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Sonority hierarchy

A sonority hierarchy or sonority scale is a hierarchical ranking of speech sounds. Some researchers relate sonority rankings for phones to their amplitude. For example, pronouncing the vowel will produce a louder sound than the stop, so would rank higher in the hierarchy. However, grounding sonority in amplitude is not universally accepted. Sonority hierarchies are important when analyzing syllable structure; some languages have assimilation rules based on sonority hierarchy, for example, the Finnish potential mood, in which a less sonorous segment changes to copy a more sonorous adjacent segment. Sonority hierarchies vary somewhat in; the one below is typical: Sound types are the most sonorous on the left side of the scale, become progressively less sonorous towards the right. The labels on the left refer to distinctive features, categories of sounds can be grouped together according to whether they share a feature. For instance, as shown in the sonority hierarchy above, vowels are considered, whereas all consonants are considered.

All sound categories falling under are sonorants. In this way, any contiguous set of sound types may be grouped together on the basis of no more than two features. In English, the sonority scale, from highest to lowest, is the following: > > > > > > > > > In layman terms this scale, in which members of the same group hold the same sonority, represents from greatest to least the presence of vibrations in the vocal folds. Vowels have the most vibration, whereas consonants are characterized as such in part due to the lack of vibration or a break in vibration; the top of the scale, open vowels, has the greatest amount of air being used for vibration where as the bottom of the scale has the least amount of air being used for vibration of the vocal folds. This can be demonstrated by putting a few fingers on one's throat and pronouncing an open vowel such as the vowel, pronouncing one of the plosives of the class. In the vowel case, there is a consistent level pressure generated from the lungs and diaphragm, as well as the pressure difference in one's body and outside the mouth being minimal.

In the plosive case, the pressure generated from the lungs and diaphragm changes as well as the pressure difference in one's body and outside the mouth being maximal before release. More finely nuanced hierarchies exist within classes whose members cannot be said to be distinguished by relative sonority. In North American English, for example, of the set /p t k/, /t/ is by far the most subject to weakening when before an unstressed vowel. In Portuguese, intervocalic /n/ and /l/ are lost but /r/ remains, whereas Romanian transformed the intervocalic non-geminate /l/ into /r/ and reduced the geminate /ll/ to /l/, but kept unchanged /n/ and /r/. Romance languages show geminate /mm/ to be weaker than /nn/, Romance geminate /rr/ is stronger than other geminates, including /pp tt kk/. In such cases, many phonologists refer not to sonority, but to a more abstract notion of relative strength, while once posited as universal in its arrangement, is now known to be language-specific. Syllable structure tends to be influenced and motivated by the sonority scale, with the general rule that more sonorous elements are internal and less sonorant elements are external.

For instance, the sequence /plant/ is permissible in many languages, while /lpatn/ is much less likely.. This rule is applied with varying levels of strictness cross-linguistically, with many languages allowing exceptions: for example, in English, /s/ can be found external to stops though it is more sonorous. In many languages the presence of two non-adjacent highly-sonorous elements can be a reliable indication of how many syllables are in the word. What is the sonority scale? Lingua::Phonology::Syllable — Perl module for extracting sonority scale from text. Https:// The Syllable and Phonotactic Constraints The Derivation of a Sonority Hierarchy from the Syllable Contact Law and the Productivity of SCL in American English

Jōō (Edo period)

Jōō, alternatively romanized as Jō-ō or Shōō, was a Japanese era name after Keian and before Meireki. This period spanned the years from September 1652 through April 1655; the reigning emperors were Go-Kōmyō-tennō and Go-Sai-tennō. 1652 Jōō gannen: The era name was changed to Jōō, to mark the death of the third shōgun, Tokugawa Iemitsu. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Keian 5, on the 18th day of the 9th month; the name of this new era came from the Book of the Jin: "The Xia and the Shang dynasties follow their destinies, so the House of Zhou came when it was time." October 3, 1653: A violent fire destroyed a large part of the Imperial palace and many temples which were nearby. Shortly thereafter, several girls, aged 12–14 years, were imprisoned for having started this fire and others in Heian-kyō. August 18, 1654: A famous priest, arrived at Nagasaki from China, his intention was to reform the practice of Buddhism in Japan. October 30, 1654: Emperor Go-Kōmyō died of smallpox. Within the Jōō period, Japan was implementing the Sakoku policy.

Sakoku means closed country in Japanese. Japan was adopting this policy from 1639 to 1868. There was any foreign trade from other countries, with exception to Chinese and Dutch merchant. Japanese residences were monitored by the Government. People were not allowed to leave the country, with consequence of death penalty. Foreigners were in the same situation, anyone who attempted to enter Japan's territory would be killed by the soldiers right away; the entire country was dictated by Tokugawa government. The Sakoku policy was adopted by the ruler for preventing invaders, keeping their national characteristics and national religion; this policy was banned after the Edo Period. The country was re-opened to the world in 1868. Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Japan: The Rise of a Modern Power. Oxford: Clarendon Press. OCLC 3881028 Screech, Timon.. Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

ISBN 978-0-203-09985-8. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection Sennyuji Temple Museum -- funereal ceremonies for Emperor Go-Kōmyō Imperial Household web site -- link to image of Emperor Go-Kōmyō's official Imperial misasagii

Rhodes (TV series)

Rhodes is an eight part British television drama series about the life of Cecil Rhodes, a 19th century British adventurer, empire-builder and politician. It starred Martin Shaw as Rhodes, was written by Antony Thomas. Rhodes received its British television debut on 15 September 1996, concluded on 3 November, it was produced by Scott Meek and Charles Salmon, directed by David Drury. At the time of its production, Rhodes was the most expensive project undertaken by a British television broadcaster, costing £10 million to make, was seen as a huge gamble by the BBC. In addition, development and production took a decade to complete, the series employed over 10,000 extras. Forming part of BBC1's Autumn 1996 television programming, its opening episode was preceded by a high-profile publicity campaign. However, it began to attract poor viewing figures. Although 7.6 million tuned in for the first episode, by the following week viewing figures had fallen to 4.8 million. The series was quickly panned by critics.

On 26 September 1996, a report by The Independent's Marianne MacDonald suggested one of the series' biggest issues was that it assumed its viewers would have a prior knowledge of Cecil Rhodes' life and achievements, something which it turned out many of those watching it did not possess. In response to these concerns, the BBC produced a 32-page booklet to accompany the series that provided some background details about Rhodes, which could be purchased for £4.99. However, copies of this book would not be available until at least four weeks into the series, by which time MacDonald felt that many viewers would have given up on it. Following the 2000 adaptation of Gormenghast, Mervyn Peake's series of fantasy novels, which proved to be unsuccessful with viewers and critics, Rhodes was included in a list of notable British television flops compiled by The Guardian; the series tells the story of Rhodes' life through a series of flashbacks of conversations between him and Princess Catherine Radziwiłł, between her and people who knew him.

It shows the story of how she stalked and ruined him. In the serial, Cecil Rhodes is played by Martin Shaw, the younger Cecil Rhodes is played by his son Joe Shaw, Princess Radziwiłł is played by Frances Barber. In the serial Rhodes is portrayed as greedy; the serial suggests that he was homosexual. Because of the dramatic slide in ratings, Rhodes was deemed to have been a failure, prompting MacDonald to observe that the series was "in danger of becoming a flop as colossal as its hero's exploits", it was quickly rounded on by a number of critics, who were as scathing. Writing for The Sunday Times, A. A. Gill suggested it "started with everything against it and they made it all worse", while David Aaronovitch of The Independent on Sunday opined the overuse of background music, observing "The BBC's Rhodes is a man who cannot take a leak without the assistance of the Berlin Philharmonic". Paul Johnson, writing for the Daily Mail felt Rhodes had been misrepresented by the series: "In nine tendentious hours, Rhodes is to be presented as a corrupt and greedy money-grabber, a racist and paedophile, whose disgusting passion was to get his hands on young boys... the BBC has spent £10m of our money putting together a farrago of exaggerations and smears about this great man."However, despite the series' troubles the BBC were hopeful that it would enjoy more success internationally: A spokeswoman for BBC Worldwide said of Rhodes, "It's very disappointing about the ratings but it doesn't affect international sales.

