The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence, with leaders emphasizing alcohol's negative effects on health and family life; the movement promotes alcohol education as well as demands new laws against the selling of alcohols, or those regulating the availability of alcohol, or those prohibiting it. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the temperance movement became prominent in many countries English-speaking and Scandinavian ones, it led to Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933. In the late-seventeenth century, alcohol was a vital part of colonial life as a beverage and commodity for men and children. Drinking was accepted and integrated into society. Despite that, drunkenness was common and not seen as a social problem; the attitudes towards alcohol began to change in the late eighteenth century. One of the reasons for the shifting attitudes was the necessity for sober laborers to operate heavy machinery, developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in 1775. As early as the 1790s, physician Benjamin Rush researched the danger that drinking alcohol could lead to disease that leads to a lack of self-control and he cited abstinence as the only treatment option. Rush condemned the use of distilled spirits; as well as addiction, Rush noticed the correlation that drunkenness had with disease, death and crime. According to, “Pompili, Maurizio et al,” there is increasing evidence that, aside from the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of the drinking is relevant for health outcomes. Overall, there is a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of diseases and injuries. Alcohol is estimated to cause about 20–30% of cases of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, homicide and motor vehicle accidents. After the American Revolution, Rush called upon ministers of various churches to act in preaching the messages of temperance. However, abstinence messages were ignored by Americans until the 1820s.
In the eighteenth century, there was a "Gin Craze" in the Kingdom of Great Britain. The bourgeoisie became critical of the widespread drunkenness among the lower classes. Motivated by the bourgeoisie's desire for order, amplified by the population growth in the cities, the drinking of gin became the subject of critical national debate. In the early nineteenth-century United States, alcohol was still regarded as a necessary part of the American diet for both practical and social reasons. On one hand, water supplies were polluted, milk was not always available, coffee and tea was expensive. On the other hand, social construct of the time made. Drunkenness was not a problem, because people would only drink small amounts of alcohol throughout the day, but at the turn of the nineteenth-century and subsequent intoxication became an issue that led to the disintegration of the family. Early temperance societies associated with churches were located in upstate New York and New England, but only lasted a few years.
These early temperance societies called for moderate drinking, but had little influence outside of their geographical areas. In 1743, John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Churches, proclaimed "that buying and drinking of liquor, unless necessary, were evils to be avoided". In 1810, Calvinist ministers met with a seminary in Massachusetts to write articles about abstinence from alcohol to use in preaching to their congregations; the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance was formed in 1813. The organization only accepted men of high social standing and encouraged moderation in alcohol consumption, its peak of influence was in 1818, but the MSSI ended in 1820 and made no significant mark on the future of the temperance movement. Other small temperance societies appear in the 1810s, but had little impact outside their immediate regions and they disbanded soon after, their methods had little effect in implementing temperance, drinking increased until after 1830. The temperance movement began at a national level in the 1820s, having been popularized by evangelical temperance reformers and among the middle classes.
There was a concentration on advice against hard spirits rather than on abstinence from all alcohol and on moral reform rather than legal measures against alcohol. An early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in Connecticut and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling; the movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence and taking positions on religious issues such as observance of the Sabbath. After the American Revolution there was a new emphasis on good citizenship for the new republic. With the Evangelical Protestant religious revival of the 1820s and'30s, called the Second Great Awakening, social movements began aiming for a perfect society; this included temperance. The Awakening brought with it an optimism about moral reform, achieved through volunteer organizations. Although the temperance movement was nonsectarian in principle, the movement consisted of church-goers; the temperance movement promoted temperance and emphasized th
Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign. The word stems from the Latin substantivation of the adjective regalis, "regal", itself from rex, "king", it is sometimes used in regale. The term can refer to rights and privileges enjoyed by any sovereign regardless of title An example is the right to mint coins with one's own effigy. In many cases in feudal societies and weak states, such rights have in time been eroded by grants to or usurpations by lesser vassals; some emblems, symbols, or paraphernalia possessed by rulers are a visual representation of imperial, royal or sovereign status. Some are shared with divinities, either to symbolize a god's role as, king of the Pantheon or to allow mortal royalty to resemble, identify with, or link to a divinity; the term crown jewels is used for regalia items designed to lend luster to occasions such as coronations. They feature some combination of precious materials, artistic merit, symbolic or historical value.
Crown jewels may have been designated at the start of a dynasty, accumulated through many years of tradition, or sent as tangible recognition of legitimacy by some leader such as the pope to an emperor or caliph. Each culture each monarchy and dynasty within one culture, may have its own historical traditions, some have a specific name for its regalia, or at least for an important subset, such as: The Honours of Scotland The Nigerian Royal Regalia The Three Sacred Treasures of the Emperor of Japan The Imperial Regalia of the emperors and kings of the Holy Roman EmpireBut some elements occur in many traditions. Crowns and variations Cap of Maintenance Armills—bracelets coronation mantle Gloves Barmi or barmas, a detachable silk collar with medallions of precious material sewn to it, as used in Moscovy Rings, symbolizing the monarch's "marriage" to the state. Seals, such as the Heirloom Seal of the Realm, represented imperial authority under the Mandate of Heaven in China. Regalia can stand for other attributes or virtues, i.e. what is expected from the holder.
