube or that may be clogged by the product. Both continuous wave and pulsed systems are used; the principle behind a pulsed-ultrasonic technology is that the transmit signal consists of short bursts of ultrasonic energy. After each burst, the electronics looks for a return signal within a small window of time corresponding to the time it takes for the energy to pass through the vessel. Only a signal received during this window will qualify for additional signal processing. A popular consumer application of ultrasonic ranging was the Polaroid SX-70 camera, which included a lightweight transducer system to focus the camera automatically. Polaroid licensed this ultrasound technology and it became the basis of a variety of ultrasonic products. A common ultrasound application is an automatic door opener, where an ultrasonic sensor detects a person's approach and opens the door.
Ultrasonic sensors are used to detect intruders. The flow in pipes or open channels can be measured by ultrasonic flowmeters, which measure the average veloci
Cardiovascular technologists are health professionals that deal with the circulatory system. Technologists who use ultrasound to examine the heart chambers and vessels are referred to as cardiac sonographers, they use ultrasound instrumentation to create images called echocardiograms. An echocardiogram may be performed while the patient is either resting or physically active. Technologists may administer medication to physically active patients to assess their heart function. Cardiac sonographers may assist physicians who perform transesophageal echocardiography, which involves placing a tube in the patient’s esophagus to obtain ultrasound images; those who assist physicians in the diagnosis of disorders affecting the circulation are known as vascular technologists, vascular specialists or vascular sonographers. They obtain a medical history, evaluate pulses and assess blood flow in arteries and veins by listening to the vascular flow sounds for abnormalities, they perform a noninvasive procedure using ultrasound instrumentation to record vascular information such as vascular blood flow, blood pressure, changes in limb volume, oxygen saturation, cerebral circulation, peripheral circulation, abdominal circulation.
Many of these tests are performed during or after surgery. Cardiovascular technicians who obtain EKGs are known as electrocardiograph technicians. To take a basic EKG, which traces electrical impulses transmitted by the heart, technicians attach electrodes to the patient’s chest and legs, manipulate switches on an EKG machine to obtain a reading. An EKG is printed out for interpretation by the physician; this test is done before most kinds of surgery or as part of a routine physical examination on persons who have reached middle age or who have a history of cardiovascular problems. EKG technicians with advanced training setup Holter monitor and stress testing. For Holter monitoring, technicians place electrodes on the patient’s chest and attach a portable EKG monitor to the patient’s belt. Following 24 or more hours of normal activity by the patient, the technician removes a tape from the monitor and places it in a scanner. After checking the quality of the recorded impulses on an electronic screen, the technician prints the information from the tape for analysis by a physician.
Physicians use the output from the scanner to diagnose heart ailments, such as heart rhythm abnormalities or problems with pacemakers. For a treadmill stress test, EKG technicians document the patient’s medical history, explain the procedure, connect the patient to an EKG monitor, obtain a baseline reading and resting blood pressure. Next, they monitor the heart’s performance while the patient is walking on a treadmill increasing the treadmill’s speed to observe the effect of increased exertion; the position is unlicensed and skills are learned on the job. Cardiovascular Credentialing International The American Society of Echocardiography The Society of Invasive Cardiovascular Professionals The Society for Vascular Ultrasound CAAHEP The Irish Society of Cardiological Technology UK Registration Council of Clinical Physiologists Malaysian Society of Cardiovascular TechnologistAmerican Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers http://www.ardms.org
ECPI University, or East Coast Polytechnic Institute, is a private, for-profit educational institution based in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It provides undergraduate and graduate level education in an accelerated format. ECPI University has six colleges with campuses in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida and provides courses online. ECPI University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. ECPI University was founded in Norfolk, Virginia in 1966. Formed as an institution offering accelerated education in computer science and programming, ECPI University expanded its offerings to include Electronics Engineering Technology, Health Sciences and Culinary Arts. In 2012, ECPI University was the subject of a US Senate report by the Committee on Health, Education and Pensions, investigating misuse of Federal funds by for-profit education companies, it concluded that while student withdrawal rates were better than many companies examined, withdrawal rates for smaller online programs, student loan default rates, were troubling.
