Scrapbooking is a method of preserving, arranging personal and family history in the form of a book, card. Typical memorabilia include photographs, printed media, artwork. Scrapbook albums are decorated and contain extensive journaling or written descriptions. Scrapbooking started in the United Kingdom in the nineteenth century. In the 15th century, commonplace books, popular in England, emerged as a way to compile information that included recipes, letters and more; each commonplace book was unique to its creator's particular interests. Friendship albums became popular in the 16th century; these albums were used much like modern day yearbooks, where friends or patrons would enter their names and short texts or illustrations at the request of the album's owner. These albums were created as souvenirs of European tours and would contain local memorabilia including coats of arms or works of art commissioned by local artisans. Starting in 1570, it became fashionable to incorporate colored plates depicting popular scenes such as Venetian costumes or Carnival scenes.
These provided affordable options as compared to original works and, as such, these plates were not sold to commemorate or document a specific event, but as embellishments for albums. In 1775, James Granger published a history of England with several blank pages at the end of the book; the pages were designed to allow the book's owner to personalize the book with his own memorabilia. The practice of pasting engravings and other illustrations into books, or taking the books apart, inserting new matter, rebinding them, became known as extra-illustrating or grangerizing. Additionally, friendship albums and school yearbooks afforded girls in the 18th and 19th centuries an outlet through which to share their literary skills, allowed girls an opportunity to document their own personalized historical record not available to them. For example, college women around the turn of the century used scrapbooks extensively to construct representations of their everyday life as students. Without photograph albums to provide images of these life events, students created unique representations through scrapbooks in order to illustrate their lives using ephemera and memorabilia.
A guest list or group of visiting cards might represent a young woman's visit to a party. A playbill and ticket stub might serve as reminders of a trip to New York to see a Broadway show. Solid objects such as plants, silverware, or small trinkets were used when further visual representation was needed. A page from these subject-based scrapbooks might include class schedules, exam booklets, letters from professors, or other printed material from school events, thus scrapbooks from this era can create a more complete image of their maker's life. During the 19th century, scrapbooking was seen as a more involved way to preserve one's experiences than journaling or other writing-based forms of logging. Printed material such as cheap newspapers, visiting cards and pamphlets circulated during the 19th century and became the primary components of peoples’ scrapbooks; the growing volume of ephemera of this kind, parallel to the growth of industrialized society, created a demand for methods of cataloguing and preserving them.
This is why scrapbooks devoted to cataloguing recipes, coupons, or other lists were common during this time. Until in the 19th century, scrapbooks were seen as functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. Several factors, including marketing strategies and technological advancement, contributed to the image of scrapbooking moving further toward the aesthetic plane over the years; the advent of modern photography began with the first permanent photograph created by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in 1826. This allowed the average person to begin to incorporate photographs into their scrapbooks. However, books or albums made for showcasing photographs alone were not popularized in the United States until closer to 1860. Before that point, photographs were not thought of as items to be shared. Demand for photo albums was spurred on in large part by the growing popularity of the carte de visite, a small photograph distributed in the same manner one might a visiting card. Old scrapbooks tended to have photos mounted with photomounting corners and notations of, in a photo or where and when it was taken.
They included bits of memorabilia like newspaper clippings, etc. An early known American scrapbooker and inventor of scrapbooking supplies was Mark Twain. Twain carried scrapbooks on his travels as he collected souvenirs and pictures; the following photographs show some of the pages from a "Memorial of Friendship" scrapbook kept by Anne Wagner, a British woman, between 1795 and 1834. She belonged to the same social circle as the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. Anne Wagner's scrapbook includes pages she created, as well as contributions from friends and relatives; the scrapbook contains handwritten poems, notes left by friends and relatives, decoupage ephemera like locks of hair, decorative paper clippings and detailed watercolour sketches. Marielen Wadley Christensen, of Elk Ridge, United States is credited with turning scrapbooking from what was once just the ages-old hobby into the actual industry containing businesses devoted to the manufacturing and sale of scrapbooking supplies, she began designing creative pages for her family's photo memories, inserting the completed pages into sheet protectors collected in 3-ring binders.
By 1980, she had assembled over fifty volumes and was invited to display them at the World Conference on Rec
A boy band is loosely defined as a vocal group consisting of young male singers in their teenage years or in their twenties at the time of formation, singing love songs marketed towards young women. Being vocal groups, most boy band members do not play musical instruments, either in recording sessions or on stage, making the term something of a misnomer. However, exceptions do exist. Many boy bands dance as well as sing giving choreographed performances; some such bands form on their own. They can evolve out of church choral or gospel music groups, but are created by talent managers or record producers who hold auditions. Due to this and their general commercial orientation towards a female audience of preteens, teenyboppers, or teens, the term may be used with negative connotations in music journalism. Boy bands are similar in concept to girl groups. Boy bands' popularity peaked four times: in the 1960s, in the 1990s and early 2000s when acts such as the Backstreet Boys, *NSYNC, A1 and Westlife, among others, dominated the top of the Billboard and pop charts, in the early 2010s with the emergence of new boy bands such as JLS, Big Time Rush and One Direction, in the late 2010s with pop groups such as BTS and 5 Seconds of Summer.
The earliest forerunner of boy band music began in the late 19th century as a cappella barbershop quartets. They were a group of males and sang in four-part harmonies. Barbershop quartets were popular into the earlier part of the 20th century. A revival of the male vocal group took place in the late 1940s and 1950s with the use of doo-wop music. Doo-wop bands sang about topics such as love and other themes used in pop music; the earliest traces of boy bands were in the mid-1950s. African American vocal group The Ink Spots was one of the first of what would now be called boy bands; the term boy band was not established until the late 1980s as before that they were called male vocal groups or "hep harmony singing groups". Although described as a rock band, the highest-selling band in history The Beatles are considered by a number or journalists "the first" or "the original" boyband, "before anyone had thought of the term." The Liverpool quartet known as The Beatles were not only the quintessential rock band, but many considered John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Star to be the original boy band -- in the early 1960s when young girls would scream at the top of their lungs and pass out upon first sight of the “Fab Four.
The Beatles inspired the decision to produce the 1966 television series The Monkees, which spawned the music group of the same name, formed by the four starring actors. The rock and pop band started a career in music after their songs from the TV series released as records resulted successful. Although the term "boy band" was not used yet, the earliest predecessors of this format were groups such as the Jackson 5 and the Osmonds which helped form the template for boy bands; the Jackson 5 were a siblings group. For instance, their music featured close harmonies from soul music and catchy pop hooks influenced as much as they were by Motown and acts like the Supremes; the group incorporated choreographed dance moves to their performances. All members of the band sang, a common convention of a boy band, as opposed to having a front man and the rest on instruments. A siblings group, The Osmonds first started singing barbershop music for local audiences, before being hired to perform at Disneyland early in their career.
Their appearance in a televised Disney special earned them additional TV spots, such as The Andy Williams Show and The Jerry Lewis Show. Other antecedents exist throughout the history of pop music; the genre has been copied into cultures other than the Anglo-American. The Puerto Rican boy band Menudo, appealing to young Latina audiences, was founded in 1977. Menudo had a convention unique among boy bands: when a member turned 16, became too tall, or their voice changed, they were replaced; the members of Menudo were aged 12–16. The Bay City Rollers were a Scottish pop band; the British Hit Singles & Albums noted that they were "tartan teen sensations from Edinburgh", were "the first of many acts heralded as the'Biggest Group since The Beatles' and one of the most screamed-at teeny-bopper acts of the 1970s". For a brief but fervent period, they were worldwide teen idols; the group were one of the first bands, like The Monkees before them, to take the formula shown by The Beatles and apply it to a teen market.
The group achieved the same amount of success but for a limited period of time. At the peak of their popularity in the UK, comparisons were being made to The Beatles. By this time, Bay City Roller fans had a distinctive style of dress, the main elements of which were ankle-length tartan trousers and tartan scarves, the group using the benefit of merchandise and promotion. In the US, the Cleveland-based power pop group Raspberries was interpreted as a "teen act", although all the band members played their own music. Vocalist Eric Carmen commented, "It was not hip for people to like us, because their little sister liked us."Boston group New Edition was formed in 1978 and reached their height of popularity in the 1980s, meaning they are credited for starting the boy-band trend though the term "boy band" did not exist until the 1990s. Maurice Starr was influenced by New Edition and popularized it with his protégé New Kids on the Block, the first commercial
Justin Randall Timberlake is an American singer-songwriter, actor and record producer. Born and raised in Tennessee, he appeared on the television shows Star Search and The All-New Mickey Mouse Club as a child. In the late 1990s, Timberlake rose to prominence as one of the two lead vocalists and youngest member of NSYNC, which became one of the best-selling boy bands of all time. Timberlake began to adopt a more mature image as an artist with the release of his debut solo album, the R&B-focused Justified, which yielded the successful singles "Cry Me a River" and "Rock Your Body", earned his first two Grammy Awards, his critically acclaimed second album FutureSex/LoveSounds, characterized by its diversity in music genres, debuted atop the U. S. Billboard 200 and produced the Hot 100 number-one singles "SexyBack", "My Love", "What Goes Around... Comes Around". Established as a solo artist worldwide, his first two albums both exceeded sales of 10 million copies, he continued producing records and collaborating with other artists.
From 2008 through 2012, Timberlake focused on his acting career putting his music career on hiatus. He held starring roles in the films The Social Network, Bad Teacher, Friends with Benefits, In Time. Timberlake resumed his music career in 2013 with his third and fourth albums The 20/20 Experience and The 20/20 Experience – 2 of 2, exploring neo soul styles inspired by the expansive song structures of 1960s and 1970s rock; the former became the best-selling album of the year in the US with the largest sales week, spawned the top-three singles "Suit & Tie" and "Mirrors", while the latter produced the top-ten song "Not a Bad Thing". For his live performances, including the eponymous concert tour for the albums, he began performing with his band The Tennessee Kids, composed by instrumentalists and dancers. Timberlake voiced the lead character in DreamWorks Animation's Trolls, whose soundtrack includes his fifth Billboard Hot 100 chart-topping single, "Can't Stop the Feeling!". His fifth studio album Man of the Woods became his fourth number-one album in the US.
The album was supported by the two top ten singles, "Filthy" and "Say Something". Man of the Woods concluded 2018 as the sixth best-selling album of the year. Throughout his solo career, Timberlake has sold over 32 million albums and 56 million singles globally, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists. Cited as a pop icon, Timberlake is the recipient of numerous awards and accolades, including ten Grammy Awards, four Emmy Awards, three Brit Awards, nine Billboard Music Awards. According to Billboard in 2017, he is the best performing male soloist in the history of the Mainstream Top 40. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2007 and 2013, his other ventures include record label Tennman Records, fashion label William Rast, the restaurants Destino and Southern Hospitality. Justin Randall Timberlake was born on January 31, 1981 in Memphis, Tennessee, to Lynn Harless and Charles Randall Timberlake, a Baptist church choir director. Timberlake grew up in a small community between Memphis and Millington.
He has two half-brothers and Stephen, from Charles' second marriage to Lisa Perry. His half-sister Laura Katherine died shortly after birth on May 12, 1997, is mentioned in his acknowledgments in the album NSYNC as "My Angel in Heaven", his family circle includes a number of musicians. Performing as a child, Timberlake sang country and gospel music: at the age of 11, he appeared on the television show Star Search, performing country songs as "Justin Randall". By that time, he began listening to rhythm and blues musicians from the 1960s and 70s, such as Al Green, Stevie Wonder and Marvin Gaye, he had listening sessions with his father of studio albums by the Eagles and Bob Seger. In 1993 and 1994, he was a cast member in The All-New Mickey Mouse Club, where his castmates included future girlfriend and singer Britney Spears, future tourmate Christina Aguilera, future bandmate JC Chasez, future movie actors Ryan Gosling and Keri Russell. Timberlake recruited Chasez to be in an all-male singing group, organized by boy band manager Lou Pearlman, that became NSYNC.
The boy band NSYNC formed in 1995, began their career in 1996 in Europe. In 1998, the group rose to prominence in the United States with the release of their self-titled debut studio album, which sold 11 million copies and included the hit single "Tearin' Up My Heart", their second album No Strings Attached sold 2.4 million copies in the first week, included a No. 1 single, "It's Gonna Be Me". NSYNC's third album Celebrity was financially successful. Upon the completion of the Celebrity Tour, the group went into hiatus in 2002. In its lifetime, NSYNC was internationally famous and performed at the Academy Awards, the Olympics, the Super Bowl, as well as selling more than 70 million records worldwide, becoming the fifth-best selling boy band in history. In late 1999, Timberlake appeared in the Disney Channel movie Model Behavior, he played Jason Sharpe, a model who falls in love with a waitress after mistaking her for another model. It was released on March 12, 2000; the rise of his own stardom and the general decline in the popularity of boy bands led to the dissolution of NSYNC.
Band member Lance Bass was critical of Timberlake's actions in his memoir Out of Sync. By 2002, when the group went on a hiatus and members were following individual projects, he partnered with Pharrell Williams of the produc
The Book of Mormon Movie
The Book of Mormon Movie, Volume 1: The Journey is a 2003 American adventure drama film directed by Gary Rogers and written by Rogers and Craig Clyde. A film adaptation of the first two books in The Book of Mormon, a religious text of scripture, the film was given a limited theatrical release on September 12, 2003; the movie is based on the first two books of the Book of Mormon: Second Nephi. The source material contains a lot of theological discussion, parables, some of which have been cut from the adaptation due to their unsuitability as narrative material; some of the visionary material is retained. The film starts in Jerusalem around 600 BCE, where we meet patriarch Lehi, his wife Sariah, their four sons: Laman, Lemuel and Nephi. Lehi and his wife are devout believers in God, as are their sons and Sam. Laman and Lemuel are more wayward and do not tend to agree with the commands of God or their father and brother Nephi. While in Jerusalem, Lehi prophesies; this elicits a negative reaction to the point of their wanting to kill him.
The family becomes nomadic. While in the wilderness, Lehi sends Nephi and his brothers back to Jerusalem to try and get hold of the Brass Plates, as commanded by God; the Brass Plates are inscribed with ancient scriptures and records, that they need to take with them on their journey and which will form part of the basis of the Book of Mormon. However, these plates are within the compound of a powerful and violent man called Laban, who has many men under his command, they first try and persuade Laban to hand over the plates, but a fight ensues and they are forced to flee. One of Laban's servants, Ishmael ends up defecting to Lehi's side and joins his family in the desert. Ishmael and Lehi's families intermarry; the group is ordered to build a boat to take them to the new Promised Land, which they do with limited resources. Laman and Lemuel once more start complaining about this idea, but they all end up boarding this ship and leaving the Old World for the New, they arrive in the New World after this voyage.
After Lehi dies in the promised land and Lemuel, their families, rebel again, turn to evil things. Because of this and his allies have to escape them, once more go into the wilderness. Rogers's inspiration was the Cecil B. DeMille 1956 version of The Ten Commandments, he envisioned The Book of Mormon as one long historical epic. His plan was to make nine films; the film's length is two hours, it was revealed on the DVD commentary that the first cut of the film was two hours and forty minutes. Noah Danby was cast as Nephi because of his strong resemblance to the art of Arnold Friberg, he had never read the Book of Mormon prior to his casting. Danby is a devout Lutheran, while at first he didn't feel comfortable in making the film due to religious differences, he has said in an interview for The Hollywood Reporter that he took the role to gain experience as an actor; the desert scenes were filmed in Utah in the spring, it was cold. The "great and spacious building" was a five-foot miniature; the boat does not appear in the theatrical version of the scene in which the family arrives in the promised land.
It was digitally added to that scene for the DVD version. Mike Ripplinger filmed the behind the scenes portion on the DVD release; the costume designer used Mormon art and illustrations to guide her selections. The film was mentioned in Paul C. Gutjahrs 2012 book The Book of Mormon: A Biography; the film was rated PG-13 for "a scene of violence", having contained an image of Nephi with blood splatter on his face after beheading Laban. This image was removed for home media releases, the film received a PG rating on DVD. Produced for $1.5 million, Book of Mormon opened in 29 theaters on September 12, 2003 and made $114,573 in its first weekend, ranking number 41 in the domestic box office. The film played for 35 weeks before closing on May 13, 2004, its widest release being 38 theaters, it had grossed $1,680,020, it is the fourth highest-grossing film in the history of LDS cinema. The film was panned by Mormon and non-Mormon critics. Variety described it as "ell meaning but as tediously earnest as a Sunday sermon".
In the Bloggernacle, A Motley Vision gave it a grade of C–. Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes scored 17% of 6 critics giving the film a positive review. Complete film on YouTube Complete film on YouTube The Book of Mormon Movie, Volume 1: The Journey on IMDb The Book of Mormon Movie, Volume 1: The Journey at Box Office Mojo The Book of Mormon Movie, Volume 1: The Journey at Rotten Tomatoes
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,153,340. Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,423,912, it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City; the city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution that they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, at first encountered an arid, inhospitable valley that they extensively irrigated and cultivated, thereby establishing the foundation to sustain the area's present population.
Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on the north-south east-west grid plan developed by early church leaders, with the Salt Lake Temple constructed at the grid's starting point. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the church, mining booms, the construction of the first transcontinental railroad brought economic growth, the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West, it was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based on skiing, the city hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics, it is the industrial banking center of the United States. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. US Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The valley's first permanent settlements date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847, they had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the Eastern United States.
Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon train's arrival. They found. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple; the Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893; the temple serves as its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley; the pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, the name was shortened to Salt Lake City.
