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Sony BMG

Sony BMG Music Entertainment was an American record company owned as a 50–50 joint venture between Sony Corporation of America and Bertelsmann Music Group. The venture's successor, the revived Sony Music, is wholly owned by Sony, following their buyout of the remaining 50% held by Bertelsmann. BMG was instead rebuilt as BMG Rights Management on the basis of 200 remaining artists. Sony BMG Music Entertainment began as the result of a 50–50 joint venture between Sony Music and Bertelsmann Music Group completed on March 4, 2004, it is one of the Big Four music companies and includes ownership and distribution of recording labels such as Arista Records, Columbia Records, Epic Records, J Records, Mchenry Records, Jive Records, RCA Victor Records, RCA Records, Legacy Recordings, Sonic Wave America and others. The merger affected all Sony Music and Bertelsmann Music Group companies worldwide except for Japan, where it was felt that it would reduce competition in that country's music industry significantly.

Financial analysts covering the merger anticipated that up to 2,000 jobs would be cut as a result, saving Sony BMG $350 million annually. The company's chief executive officer is Rolf Schmidt-Holtz, who succeeded Andrew Lack on February 10, 2006. In the first half of 2005, the company's share of new releases in the United States declined from 33% to 26% according to Nielsen SoundScan. This, Lack's negotiation of what some called an "ill-conceived" deal with Bruce Springsteen led to Bertelsmann informing Sony that it would not renew Lack's contract; the company signed a content deal with the popular video sharing community YouTube. On August 5, 2008 Sony Corporation agreed to buy Bertelsmann AG's 50 percent stake in the music company for $1.2 billion to get full control. The music company was renamed Sony Music Entertainment and became a unit of Sony Corporation of America; this allowed Sony the rights to artists on the current and historic BMG roster and allowed Sony Corporation to better integrate its functions with its PlayStation 3 and upcoming new media initiatives.

As part of the buyout, Bertelsmann kept the rights to master recordings by 200 artists, which formed the basis for a second version of BMG. Sony and Bertelsmann last teamed up in 2013, in a failed bid to acquire Parlophone from Universal Music Group. BMG would administer the label's back catalogue. While Sony BMG failed to win Parlophone, BMG acquired Mute Records' back catalogue and licensed Depeche Mode and the catalogue of The Echo Label to Sony. In July 2005, Sony BMG was fined 10 million dollars after the New York Attorney General's office determined that they had been practicing payola in the form of direct payments to radio stations and bribes to disc jockeys to promote various artists including Franz Ferdinand and Jessica Simpson. Epic Records, one of their labels, was cited for using fake contests in order to hide the fact that the gifts were going to disc jockeys rather than listeners. On 31 October 2005, a scandal erupted over digital rights management software produced and shipped by Sony BMG that automatically installed itself on people's computers and made them more vulnerable to computer viruses.

The scandal and attendant controversy about the practice of software auto-installation spawned several lawsuits. Sony BMG recalled all of the affected CDs. On November 16, 2005, US-CERT, the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team, part of the United States Department of Homeland Security, issued an advisory on Extended Copy Protection DRM, citing the XCP use of rootkit technology to hide certain files from the computer user as a security threat to computer users, saying that a Sony-provided uninstallation option introduced computer system vulnerabilities. US-CERT advised, "Do not install software from sources that you do not expect to contain software, such as an audio CD." In its "Top Flops of'05" issue, the enterprise newsweekly eWeek had to create a new category for the "Sony BMG root-kit fiasco." Peter Coffee, of eWeek Labs reported, "The Sony brand name was in trouble—it lost 16 percent of its value between 2004 and 2005.... Now it has taken a blow among tech-product opinion leaders.

"We've never done it before, we hope we'll never have occasion to do it again but, for 2005, eWeek Labs awards a Stupid Tech Trick grand prize to Sony." EWeek Vol. 22, No.50 In October 2007, Sony BMG, alongside other large music firms sued Jammie Thomas for making 24 songs available for download on the Kazaa file-sharing network. Thomas, who made US$36,000 a year, was ordered to pay US$222,000 in damages. Thomas had shared 1702 files in total. In 2008, the Federal Trade Commission sued Sony BMG for collecting and displaying personal data of 30,000 minors without parental consent via its websites since 2004, violating the Federal Trade Commission Act and the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act. Sony did not restrict minor children's participation in its websites. Sony paid a $1 million fine. Sony Music Entertainment Bertelsmann Music Group Big Four Sony Music Entertainment Japan, not part of Sony BMG, distributed Japanese Music in the US through Columbia or Epic, since around March 2007 when previous distributor, Tofu Records, was closed down List of record labels List of Sony BMG Entertainment artists List of Sony Music Entertainment labels List of Sony Music Entertainment artists Columbia House Leonard, Devin.

"Music Lessons." Fortune, pp. 31–32. Sony Commercial Music Group – Official Site Sony Music Entertainment, Incorporated – Company Prof

Garraun (Galway)

Garraun at 598 metres, is the 224th–highest peak in Ireland on the Arderin scale, while it is just short of the elevation threshold of 600-metres for other classifications, it does have the prominence to be a Marilyn. Garraun lies on an isloated massif near the mouth of Killary Harbour at the far north sector of the Twelve Bens/Garraun Complex Special Area of Conservation in the Connemara National Park in Galway; the southern slopes are a scenic backdrop to Kylemore Lough. Irish academic Paul Tempan notes that Garraun is a name of Irish origin, either from Irish: garrán, meaning "grove", or more from Irish: géarán, meaning "fang". Tim Robinson notes that Irish: Maolchnoc, meaning "bald hill", is the more common name in the area. Tempan notes that the townland on the south slopes of Garraun South Top, that runs to Kylemore Lough, is called "Lemnaheltia", this name appears on Mercator's map of Ireland as Dosleape for the mountain. A legend tells of Fionn Mac Cumhail's dog Bran, who pursued a doe in this area, when the doe leapt from the summit, Bran fell from the cliff into the lake.

Many Irish places claim variations of this story, including "Lough Brin" south of the MacGillycuddy Reeks, in Kerry. Garraun is a flat featureless summit that lies on its own isolated massif close to the entrance to Killary Harbour, Ireland largest fjord, is part of the Twelve Bens/Garraun Complex special area of conservation in Connemara. To the west of Garraun, via a high ridge, is the subsidiary peak of Garraun South Top 556 metres, which overlooks Kylemore Lough, whose prominence of 31 metres qualifies it as an Arderin. Further west, is the sharp summit of Garraun South-West Top 549 metres, whose prominence of 21 metres qualifies it as an Arderin Beg. Garraun South-West Top is marked "Altnagaighera", on some maps. Altnagaighera is noted for its conglomerate Tors. Further southwest again, lies the double-top summit of Doughruagh 526 metres, which directly overlooks Kylemore Abbey, whose prominence of 211 metres qualifies it as an Arderin, a Marilyn. Half-way up the south face of Doughraugh, on steep ground, is a statue of the Sacred Heart, erected in 1932 by the Benedictine nuns of Kylemore Abbey, in thanks for their safe delivery from their previous home in Ypres in Belgium, which they had to abandon during World War One.

East of Garraun is a long sharp spur. To the north of Garraun is Benchoona 585 metres, whose prominence of 31 metres qualifies it as an Arderin. Benchoona has a subsidiary peak, Benchoona East Top 581 metres, whose prominence of 15 metres qualifies it as an Arderin Beg. Robert Macfarlane described Benchoona's summit as "a rough broken tableland of flat rocks a quarter of an acre in area, planed smooth by the old ice". Garraun has two satellite peaks. To the east, across Lough Fee, is the isolated peak of Letterettrin 333 metres, called Irish: Binn Mhór, whose prominence of 268 metres qualifies it as a Marilyn. To the west is Currywongaun 273 metres; the most straightforward route to climb Gaurran is via its sharp east spur at Lough Fee. Another recommended trail is the 9-kilometre 4-hour Lettergesh Loop or Benchoona Horseshoe, that starts from Lettergesh Beach in the car-park at Carrickglass, taking the path to Cloonagh, climbing a loop around Benchoona and Garraun South-West Top before returning via Cloonagh.

Various other 8-10 kilometre 4-5 hour routes, take in the summit of Doughruagh, the shores of Kylemore Lough and Pollacappul Lough, in a loop with Garraun and Altnagaighera. MountainViews Online Database. A Guide to Ireland's Mountain Summits: The Vandeleur-Lynams & the Arderins. Collins Books. ISBN 978-1-84889-164-7. Paul Phelan. Connemara & Mayo - A Walking Guide: Mountain, Coastal & Island Walks. Collins Press. ISBN 978-1848891029. Dillion, Paddy. Connemara: Collins Rambler's guide. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0002201216. Dillion, Paddy; the Mountains of Ireland: A Guide to Walking the Summits. Cicerone. ISBN 978-1852841102. Twelve Bens Mweelrea, major range in Killary Harbour Maumturks, major range in Connemara List of Irish counties by highest point Lists of mountains in Ireland List of Marilyns in the British Isles MountainViews: The Irish Mountain Website, Garraun MountainViews: Irish Online Mountain Database The Database of British and Irish Hills, the largest database of British Isles mountains Hill Bagging UK & Ireland, the searchable interface for the DoBIH