Thus the Imperial Regalia of Japan known as the Three Sacred Treasures of Japan as follows: The sword, Kusanagi represents valor The jewel or necklace of jewels, Yasakani no magatama, represents benevolence The mirror, Yata no kagami, located in the Ise Shrine in Mie Prefecture, represents wisdomSince 690, the presentation of these items to the emperor by the priests at the shrine are a central part of the imperial enthronement ceremony. As this ceremony is not public, the regalia are by tradition only seen by the emperor and certain priests, no known photographs or drawings exist; some regalia objects are used in the formal ceremony of enthronement/coronation. They can be associated with an office or court sinecure that enjoys the privilege to carry, present and/or use it at the august occasion, sometimes on other formal occasions, such as a royal funeral; such objects, with or without intrinsic symbolism, can include Anointing utensils: Sacred ampulla containing the ointment. Spoon for the same ointment.
Alternatively, the monarchies of Norway and Sweden have an anointment horn. A Bible used for swearing in the monarch as the new sovereign. Cage with a bird for wren hunting in Celtic ceremonies. Coronation stone e.g. Stone of Scone or Lia Fáil. Apart from the sovereign himself, attributes can be used for close relatives who are allowed to share in the pomp. For example, in Norway the queen consort and the crown prince are the only other members of the royal family to possess these attributes and share in the sovereign's royal symbolism. In the Roman Empire the colour Tyrian purple, produced with an expensive Mediterranean mollusk extract, was in principle reserved for the Imperial Court; the use of this dye was extended to various dignitaries, such as members of the Roman senate who wore stripes of Tyrian purple on their white togas, for whom the term purpuratus was coined as a high aulic distinction. In late Imperial China, the colour yellow was reserved for the emperor, as it had a multitude of meanings.
Yellow was a symbol of gold, thus wealth and power, since it was the colour that symbolized the center in Chinese cosmology, it was the perfect way to refer to the emperor, always in the middle of the universe. Peasants and noblemen alike were forbidden to wear robes made out of yellow, although they were allowed to use the colour sparingly. Umbrella / canopy Fan Standard Mace Music, such as A fanfare or other specific piece of music Reserved instruments, such as silver trumpets, or in India the Nakkara drum The ceremonial Nobat orchestra is a formal requirement for a valid Malaysian coronation. Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings tertiary (and sometimes second
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
West Columbia, South Carolina
West Columbia is a city and commuter town in the suburban eastern sections of Lexington County, South Carolina, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population was 14,988, it is SC metropolitan statistical area. West Columbia lies west of South Carolina, directly across the Congaree River, it is near Columbia's city center or downtown district as well as the South Carolina State House and the Congaree Vista, known locally as "the Vista." West Columbia is bordered to the south by its sister suburb, South Carolina. West Columbia was incorporated in 1894 as Brookland, but the United States Postal Service called the town "New Brookland" since there was another town called Brookland. In 1936, the name was changed to West Columbia to emphasize its proximity to Columbia, South Carolina. Numerous businesses, churches and a high school retain the New Brookland names; the Gervais Street Bridge, Mount Hebron Temperance Hall, New Brookland Historic District, Saluda Factory Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The 2008 South Carolina Learjet 60 crash occurred just before midnight on September 19, 2008, when a Learjet 60 crashed while taking off from Columbia Metropolitan Airport in South Carolina. The weather at the time was cool and clear; the plane hit runway lights and crashed through the boundary fence, crossing South Carolina Highway 302, coming to rest on an embankment by the side of the highway. No one on the ground was hurt, but four of the six people on the plane died in the crash, while the other two, Travis Barker and Adam Goldstein, suffered severe burns; the plane was a charter flight taken by Barker and their entourage following a performance by their musical group TRV$DJAM at a free concert in Five Points earlier that night to Van Nuys, California. West Columbia lies to the west of the Saluda and Congaree Rivers. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.3 square miles, of which 6.1 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,064 people, 5,968 households, 3,300 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,150.6 people per square mile. There were 6,436 housing units at an average density of 1,059.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.54% White, 19.81% African American, 0.28% Native American, 1.71% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.04% from other races, 1.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.66% of the population. There were 5,968 households out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.7% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.76. In the city, the population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.5 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,999, the median income for a family was $40,253. Males had a median income of $30,033 versus $24,637 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,135. About 12.8% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. West Columbia is the home of Glenforest School. Columbia Metropolitan Airport Lexington Medical Center Riverbanks Zoo and Garden History of West Columbia City of West Columbia Lexington School District 2 Glenforest School
Mount Hebron Temperance Hall
Mount Hebron Temperance Hall known as Division Room of the Saludavill Division No. 47, Sons of Temperance and Division Room of the Mt. Hebron Division No. 7, Sons of Temperance, is a historic temperance hall located at West Columbia, Lexington County, South Carolina. It was built in 1862, is a small, one-story rectangular frame building, it has a gable roof. The building housed local chapters of the Sons of Temperance, it was restored in 1979, is located in the churchyard of the Mount Hebron United Methodist Church. The church uses it as Boy Scout Hut, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons