Richard Burton, CBE was a Welsh actor. Noted for his mellifluous baritone voice, Burton established himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor in the 1950s, he gave a memorable performance of Hamlet in 1964, he was called "the natural successor to Olivier" by dramaturge Kenneth Tynan. An alcoholic, Burton's failure to live up to those expectations disappointed critics and colleagues and fuelled his legend as a great thespian wastrel. Burton never won an Oscar, he was a recipient of BAFTAs, Golden Globes, Tony Awards for Best Actor. In the mid-1960s, Burton ascended into the ranks of the top box office stars. By the late 1960s, Burton was one of the highest-paid actors in the world, receiving fees of $1 million or more plus a share of the gross receipts. Burton remains associated in the public consciousness with his second wife, actress Elizabeth Taylor; the couple's turbulent relationship was out of the news. Burton was born Richard Walter Jenkins Jr. on 10 November 1925 in a house at 2 Dan-y-bont in Pontrhydyfen, Wales.
He was the twelfth of thirteen children born to Edith Maude Jenkins. Jenkins Sr. called Daddy Ni by the family, was a coal miner, while his mother worked as a barmaid at a pub called the Miner's Arms, the place where she met and married her husband. According to biographer Melvyn Bragg, Richard is quoted saying that Daddy Ni was a "twelve-pints-a-day man" who sometimes went off on drinking and gambling sprees for weeks, that "he looked much like me", he remembered his mother to be "a strong woman" and "a religious soul with fair hair and a beautiful face". Richard was two years old when his mother died on 31 October, six days after the birth of Graham, the family's thirteenth child. Edith's death was a result of postpartum infections. According to biographer Michael Munn, Edith "was fastidiously clean", but that her exposure to the dust from the coal mines resulted in her death. Following Edith's death, Richard's elder sister Cecilia, whom he affectionately addressed as "Cis", her husband Elfed James a miner, took him under their care.
Richard lived with Cis and their two daughters and Rhianon, in their three bedroom terraced cottage on 73 Caradoc Street, Taibach, a suburban district in Port Talbot, which Bragg describes as "a tough steel town, English-speaking and grime". Richard remained forever grateful and loving to Cis throughout his life going on to say: "When my mother died she, my sister, had become my mother, more mother to me than any mother could have been... I was immensely proud of her... she felt all tragedies except her own." Daddy Ni would visit the homes of his grown daughters but was otherwise absent. Another important figure in Richard's early life was his brother, 19 years his senior. A miner and rugby union player, Ifor "ruled the household with the proverbial firm hand", he was responsible for nurturing a passion for rugby in young Richard. Although Richard played cricket and table tennis, biographer Bragg notes rugby union football to be his greatest interest. On rugby, Richard said he "would rather have played for Wales at Cardiff Arms Park than Hamlet at The Old Vic".
The Welsh rugby union centre, Bleddyn Williams believed Richard "had distinct possibilities as a player". From the age of five to eight, Richard was educated at the Eastern Primary School while he attended the Boys' segment of the same school from eight to twelve years old, he took a scholarship exam for admission into Port Talbot Secondary School in March 1937 and passed it. Biographer Hollis Alpert notes that both Daddy Ni and Ifor considered Richard's education to be "of paramount importance" and planned to send him to the University of Oxford. Richard became the first member of his family to go to secondary school, he displayed an excellent speaking and singing voice since childhood winning an eisteddfod prize as a boy soprano. During his tenure at Port Talbot Secondary School, Richard showed immense interest in reading poetry as well as English and Welsh literature, he earned pocket money by running messages, hauling horse manure, delivering newspapers. Richard wanted to repeat his success.
He chose to sing Sir Arthur Sullivan's "Orpheus with his Lute", which biographer Alpert thought "a difficult composition". He requested the help of his schoolmaster, Philip Burton, but his voice cracked during their practice sessions; this incident marked the beginning of his association with Philip. Philip recalled, "His voice was tough to begin with but with constant practice it became memorably beautiful." Richard made his first foray into theatre with a minor role in his school's production of the Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw's The Apple Cart. He decided to leave school by the end of 1941 and work as a miner as Elfed was not fit due to illness, he worked for the local wartime Co-operative committee, handing out supplies in exchange for coupons. He simultaneously considered other professions for his future, including boxing and singing, it was during this period that Richard took up smoking and drinking despite being underage. When he joined the Port Talbot Squadron 499 of the Air Training Corps section of the Royal Air Force as a cadet, he re-encountered Philip, the squadron commander.
He joined the Taibach Youth Center, a youth drama group founded by Meredith Jones and led by Leo Lloyd, a steel worker and avid amateur thespian, who taught him the fundamentals
Lakeshore East line
Lakeshore East is one of the seven commuter rail lines of the GO Transit system in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. It extends from Union Station in Toronto to Oshawa GO in Durham Region. Buses from Oshawa connect to communities further east in Newcastle and Peterborough. All off-peak and some peak trains are interlined with the Lakeshore West line, continuing to Aldershot; the Lakeshore East line is the second oldest of GO's services, opening as part of the then-unified Lakeshore line on GO's first day of operations, 23 May 1967. It is ten minutes younger than its twin; the line ran along the CN Kingston Subdivision from Union to Pickering. Just prior to the opening of GO service, CN had moved much of its freight operations from downtown areas to the new MacMillan Yard north of the city. To feed freight traffic from the east into the Yard, CN built the new York Subdivision across the top of the city and connected the Yard to the Kingston Sub just west of Pickering at Pickering Junction; this offloaded the majority of traffic from the Kingston Sub between Pickering Junction and Union, allowing ample scheduling room for GO service.
