Sony/ATV Music Publishing

Sony/ATV Music Publishing is an American music publisher owned by Sony Entertainment. It has the largest music publishing catalog in the world, with 4.53 million songs owned and administered as of March 31, 2019. The company was formed in 1995 with the merger of Sony Music Publishing and ATV Music, owned by entertainer Michael Jackson. Jackson had purchased ATV Music, which included the Lennon–McCartney song catalog, in 1985. In 2012, an investor consortium led by Sony/ATV Music Publishing acquired EMI Music Publishing to become the largest music publishing administrator in the world, with a library of over three million songs. In 2016, Sony bought the Jackson estate's 50% stake in Sony/ATV. In April 2019, Jon Platt became CEO/Chairman of Sony/ATV Music Publishing after the contract of longtime CEO/Chairman Martin Bandier expired. In August 2019, management of Sony/ATV Music Publishing and Sony Music Entertainment were merged under the newly formed Sony Music Group. Associated Television was a British television broadcasting company founded in 1955 by Lew Grade.

Over the next two decades, ATV expanded through acquisitions to become an entertainment conglomerate with business lines in the record industry, music publishing and film production. ATV entered the music industry in 1958 when it acquired 50% of Pye Records, a British record company. ATV expanded into music publishing in 1966 when it acquired 50% of New World Music and Jubilee Music, subsidiaries of Chappell & Co. ATV acquired the other 50% of Pye Records, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of ATV, including Pye Record's publishing subsidiary Welbeck Music. ATV acquired Northern Songs, publisher of the Lennon–McCartney song catalogue, in 1969; the catalog featured every song written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney. Northern Songs was co-owned by Lennon, McCartney, Brian Epstein and Dick James, who owned a controlling interest. In 1969, James offered to sell his shares to ATV. Lennon and McCartney attempted to gain a controlling interest in the company, their bid to gain control, part of a long and acrimonious fight, failed.

The financial clout of Grade, their adversary in the bidding war, ensured that the songs written by the two Beatles passed into the control of ATV. In 1970, ATV formed a joint publishing venture with Kirshner Entertainment, called ATV-Kirshner Music; the partnership agreement expired at the end of 1972 at which time ATV Music was formed to manage all of ATV's publishing interests, including Northern Songs. ATV Music remained a successful organization in the music industry throughout the 1970s due to the performance of Northern Songs. ATV Music entered into co-publishing agreements with Lennon and McCartney, whose contract with Northern Songs expired in 1973. While ATV Music was successful, its parent company, now known as Associated Communications Corporation began experiencing financial difficulties. From 1978 to 1981, ACC's profits declined due to losses in its film division, share prices dropped dramatically; the main television arm of ATV lost its government-granted license in its then-current form and was restructured into Central Independent Television.

In 1981, Grade entertained offers for Northern Songs. McCartney, with Lennon's widow Yoko Ono, offered £21 million but the offer was declined by Grade who decided not to sell Northern Songs separately after other suitors, including CBS Songs, EMI Music Publishing, Warner Communications, Paramount Pictures and the Entertainment Co. showed interest in buying ATV Music as a whole. Meanwhile, Australian businessman Robert Holmes à Court had been acquiring shares of ACC and launched a takeover bid in earnest in January 1982. Grade resigned as chairman and was replaced by Holmes à Court who acquired a controlling interest in the company. After Holmes à Court assumed control of ACC, ATV Music was no longer for sale. In 1981, American singer Michael Jackson collaborated with Paul McCartney and recording several songs together. Jackson stayed at the home of McCartney and his wife Linda during the recording sessions, becoming friendly with both. One evening while at the dining table, McCartney brought out a thick, bound notebook displaying all the songs to which he owned the publishing rights.

Jackson grew more excited. He inquired about how the songs were used. McCartney explained. Jackson replied by telling McCartney. McCartney laughed. Good joke."Jackson was first informed that the ATV catalog was up for sale in September 1984 by his attorney, John Branca, who had put together Jackson's earlier catalogue acquisitions. Warned of the competition he would face in buying such popular songs, Jackson remained resolute in his decision to purchase them. Branca approached McCartney's attorney to query; the attorney stated. According to Bert Reuter, who negotiated the sale of ATV Music for Holmes à Court, "We had given Paul McCartney first right of refusal but Paul didn't want it at that time." Lennon's widow, Yoko Ono had been contacted as well but did not enter bidding. The competitors in the 1984 sale of ATV Music included Charles Koppelman and Marty Bandier's New York-based the Entertainment Co. Virgin Records, New York real estate tycoon Samuel J. LeFrak, financier Charles Knapp. On November 20, 1984, Jackson sent a bid of $46 million to Holmes à Court.

Branca suggested the amount of the bid after having spent time evaluating the earnings of the catalogue and learning of another bid for $39 million. Jackson was only interested in the music copyrights, but the package included buildings, a recording s

Structure-mapping theory

Structure-mapping theory is a theory of analogical reasoning, developed by Dedre Gentner, for which she was awarded the 2016 David E. Rumelhart Prize for Contributions to the Theoretical Foundations of Human Cognition. Structure-mapping theory aims to improve upon previous theories of analogy, by distinguishing analogy from literal similarity. Previous theories, like Amos Tversky's contrast theory, assumed that an analogy is stronger, the more attributes the base and target have in common. Instead, structure-mapping theory recognizes that there can be differences between base and target domains which make no difference to the strength of the analogy. For example, we can see a battery as being like a reservoir despite them being different in shape, size and substance. Structure-mapping theory respond by arguing that it is not object attributes which are mapped in an analogy. Instead the theory contends that an analogy alerts the hearer to a similarity in the relationships between objects in a domain.

The distinction is made in terms of the number of predicates - attributes are predicates with one argument, while relationships are predicates which take two or more arguments. So the proposition "x is large" asserts an attribute, while "x revolves around y" asserts a relationship. By distinguishing attributes and relationships, we can distinguish literal similarities from analogies. For example: The X12 star system in the Andromeda nebula is like our solar system. - This is a literal similarity, because the intention is to map both relationships and attributes The hydrogen atom is like our solar system. - This is an analogy, because only relational predicates, like relative motion and size, are to be mapped between domains Analogies can be distinguished from general laws The hydrogen atom is a central force system. - This is a general law, in the sense that the base domain is an abstract domain of relationships, includes no object attributes. Compare this to an analogy, where the base domain includes object attributes, which are excluded from the comparison.

The distinction in the role of objects and relationships in the comparison allows us to characterise a chronology as a comparison in which objects are compared, but relationships are not. Gentner provides the following table to summarize the different types of domain comparison above: "Part of our understanding about analogy is that it conveys a system of connected knowledge, not a mere assortment of independent facts; such a system can be represented by an interconnected predicate structure in which higher-order predicates enforce connections among lower-order predicates. Reflect this tacit preference for coherence in analogy, I propose the systematicity principle: A predicate that belongs to a mappable system of mutually interconnecting relationships is more to be imported into the target than is an isolated predicate." The systematicity principle helps to explain why, when comparing the atom to the solar system, we don't try to map the relative temperature of sun and the earth onto the nucleus-electron system.

In short, the temperature has no strong connection to the other object relationships - such as distance, attractive force, relative mass, relative motion - which we do map. What these other relationships share is a strong interdependence - reversing the mass relationship reverses the relative motion relationship, changing the distance changes the attractive force, so on. Structure mapping engine

Cranberry Glades

Cranberry Glades — known as The Glades — are a cluster of five small, boreal-type bogs in southwestern Pocahontas County, West Virginia, United States. This area, high in the Allegheny Mountains at about 3,400 feet, is protected as the Cranberry Glades Botanical Area, part of the Monongahela National Forest; this site is the headwaters of the Cranberry River, a popular trout stream, is adjacent to the nearly 50,000-acre Cranberry Wilderness. The Glades are a 750-acre grouping of peat bogs resembling some Canadian bogs; the gladed land is acidic and supports plants found at higher latitudes, including cranberries, sphagnum moss, skunk cabbage, two carnivorous plants. The Glades serve; the Glades have been the subject of much scientific study during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Professor Maurice Brooks conducted studies in 1930, 1934, 1945; the work of Strausbaugh and Core followed. In 1974, the Cranberry Glades Botanical Area was designated a National Natural Landmark; the natural history of the Glades has been traced back at least 12,200 years.

A forest of conifer-northern hardwoods replaced tundra with the end of the last Ice Age. Over time the Glades formed into. Now, most of the bog is underlain by peat, up to 10 feet thick. Under the peat is a layer of algal ooze and the ooze by marl. Since a limestone source in the surrounding rocks is indicated, an ample source appears to be present in the underlying Hinton Formation, a circumstance that has significant implications for the Glades' flora; the area is not a glade, but a bog or wetland covered with all sorts of decaying vegetation. The peat and decaying organic matter is more than ten feet thick under the dense plant cover; the ground is not spongy. It is in a high valley, about 3,300 to 3,400 feet above sea level, surrounded by the Cranberry and Black Mountains. Five separate glades were identified and named in 1911 — Big Glade, Flag Glade, Long Glade, Round Glade and Little Glade; the smallest, Little Glade, is no longer recognizable. Darlington's studies showed that the Glades were formed by eroding rocks in the basin and more resistant rock at its lower end.

This prevented down-cutting and maintained a low gradient in the valley. This resulted in an elevation of 3,400 ft at the upper end and 3,350 ft at the back, eliminating the possibility of origin by water impoundment; the water from the Glades drains to form the headwaters of the Cranberry River, a popular trout stream joined by the Yew and Charles Creeks. It starts at about 4,600 feet above the sea, it meanders through the glades and recedes through a narrow gap between Kennison and Black Mountains, it joins the Gauley River 25 miles down the mountains at about 1,920 feet above sea level. Many of the plants found in the Glades resemble those in the northern region of North America, they are descendants of seeds that took root over ten thousand years ago before the last glacial retreat. Among these are two unusual species of carnivorous plants that thrive in the area — the purple pitcher plant and native sundew, they evolved carnivorous habits because of the scarce root food in the spongy soil.

Two rare boreal plants — bog rosemary and buckbean — live in the 59-acre Big Glade. Much of the area provides a home for many species of mosses; these include a cover of bird-wheat moss, bog moss and reindeer lichen. Hummocks of these plants reach a height of 3 feet. Over top of these grow prostrate cranberry vines that bloom nice pink flowers in the summer and a bunch of fruits in late September. Within the Glades floodplain, most tree species occur in the "bog forest" habitat, composed of a mixture of red spruce, eastern hemlock, yellow birch and red maple; the upland forests surrounding the wetlands are dominated by these same species, but include American beech, sugar maple, black cherry, American basswood, white ash, yellow buckeye, black birch, cucumber tree, Fraser magnolia, northern red oak. The Glades' shrub layer, unlike the tree layer, is species-rich; this is a consequence of the widespread presence of low- to medium-height woody plants throughout shrub swamps, forest habitats, open glades.

In the fringes of open glades and along streams, the dominant species is speckled alder. Common are willow, glade St. Johns-wort, great rhododendron, smooth arrowwood, wild raisin, alternate-leaved dogwood, winterberry holly, mountain holly, swamp rose, the Appalachian endemic longstalked holly and many more. Most of these shrubs have markedly northern distributions, bog rosemary and oblongfruited serviceberry are at their southernmost limits of distribution; the Canada yew is an uncommon evergreen shrub, reported as abundant in the area. Nearby Yew Creek is named for this species, as may be the broader Yew Mountains region in which the Glades are located. Browsing deer have reduced the number of Canada yew to such an extent that it is found only in scattered locations throughout its Central Appalachian range, including here. Many herbs with northern distributions occur here, including oak fern, pod grass, Canada mayflower, mountain bindweed, marsh marigold, swamp saxifrage, white wood sorrel, northern white violet, Jacob's ladder