ECPI University was known as ECPI College of Technology but it changed its name on June 1, 2011, started offering master's degrees in the field of Computer and Information Science. The acronym ECPI stands for East Coast Polytechnic Institute. ECPI University’s academic offerings are organized into six colleges: College of Technology, College of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, College of Business, College of Criminal Justice, College of Culinary Arts. ECPI University offers diploma and degree programs in Information Technology, Electronics Engineering Technology, Health Science, Business, Criminal Justice, Culinary Arts through its five colleges. ECPI University’s students take two courses per session through its year-round curriculum with a 30-month Bachelor's Degree and 15-month Associate's Degree. Courses are offered in hybrid formats. ECPI University is regionally accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award associate's, master's degrees in addition to diplomas.
ECPI has been regionally accredited by the SACSCOC since 1998. ECPI University received approval at the December 2010 annual meeting of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to advance to a level III institution with the approval of the Master of Science in Information Systems. Additional regional and state licensure has been awarded based on program; as of 2017, ECPI University and its six colleges had 19 campus locations throughout Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina. ECPI has a Lake Mary, Florida campus. Official site
Radiology is the medical specialty that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases within the human body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging are used to diagnose or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of minimally invasive medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies such as X-ray radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging; the modern practice of radiology involves several different healthcare professions working as a team. The radiologist is a medical doctor who has completed the appropriate post-graduate training and interprets medical images, communicates these findings to other physicians by means of a report or verbally, uses imaging to perform minimally invasive medical procedures; the nurse is involved in the care of patients before and after imaging or procedures, including administration of medications, monitoring of vital signs and monitoring of sedated patients.
The radiographer known as a "radiologic technologist" in some countries such as the United States, is a specially trained healthcare professional that uses sophisticated technology and positioning techniques to produce medical images for the radiologist and nurse to interpret. Depending on the individual's training and country of practice, the radiographer may specialize in one of the above-mentioned imaging modalities or have expanded roles in image reporting. Radiographs are produced by transmitting X-rays through a patient; the X-rays are projected through the body onto a detector. Röntgen discovered X-rays on November 8, 1895 and received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery in 1901. In film-screen radiography, an X-ray tube generates a beam of X-rays, aimed at the patient; the X-rays that pass through the patient are filtered through a device called an grid or X-ray filter, to reduce scatter, strike an undeveloped film, held to a screen of light-emitting phosphors in a light-tight cassette.
The film is developed chemically and an image appears on the film. Film-screen radiography is being replaced by phosphor plate radiography but more by digital radiography and the EOS imaging. In the two latest systems, the X-rays strike sensors that converts the signals generated into digital information, transmitted and converted into an image displayed on a computer screen. In digital radiography the sensors shape a plate, but in the EOS system, a slot-scanning system, a linear sensor vertically scans the patient. Plain radiography was the only imaging modality available during the first 50 years of radiology. Due to its availability and lower costs compared to other modalities, radiography is the first-line test of choice in radiologic diagnosis. Despite the large amount of data in CT scans, MR scans and other digital-based imaging, there are many disease entities in which the classic diagnosis is obtained by plain radiographs. Examples include various types of arthritis and pneumonia, bone tumors, congenital skeletal anomalies, etc.
Mammography and DXA are two applications of low energy projectional radiography, used for the evaluation for breast cancer and osteoporosis, respectively. Fluoroscopy and angiography are special applications of X-ray imaging, in which a fluorescent screen and image intensifier tube is connected to a closed-circuit television system; this augmented with a radiocontrast agent. Radiocontrast agents are administered by swallowing or injecting into the body of the patient to delineate anatomy and functioning of the blood vessels, the genitourinary system, or the gastrointestinal tract. Two radiocontrast agents are presently in common use. Barium sulfate is given rectally for evaluation of the GI tract. Iodine, in multiple proprietary forms, is given by oral, vaginal, intra-arterial or intravenous routes; these radiocontrast agents absorb or scatter X-rays, in conjunction with the real-time imaging, allow demonstration of dynamic processes, such as peristalsis in the digestive tract or blood flow in arteries and veins.