Charles James Munnerlyn

Charles James Munnerlyn was a prominent Confederate politician and Confederate States Army officer. He was born in Georgetown, South Carolina and moved to Decatur County, Georgia, he was educated at Emory College and studied law under judge Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, the uncle of James Longstreet. He attended the Secession Convention and signed the Ordinance of Secession before he served in the Confederate Army, he represented Georgia in the First Confederate Congress from 1862 to 1864. In 1864, he was organized the Cow Cavalry. With John T. Lesley and James McKay, he assisted in the escape of Judah Benjamin. Charles James Munnerlyn 1822-1898 historical marker Refuge historical marker


WEGL 91.1 FM is a Class A, non-commercial, FM, College radio station located on the campus of Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama. The station's programming is broadcast at 1,800 watts from a tower situated on Auburn University's campus. WEGL's broadcast listening area includes the Alabama counties of Lee, Macon, Russell and Muscogee County, Georgia. WEGL streams its broadcasts over the internet through its website; the bulk of funding for the operation of WEGL 91 is allocated by Auburn University's Student Government Association and comes directly from Auburn's students' Student Activity Fees. WEGL's all-volunteer DJ staff includes various members of the Auburn University student and staff populations. WEGL was not the first radio station at Auburn University. In 1922, WMAV began broadcasting from Broun Hall with a 1,500 watt homemade transmitter, it became part of the University’s Extension Service and received a new name, WAPI-AM WAPI was moved to Birmingham, Alabama. On June 1, 1970, the Board of Trustees authorized then-University President Harry Philpott to submit an application, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, to the Federal Communications Commission for a permit to construct and operate an FM radio station.

The Student Government Association funded the operation of the station. On April 25, 1971, WEGL Radio signed on the air with 10 watts of power and began broadcasting at 91.1 megahertz, as assigned by the FCC. The first song broadcast was "Another Day" by Paul McCartney; the first WEGL studio was located in room 1239 of Haley Center. After one year of operation, a student committee submitted a proposal to the Auburn University Board of Student Communication requesting a power increase. With the support of the University’s President, WEGL’s effective radiated power increased to 380 watts in 1975. In June 1977, the station began broadcasting in stereo; the last song broadcast in mono was Elton John's Captain Fantastic and the first song broadcast in stereo was "You've Got A Cold" by 10CC. In 1988, the station upgraded its power to 3,000 watts and became a Class A Non-Commercial radio station. During the 1989-1990 school year, plans were finalized to move WEGL Radio from its home in the Haley Center to a new location in Foy Student Union.

On October 8, 1990 university president James E. Martin signed WEGL on for the first time from the Foy Student Union. WEGL remained in Foy Student Union until the summer of 2008. WEGL made its final broadcast from that location at 5:00 PM on Friday, August 15, 2008; the final song broadcast from Foy Student Union was "A Little Bit" by Tim Fite. WEGL, along with all other campus media, relocated from Foy Student Union to the new Student Center during the first weeks of the fall 2008 semester. Broadcasting with live DJs and Internet streaming audio resumed shortly thereafter from the new location. On April 25, 2009 WEGL, in association with the Committee of 19, held its first live music event in over a decade. "WEGLfest" was held in the ballroom of the New Student Center and all proceeds from the event went to benefit Auburn's War on Hunger. Performers at the event included Magnolia Sons, Weak Music for Thomas, Tony Brook. Incidentally, the event took place on the 38th anniversary of WEGL's first air-date.

WEGL 91.1 is a traditional "college radio" station in that the station's programming consists of an eclectic mix of genres including, but not limited to: Rock, Hip-Hop, Blues, Jazz and Bluegrass, Dance & Techno, R&B, World Music and Gospel. In addition to music, WEGL has a sports department. WEGL reports its charts to the College Music Journal. Official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WEGL Radio-Locator information on WEGL Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WEGL Comedy Clips & Promos recorded at WEGL

Ouro Preto

Ouro Preto Vila Rica, is a city in and former capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque Portuguese colonial architecture. Ouro Preto is located in one of the main areas of the Brazilian Gold Rush. 800 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the eighteenth century, not to mention what was circulated in an illegal manner, nor what remained in the colony, such as gold used in the ornamentation of the churches. The municipality became the most populous city of Latin America, counting on about 40 thousand people in 1730 and, decades after, 80 thousand. At that time, the population of New York was less than half of that number of inhabitants and the population of São Paulo did not surpass 8 thousand. Ouro Preto was capital of Minas Gerais from 1720 until 1897. Population: Data from the 2010 Census Resident population: 70,227 Urban area: 56,293 Rural area: 9,985 Area of the municipality: 1,245 km² Temperature: between 6 and 28 degrees Celsius.

In June and July the temperature can reach -2 degrees Celsius. Average elevation: 1,116 m; the highest point is Pico de Itacolomi with 1,722 meters. The city has twelve districts: Amarantina, Antônio Pereira, Cachoeira do Campo, Engenheiro Correia, Lavras Novas, Miguel Burnier, Santa Rita, Santo Antônio do Leite, Santo Antônio do Salto, São Bartolomeu and Rodrigo Silva. Rivers: sources for the Velhas, Gualaxo do Norte, Gualaxo do Sul, Mainart e Ribeirão Funil. Per Capita Income: R$23,622 HDI: 0.788 The city is linked by unlit winding roads to highways for: Belo Horizonte 100 km Rio de Janeiro 475 km São Paulo 675 km Brasília 840 kmBordering municipalities are: North: Itabirito and Santa Bárbara South: Ouro Branco, Catas Altas da Noruega and Itaverava East: Mariana West: Belo Vale and Congonhas Located at 1,179 m above sea level, Ouro Preto has a subtropical highland climate, with warm and humid summers and mild, dry winters. Frost occur in June and July. There is a report of snow in the city in the year of 1843.

Founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto was called Vila Rica, or "Rich Town", the focal point of the gold rush and Brazil's golden age in the 18th century under Portuguese rule. The city centre contains well-preserved Portuguese colonial architecture, with few signs of modern urban development. New construction must keep with the city's historical aesthetic. 18th- and 19th-century churches decorated with gold and the sculptured works of Aleijadinho make Ouro Preto a tourist destination. The tremendous wealth from gold mining in the 18th century created a city which attracted the intelligentsia of Europe. Philosophy and art flourished, evidence of a baroque revival called the "Barroco Mineiro" is illustrated in architecture as well as by sculptors such as Aleijadinho, painters such as Mestre Athayde, composers such as Lobo de Mesquita, poets such as Tomás António Gonzaga. At that time, Vila Rica was the largest city in Brazil, with 100,000 inhabitants. In 1789, Ouro Preto became the birthplace of the Inconfidência Mineira, a failed attempt to gain independence from Portugal.

The leading figure, was hanged as a threat to any future revolutionaries. In 1876, the Escola de Minas was created; this school established the technological foundation for several of the mineral discoveries in Brazil. Ouro Preto was capital of Minas Gerais from 1720 until 1897, when the needs of government outgrew this town in the valley; the state government was moved to the planned city of Belo Horizonte. Although Ouro Preto now relies on the tourism industry for part of its economy, there are important metallurgic and mining industries located in town, such as Novelis Alcan, the most important aluminum factory in the country, the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, others. Main economic activities are tourism, transformation industries, mineral riches such as deposits of iron, manganese and marble. Minerals of note are: gold, dolomite, pyrite, muscovite and imperial topaz; the imperial topaz is a stone only found in Ouro Preto. Soapstone handicraft items are a popular souvenir among tourists, can be found in many shops in the town centre and street fairs.

Jewelry made of local precious and semi-precious gemstones can be found in abundance for sale. Ouro Preto is a university town with an intense student life; the Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto has 10,000 students in the city. Many of them live in communal houses that are somewhat similar to fraternity houses as found in North American colleges; these communal or shared houses are called repúblicas, of which 66 belong to the university, called repúblicas federais, 250 are owned. The repúblicas system of Ouro Preto is unique in Brazil. No other university city in the country has the same characteristics of the student lodgings found there, it shares traits with the repúblicas of the Portuguese University of Coimbra, where the tradition originated. Before universities were founded in Brazil, Coimbra was where most of the rich students who could afford an overseas education went to; each república has its own different history. There are repúblicas in which the freshmen known as "bixos", have to undergo a hazing period, called batalha, befor