Overseas broadcasters... tend not to go on what critics say here." The complete series of Rhodes was released on VHS in 1997. It was subsequently released on DVD by Acorn Media UK on 3 March 2008. Rhodes on IMDb Rhodes at

Herbert Durham

Herbert Durham DSc, MB, BC, FRCS, ARPS was a British physician and distinguished scientist. Herbert Edward Durham was born 30 March 1866, the son of Arthur E. Durham, Senior Surgeon to Guy’s Hospital, he married daughter of Capt. Harmer of 81st Regiment. Durham was educated at University College School, London from 1883–84. In 1904 he was awarded a John Lucas Walker Studentship in Pathology, a scholarship given by the University of Cambridge for original pathological research, he was Assistant Demonstrator in Histology from 1884–89 House Surgeon at Guy's Hospital, London from 1889-95. From 1895-96 he worked at the Hygiene Institute, Vienna where he was associated with Professor Max von Gruber in the discovery of agglutination of bacteria. In 1897 he developed an agglutination reaction for diagnosis of typhoid fever, called the Grubler-Durham reaction, subsequently known as the Widal reaction. From 1896-98 he was a working Member of Tsetse Fly Disease Committee of the Royal Society. In June 1900 under the auspices of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and accompanied by fellow eminent Cambridge parasitologist, Dr Walter Myers, Durham led the Yellow Fever Expedition to Brazil.

In 1881 the Cuban epidemiologist Dr Carlos Finlay was the first to theorise that yellow fever was transmitted by mosquitoes, but this remained unproven in the wider scientific community. While en route to Brazil they visited the U. S. Naval Hospital in Washington where they met U. S. Surgeon General George Miller Sternberg, considered the first U. S. bacteriologist, proceeded to Havana where they met Dr Finlay and his co-workers on 25 July 1900, the U. S. Army Yellow Fever Commission, led by Dr Walter Reed, which subsequently confirmed Dr Finlay’s theory. Among Reed’s team was bacteriologist Dr Jesse Lazear who died a month on 26 September aged 34 while investigating the disease. On 24 August Durham and Myers arrived in Pari in the northern state of Pará, where they established a laboratory to study the transmission of the disease and were among the first to establish its transmission by mosquitoes. Durham and Myers were aware of the risks, they were transferred to the Domingos Freire Isolation Hospital in Pari where Durham recovered but Myers died four days aged 28.

In his subsequent report Durham deduced. He was subsequently in charge of an expedition to investigate beriberi in the Malay Peninsula and on Christmas Island, organised by London School of Tropical Medicine, he introduced Derris as insecticide from Malaya. In 1905 aged 39 he had to give up his research activities as a result of deterioration of his vision and became engaged in the study of fermentation and allied problems, he worked as scientific adviser to cider manufacturer, H. P. Bulmer and Company. Through his isolation of wild yeast which ensured that fermentations were consistent, Durham assisted his close college friend, Fred Bulmer, in the development of commercial cider-making. Durham was 48 at the outbreak of the First World War and served as Hon. Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps and Major in the Special List. Durham had a strong interest in photography, he was an Associate of the Royal Photographic Society where he exhibited and was a Medallist in 1927. On Nagana, or Tsetse Fly Disease Kanthack, A. A..