Iodine contrast may be concentrated in abnormal areas more or less than in normal tissues and make abnormalities more conspicuous. Additionally, in specific circumstances, air can be used as a contrast agent for the gastrointestinal system and carbon dioxide can be used as a contrast agent in the venous system. CT imaging uses X-rays in conjunction with computing algorithms to image the body. In CT, an X-ray tube opposite an X-ray detector in a ring-shaped apparatus rotate around a patient, producing a computer-generated cross-sectional image. CT is acquired in the axial plane, with coronal and sagittal images produced by computer reconstruction. Radiocontrast agents are used with CT for enhanced delineation of anatomy. Although radiographs provide higher spatial resolution, CT can detect more subtle variations in attenuation of X-rays. CT exposes the patient to more ionizing radiation than a radiograph. Spiral multidetector CT uses 16, 64, 254 o
Radiographers known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists are healthcare professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology. Radiographers are infrequently, always erroneously, known as x-ray technicians. In countries that use the title radiologic technologist they are informally referred to as techs in the clinical environment; the term radiographer can refer to a therapeutic radiographer known as a radiation therapist. Radiographers work in both public healthcare and private healthcare and can be physically located in any setting where appropriate diagnostic equipment is located, most in hospitals; the practice varies from country to country and can vary between hospitals in the same country. Radiographers are represented by a variety of organizations worldwide, including the International Society of Radiographers and Radiologic Technologists which aims to give direction to the profession as a whole through collaboration with national representative bodies.
Radiography's origins and fluoroscopy's origins can both be traced to 8 November 1895, when German physics professor Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-ray and noted that, while it could pass through human tissue, it could not pass through bone or metal. Röntgen referred to the radiation as "X", he received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery. There are conflicting accounts of his discovery because Röntgen had his lab notes burned after his death, but this is a reconstruction by his biographers: Röntgen was investigating cathode rays using a fluorescent screen painted with barium platinocyanide and a Crookes tube which he had wrapped in black cardboard to shield its fluorescent glow, he noticed a faint green glow from the screen, about 1 metre away. Röntgen realized some invisible rays coming from the tube were passing through the cardboard to make the screen glow: they were passing through an opaque object to affect the film behind it. Röntgen discovered X-rays' medical use when he made a picture of his wife's hand on a photographic plate formed due to X-rays.
The photograph of his wife's hand was the first photograph of a human body part using X-rays. When she saw the picture, she said, "I have seen my death."The first use of X-rays under clinical conditions was by John Hall-Edwards in Birmingham, England on 11 January 1896, when he radiographed a needle stuck in the hand of an associate. On 14 February 1896, Hall-Edwards became the first to use X-rays in a surgical operation; the United States saw its first medical X-ray obtained using a discharge tube of Ivan Pulyui's design. In January 1896, on reading of Röntgen's discovery, Frank Austin of Dartmouth College tested all of the discharge tubes in the physics laboratory and found that only the Pulyui tube produced X-rays; this was a result of Pulyui's inclusion of an oblique "target" of mica, used for holding samples of fluorescent material, within the tube. On 3 February 1896 Gilman Frost, professor of medicine at the college, his brother Edwin Frost, professor of physics, exposed the wrist of Eddie McCarthy, whom Gilman had treated some weeks earlier for a fracture, to the X-rays and collected the resulting image of the broken bone on gelatin photographic plates obtained from Howard Langill, a local photographer interested in Röntgen's work.
X-rays were put to diagnostic use early. Indeed, Marie Curie pushed for radiography to be used to treat wounded soldiers in World War I. Many kinds of staff conducted radiography in hospitals, including physicists, physicians and engineers; the medical speciality of radiology grew up over many years around the new technology. When new diagnostic tests were developed, it was natural for the radiographers to be trained in and to adopt this new technology. Radiographers now perform fluoroscopy, computed tomography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging as well. Although a nonspecialist dictionary might define radiography quite narrowly as "taking X-ray images", this has long been only part of the work of "X-ray Departments", Radiologists. Radiographs were known as roentgenograms, while Skiagrapher was used until about 1918 to mean Radiographer; the history of magnetic resonance imaging includes many researchers who have discovered NMR and described its underlying physics, but it is regarded to be invented by Paul C.