Camp Coxcomb

The Camp Coxcomb was a sub camp of the US Army Desert Training Center in Riverside County, California. The main headquarters for the Desert Training Center was Camp Young were General Patton's 3rd Armored Division was stationed. Camp Coxcomb was designated a California Historic Landmark; the site of the Camp Granite is 45 miles East of Indio, California off Interstate 10 and California State Route 177 near the Coxcomb Mountains. The train stop at Freda railroad siding delivered Troops and equipment; the camp closed in early in 1944 after about two years of operations. Built in the spring of 1942, Camp Coxcomb was built to prepare troops to do battle in North Africa to fight the Nazis during World War 2. Stationed at Camp Coxcomb was the 85th Infantry Division. Trained at the camp was the 93rd Infantry Division and the 95th Infantry Division; the trained troops went on to fight in the North African campaign. When completed the camp had 39 shower buildings, 165 latrines, 284 wooden tent frames, observation/flag tower and a 40,000-gallon water tank.

The camp had seven ranges for small firearms. The trained troops went on to fight in the North African campaign. Camp Coxcomb Army Field was an air strip near the Camp Coxcomb to support training activities; the runway was 4,500 feet long made of steel landing mats. The landing strip is on the east side of California State Route 177. Small planes were used to watch the desert survival training, gunnery practices, tank tactics training. Aircraft were used to coordinate tanks and other armored vehicles from the air. For a short time in 1951 the Coxcomb airfield was used as a private landing strip. Near the Camp Coxcomb was an old Sante Fe Railroad station, turned into the Camp Freda Quartermaster Depot called Camp Freda; this was near the small town of California. The US Army turned the small rail station into a major US Army quartermaster depot to support Camp Coxcomb and the other near by Desert Training Center camps. All the troop to be trained at Camp Coxcomb arrived at the rail depot; the depot was stocked with tanks, military vehicles, artillery guns, food and ammo.

To support the thousands of troop in the area was field hospital. The 92nd evacuation hospital medical unit was stationed at the Camp Freda Quartermaster Depot before being transferred to the Camp Desert Center Evacuation hospital. Camp Freda was staffed by the 92nd Evacuation Hospital unit, 211th Quartermaster Gas Supply Battalion, 484th Quartermaster Battalion, 378th Engineer Battalion. Camp Freda closed April 1944. Marker on the Riverside, California site reads: NO. 985 DESERT TRAINING CENTER, CALIFORNIA–ARIZONA MANEUVER AREA – CAMP COXCOMB – Camp Coxcomb was established at this site in the Spring of 1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the southwestern desert to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II; the Desert Training Center was a simulated theater of operations that included portions of California and Nevada. The other camps were Young, Iron Mountain, Clipper, Pilot Knob, Horn, Hyder and Rice. A total of 13 infantry divisions and 7 armored divisions plus numerous smaller units were trained in this harsh environment.

The Training Center was in operation for 2 years and was closed early in 1944 when the last units were shipped overseas. During the brief period of operation over one million American soldiers were trained for combat. Marker on site: Camp Coxcomb was established at this site in the Spring of 1942, it was one of fifteen such camps built in the southwestern deserts to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The Desert Training Center was a simulated theater of operations that included portions of California and Nevada; the other camps were Young, Iron Mountain, Clipper, Pilot Knob, Horn, Hyder and Rice. A total of thirteen infantry divisions and seven armored divisions plus numerous smaller units were trained in this harsh environment; the training center was in operation for 2 years and was closed early in 1944 when the last units were shipped overseas. During the brief period of operation over one million American soldiers were trained for combat.

The Sixth Armored Division was declared a liberating unit by the US Army's Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum for the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp on April 11, 1945. This monument is dedicated to all the soldiers that served here and for those who gave their lives in battle, ending the Holocaust and defeating the armed forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan. Plaque placed by the Billy Holcomb Chapter 1069 of the Ancient and Honorable Order of E Clampus Vitus and the Veterans of the 6th Armored Division, the 7th Armored Division Associations, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, Needles Resource Area. November 11, 1989, Re-dedicated March 14, 2014. Erected 1989 by The Billy Holcomb Chapter of the Ancient & Honorable Order of E Clampus Vitus, the Veterans of the 6th Armored Division, the 7th Armored Division Association and in cooperation with The Bureau of Land Management, Needles Resource Area. California Historical Landmarks in San Bernardino County, California California Historical Landmarks in Riverside County, California Camp Granite Camp Iron Mountain Camp Clipper and Camp Essex Camp Ibis California during World War II Training Center Boogie – Song by John Malcolm Penn, about: D