H. E. Durham, Green & Co, 1902 Recherche et dosage des métaux lourds dans le cidre, Dr H. E. Durham, 1937Durham wrote numerous papers on various medical and hygienic subjects including: An Address on the Present Knowledge of Outbreaks due to Meat Poisoning: Delivered before the Medical Society of Oldham on November 22nd, 1898. Durham H. E. Br Med J. 1898 Dec 17. On Persistence of the Thyreoglossal Duct, with Remarks on Median Cervical Fistulæ and Cysts due to Embryonic Remnants. Durham H. E. Med Chir Trans. 1894. On the Clinical Bearing of some Experiments on Peritoneal Infections. Durham H. E. Med Chir Trans. 1897. A Simple Method for Demonstrating the Production of Gas by Bacteria. Durham H. E. Br Med J. 1898 May 28. Some Theoretical Considerations Upon the Nature of Agglutinins, Together with Further Observations upon Bacillus Typhi Abdominalis, Bacillus Enteritidis, Bacillus Coli Communis, Bacillus Lactis Aerogenes, some other Bacilli of Allied Character. Durham H. E. J Exp Med. 1901 Jan 15. The Campaign Against Ague.

Durham H. E. Br Med J. 1901 Mar 2. Notes on Beri-beri in the Malay Peninsula and on Christmas Island. Durham H. E. J Hyg. 1903 Jul. Some Notes on the Urine in Beri-Beri. Durham H. E. Br Med J. 1904 Feb 27. On subcutaneous injections of adrenalin. Elliott TR, Durham H. E. J. Physiol. 1906 Oct 29. Durham H. E. Br Med J. 1918 Jun 22. Studies on Cider and Perry: No. I. Sulphite Preservatives. Durham H. E. J Hyg. 1909 Apr. The Prevalence of Thyroid Enlargement in and about Hereford. Durham H. E. J Hyg. 1921 Mar.

Joshua G. Newbold

Joshua Gaskill Newbold was the tenth Governor of Iowa. Newbold grew up in a Quaker family in Pennsylvania, he became a Baptist. He moved to Iowa in 1854, he joined the Union Army in 1862 as captain of Company C, 25th Regiment of the Iowa Infantry, fought at the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, the Battle of Fort Hindman, the Third Battle of Chattanooga, the Battle of Ringgold Gap, the Atlanta Campaign, Sherman's March to the Sea. Newbold served in the Iowa House of Representatives from 1872-76, he was elected Lieutenant Governor as a Republican in 1876, succeeded to the governorship when Samuel J. Kirkwood resigned to take a seat in the United States Senate. From 1899-1903, Newbold was mayor of Mount Pleasant, where he died and was buried in the Forest Home cemetery in 1903. National Governors Association profile Portrait and Biographical Album, 1887, Washington County, Iowa, p. 143 The United States Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gallery of Eminent and Self-Made Men, Iowa volume, 1878


Pokiri is a 2006 Indian Telugu-language action thriller film written and directed by Puri Jagannadh. The film was produced by Jagannadh and Manjula Ghattamaneni by their respective production companies Vaishno Academy and Indira Productions; the film stars Ileana D'Cruz. The plot revolves around a local goon whose killer instincts earn him not only his girlfriend's disapproval and a corrupt cop's enmity but the attention of a wanted don. Made on a budget of around ₹100—120 million, the film's principal photography commenced in November 2005 and lasted until April 2006. Most of the film was shot in and around Hyderabad and Chennai, except for a song, shot at the province of Phuket in Thailand and the city of Bangkok. Shyam K. Naidu was the film's cinematographer, it was edited by Marthand K. Venkatesh; the soundtrack and background score were composed by Mani Sharma. Pokiri was released on 28 April 2006, to positive critical feedback, collected a distributor's share of ₹420 million; the film grossed ₹700 million worldwide and remained the highest-grossing Telugu film for three years, until it was surpassed by Magadheera in 2009.