Lauterbur in September 1971. The factors leading to image contrast had been described nearly 20 years earlier by Erik Odeblad and Gunnar Lindström. In 1950, spin echoes and free induction decay were first detected by Erwin Hahn and in 1952, Herman Carr produced a one-dimensional NMR spectrum as reported in his Harvard PhD thesis. In the Soviet Union, Vladislav Ivanov filed a document with the USSR State Committee for Inventions and Discovery at Leningrad for a Magnetic Resonance Imaging device, although this was not approved until the 1970s. By 1959, Jay Singer had studied blood flow by NMR relaxation time measurements of blood in living humans; such measurements were not introduced into common medical practice until the mid-1980s, although a patent for a whole-body NMR machine to measure blood flow in the human body was filed by Alexander Ganssen in early
Society of Radiographers
The Society of Radiographers is a professional body and trade union that represents more than 90 percent of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers in the United Kingdom. The College of Radiographers is a charitable subsidiary of the Society, they are collectively known as the Society and College of Radiographers, it was founded in 1920 in an effort to provide standardised training and registration for Radiographers within the British Isles. Until 1996, the SoR was the professional body and trades union for radiographers in Ireland whereupon the Irish Institute of Radiography and Radiation Therapy was established; the Society of Radiographers was established in 1920 by Radiologists Dr Albert Forder and Dr Robert Knox. In conjunction with Dr Walmsley and Mr Blacked they formed a sub-committee which drafted rules regarding the admission of new members. Membership to the society was open to Radiographers, in continuous, active employment in clinical practice for at least ten years in an electro-therapeutic department or radiology department of an approved hospital by the council.
In 1921, a syllabus was developed and examinations were introduced to facilitate competency checks before membership was granted to new members. Membership began to grow with 67 members in 1921 and 164 in 1923; the society formed a South African branch in 1930 and established a pattern of branch formation with a local committee management, propagated in the UK during the 1930s. As a result, the Scottish Radiographic Society, formed in 1927 became a branch of the Society in 1936, the South West Branch in 1937, the North West in 1942, the Midland and the North East in 1943; the first Annual Conference of the Society of Radiographers was in 1947 held at England. In June 2015, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence granted accreditation to the processes used by the SCoR in order to generate current clinical guidance for Radiography practice, meaning that the SCoR is NICE accredited; the objectives for which The Society of Radiographers is established are as follows: To promote and develop for the public benefit the science and practice of radiography and radiotherapeutic technology and allied subjects.
The College objectives are directed towards education and other activities in support of the science and practice of radiography. The Society and College is led by a Council, made-up of representatives from a number of English regions and from Northern Ireland and Wales; the Council determines the Society's policy and strategic direction in consultation with members and others that have a vested interest. It meets once a month, with the exception of December; the Society is a company limited by guarantee and the members of Council are company directors registered at Companies House. The College, a registered charity, has its own Board of directors comprising an equal number of members drawn from Council and external directors representing the legal and medical fields, they have responsibilities as representatives of the membership and as directors of the company. Neither Council members nor College Board members are paid for their duties but they can claim travelling and other expenses; the President is elected by the members of Council and is inaugurated at the July Council meeting each year.
There is a President-elect and a Vice-president, who serve for one year. The patron of the Society and College of Radiographers is The Rt Hon Llinos "Llin" Golding, Baroness Golding of Newcastle-under-Lyme, a Labour Party politician and former MP who sits in the House of Lords and who practiced as a radiographer; the College was an awarding body for academic awards but no longer fulfils this function. The degree-equivalent radiography qualification awarded by the CoR was the Diploma of the College of Radiographers and this was awarded following a three-year training course and successful completion of a national examination, either in Radiodiagnosis or in Therapy Radiography. Following study equivalent to Masters level, students with a DCR could proceed by examination to the Higher Diploma of the College of Radiographers. Holders of the HDCR undergoing specialist training in management were awarded the Management Diploma of the College of Radiographers and those undergoing specialist training in the teaching of radiography were awarded the Teaching Diploma of the College of Radiographers.
The first Bachelor of Science in Radiography was validated in 1989 and with the widespread introduction of BSc courses in radiography during 1993, the DCR was phased out. The HRCR, TDCR and MDCR have been replaced by postgraduate level courses; the College maintains an Accreditation and Approval Board which aims to protect patients of radiographers by raising the standards of education and practice. It does so by monitoring and assessing programmes of both pre-registration degree courses and ongoing professional education ranging from ad-hoc events to professional postgraduate training; the College runs conferences. Vario