The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. Explorer and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City, he was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War.
A division of the United States Army, comman
John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne is an English singer, songwriter and reality television star who rose to prominence during the 1970s as the lead vocalist of the heavy metal band Black Sabbath, during which he adopted the nickname "The Prince of Darkness". Osbourne was fired from the band in 1979 due to alcohol and drug problems, but went on to have a successful solo career, releasing eleven studio albums, the first seven of which were all awarded multi-platinum certifications in the United States. Osbourne has since reunited with Black Sabbath on several occasions, he rejoined the band in 1997 and recorded the group’s final studio album 13 before they embarked on a farewell tour which culminated in a final performance in their home city Birmingham, England in February 2017. His longevity and success have earned him the informal title of "Godfather of Heavy Metal". Osbourne's total album sales from his years in Black Sabbath, combined with his solo work, is over 100 million; as a member of Black Sabbath, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, he was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame as a solo artist and as a member of the band.
Possessing a distinctive singing voice, Osbourne, as a native of Birmingham, is known for his strong Brummie accent – he has a star on the Birmingham Walk of Stars in his hometown as well as the Hollywood Walk of Fame. At the 2014 MTV Europe Music Awards, he received the Global Icon Award. In 2015 Osbourne received the Ivor Novello Award for Lifetime Achievement from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. In the early 2000s, Osbourne became a reality television star, appearing as himself in the MTV reality show The Osbournes, alongside wife and manager Sharon and two of their three children and Jack, he co-stars with Jack and Kelly in the television series Ozzy & Jack's World Detour. The show's third season debuted in June 2018. Osbourne was born in the Aston area of England, his mother, was a non-observant Catholic who worked days at a factory. His father, John Thomas "Jack" Osbourne, worked night shifts as a toolmaker at the General Electric Company. Osbourne has three older sisters named Jean and Gillian, two younger brothers named Paul and Tony.
The family lived in a small two-bedroom home at 14 Lodge Road in Aston. Osbourne has had the nickname "Ozzy" since primary school. Osbourne dealt with dyslexia at school. At the age of 11, he suffered. Drawn to the stage, he took part in school plays such as Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado and HMS Pinafore; as a Birmingham native, he has a strong Brummie accent. Upon hearing their first hit single at age 14, he became a great fan of the Beatles, he credits the band's 1963 song "She Loves You" for inspiring him to become a musician. He said in the 2011 documentary God Bless Ozzy Osbourne, "I knew I was going to be a rock star the rest of my life." Osbourne left school at 15 and was employed as a construction site labourer, trainee plumber, apprentice toolmaker, car factory horn-tuner, abattoir worker. He attempted to commit burglary, stealing a television, a handful of baby clothes, some T-shirts, he spent six weeks in Winson Green Prison when he was unable to pay a fine after being found guilty of robbing a clothes shop.
In late 1967, Geezer Butler formed his first band, Rare Breed, soon recruited Osbourne to serve as vocalist. The band played two shows broke up. Osbourne and Butler reunited in Polka Tulk Blues, along with guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward, whose band Mythology had broken up, they renamed themselves Earth, but after being accidentally booked for a show instead of a different band with the same name, they decided to change their name again. They settled on the name Black Sabbath in August 1969, based on the film of the same title; the band had noticed. While recording their first album, Butler read an occult book and woke up seeing a dark figure at the end of his bed. Butler told Osbourne about it and together they wrote the lyrics to "Black Sabbath", their first song in a darker vein. Despite only a modest investment from their US record label Warner Bros. Records, Black Sabbath met with enduring success. Built around Tony Iommi's guitar riffs, Geezer Butler's lyrics, Bill Ward's dark tempo drumbeats, topped by Osbourne's eerie vocals, early records such as their debut album Black Sabbath and Paranoid sold huge numbers, as well as getting considerable airplay.
Osbourne recalls a band lament, "in those days, the band wasn't popular with the women". At about this time, Osbourne first met Sharon Arden. After the unexpected success of their first album, Black Sabbath were considering her father, Don Arden, as their new manager, Sharon was at that time working as Don's receptionist. Osbourne admits he was attracted to her but assumed that "she thought I was a lunatic". Osbourne said years that the best thing about choosing Don Arden as manager was that he got to see Sharon though their relationship was professional at that point. Just five months after the release of Paranoid the band released Master of Reality; the album reached the top ten in both the United States and UK, was certified gold in less than two months. In the 1980s it received platinum certification and went
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t