The film was one of the fourteen southern Indian films to be screened at the International Indian Film Academy Awards Film festival in 2006. The film won four Nandi Awards and two Filmfare Awards; the film's success catapulted D'Cruz into stardom and brought recognition to Jagannadh as a writer and director. It was remade in Tamil as Pokkiri, in Hindi as Wanted, in Kannada as Porki. In Hyderabad, two rival mafia gangs headed by Dubai-based don Ali Bhai, Narayana resort to criminal activities such as extortion and coercion for various reasons; the new commissioner of police, Sayyad Mohammad Pasha Qadri Shayaji Shinde, focuses on making the city a better place by working at arresting all of them. Pandu Mahesh Babu, a remorseless gangster living in Hyderabad along with his friends, is hired by Narayana and attacks Ali Bhai's henchmen, he joins Ali Bhai's gang for monetary reasons. He falls in love with Shruti Ileana D Cruz, an aerobics teacher, who rejects his advances. Shruti lives with her widowed mother and brother and her neighbour Brahmi Brahmanandam, a software engineer, who pesters her to marry him.

A corrupt police officer named Pasupathy Ashish Vidyarthi, who works for Ali Bhai, is attracted to Shruti. He is determined to make her his mistress, undeterred by Shruti's multiple rejections. After Pandu kills a henchman of Narayana, he is confronted by Pasupathy and is able to prevent Shruti from being molested, she meets him the next day to thank him, Pandu introduces himself as a self-employed person who undertakes any activity for money. They develop unspoken romantic feelings for each other angering Pasupathy. Shruti's employer, Suryanarayana Nassar, suggests. To repel Pasupathy's advances, she proposes to him. After an attack by Narayana's henchmen, who are murdered by Pandu, he reveals that he is a gangster and suggests that she might want to rethink her proposal. After Shruti distances herself from Pandu, Pasupathy frames her with a mock sexual assault by a few gangsters unbeknownst to her family and the local residents, he intends this act to ruin her life and subsequently force her to be his mistress.

Learning this, Pandu confronts Pasupathy and warns him that he will face dire consequences if he is found guilty of being involved. Ali Bhai visits assassinates Narayana, he meets Pandu to discuss the murder of a minister by blowing up a balloon. Pandu rejects this. At the same time as they are arguing, Qadri tortures him. Ali Bhai's henchmen retaliate by filming Qadri's daughter as she is enticed into sexual activity by the minister's son, release it to the media, they kidnap her, forcing the police to release Ali Bhai. At the same time, Pandu manages to catch the gangsters who pretended to rape Shruti and she reconciles with him. Qadri's daughter is sedated and reveals that an undercover police officer, whose father's name is Suryanarayana, had infiltrated the gang for some time. Ali Bhai kills Suryanarayana's son Ajay. However, Suryanarayana reveals that Ajay was his adopted son, that Pandu is Krishna Manohar Mahesh Babu I. P. S. his biological son, who had infiltrated his gang at Qadri's direction.

Suryanarayana is killed and Manohar forces Pasupathy to kill Ali Bhai before he initiates his plan to set off bombs across Hyderabad. Manohar kills Ali Bhai's henchmen one by one at Binny Mills. Ali Bhai offers Pasupathy a hefty sum to kill Manohar but his attempt fails. In a final confrontation, Manohar kills Ali Bhai by slitting his throat. Qadri's daughter is saved and when Pasupathy tries to backstab Manohar, he is shot dead by the latter. In 2004, after Andhrawala's commercial failure, its director Puri Jagannadh planned a film titled Sri Krishnudu from Surabhi Company starring Chiranjeevi in the lead role, he decided that explaining the story to Chiranjeevi, talking him into accepting the role, filming the movie, would be a long, tiring process. He chose instead to revive the script of Uttam Singh S/O Suryanarayana which he had written during the production of Badri, he approached Pawan Kalyan to play the lead role. He approached Ravi Teja who agreed to play the lead. However, Teja was approached by Cheran, an award winning director, to remake the 2004 Tamil film Autograph in Telugu.

Teja was eager to be involved in the remake as he liked the original much. As a result, the production Uttam S