Sections of the Kingston Sub to the east of Pickering Junction remained in use as the mainline to Montreal, CN did not have capacity to allow GO traffic on these sections. GO had planned to address this as part of a much larger project known as GO-Urban, GO ALRT. GO ALRT would have used a new electric train car running on a dedicated right-of-way between Pickering and its terminus to the east of Harmony Road on the far eastern edge of Oshawa. ALRT was to have followed the CN lines east to Whitby across the 401 to follow the CP Belleville Sub, which runs in parallel on the north side of the 401. Stations would be built at Pickering, Whitby, Simcoe, Oshawa east and Harmony. First proposed in 1982, ALRT lived for only a short time before it was cancelled in 1985 with a change of government. Instead, the basic alignment planned for ALRT from Pickering to Oshawa was laid using conventional track, splitting off at Pickering Junction and running under the York Sub bridge over the 401 in a complex basket weave.
It ran along the original ALRT layout to Whitby, but abandoned the 401 overpass and instead continued along the CN lines to the current Oshawa GO Station on the far western edge of town. The new lines were laid in sections, reaching Oshawa in 1995; until 29 December 2006, weekend and holiday trains still ended in Pickering, but service is now offered along the entire route every day of the year. In December 1993, GO Transit initiated a program for the eastward expansion of the Lakeshore East line, for which it received approval in 1994. GO Transit undertook a study to determine whether to use the tracks of Canadian Pacific Railway or Canadian National Railway. Metrolinx purchased the Kingston Sub between Pickering Junction and Union on 31 March 2011; this means that GO now owns the Lakeshore East, Newmarket/Barrie and Stouffville corridors. On 29 June 2013, off-peak service was improved to every 30 minutes. On 24 September 2018, weekday mid-day service frequency was improved again, now operating every 15 minutes.
As of September 2018, local service operates every 15 minutes on weekdays mid-day, every 30 minutes during other periods. In addition to local service, there are up to 4 express trains per hour during weekday peak periods. Note that the train will continue on to the Lakeshore West corridor after stopping at Union. There's no need to change trains to continue on to destinations on Lakeshore W. In 2008, Metrolinx published its regional transportation entitled The Big Move; as part of this, the agency identified an express all-day service between Hamilton and Oshawa as one of its top 15 priorities. Metrolinx has committed to providing service every 15 minutes on the line, as well as electrifying railways; this project, dubbed Regional Express Rail, is expected to reduce some trip times by 20%. Continued growth of the Oshawa area has led to renewed calls for expansion of the Lakeshore East line, this time all the way to Bowmanville. Possible station stops have been identified near Stevenson Road, Bloor Street, Courtice Road, two locations in Bowmanville.
There were plans to convert a building that used to be a Knob Hill Farms grocery store into a GO train station located near Simcoe Street, but the plans to build a station there have been scrapped due to environmental concerns and the challenge of reaching a fair purchase price with the property owner. However, negotiations for a station in downtown Oshawa could be reconsidered if both sides could come to an agreement on a fair purchase price for the building. On June 20, 2016, it was announced; the extension is expected to open in 2024. Current plans call for a realignment to follow a path similar to the original one chosen for the GO ALRT project, crossing the 401 to follow the Belleville Sub mainline on the north side of the highway. There are two "obvious" locations for such a crossover: one is just west of the existing Oshawa station where the CP line forms a sharp bend at Thickson Road; the latter is more difficult in theory, because of the location of the Via station directly off the east end of the tracks.
The current proposed expansion route follows the CNR rail corridor south of Highway 401 eastward to Thickson Road in Whitby, where a new split would
Performing arts center
Performing arts center/centre abbreviated as PAC, is used to refer to: A multi-use performance space, intended for use by various types of the performing arts, including dance and theatre. The intended multiple use of performing arts centers in this sense differentiates them from single-purpose concert halls, opera houses or theatres, although the actual use of single-purpose spaces for other than their intended use is widespread; this sort of space has a long history extending to Greek amphitheatres. A cluster of performance spaces, either separate buildings or under one roof, each space designed for a specific purpose such as symphonic music or chamber music or theatre, but multi-purpose as a whole; the modern version of this came into being only in the 1960s. Examples of this type of PAC are the Kennedy Center in Washington, D. C. the Sydney Opera House, the Lincoln Center in New York City. Some performing arts center organizations act as sole presenter for events using the venues within the center, but most frequently rent their performance spaces to other performing arts presenters or self-presenting performing arts groups.
Examples of this practice is the Celebrity Series of Boston renting venues in Boston's Boch Center. New performing arts centers emerged in the latter part of the 20th century as a means of generating new investment and increased economic activity and thus, a means for revitalizing neighborhoods as patrons are drawn to local restaurants and other businesses. PACs became a draw for touring shows and included visual art in their facilities. Today, these centers are valuable civic resources that provide education, exchange of creative discourse, opportunities for cultural expression and awareness. Auditorium List of concert halls List of contemporary amphitheatres List of opera houses
Ronald York Wilson was a Canadian painter and muralist. He is known for his murals at Toronto's O'Keefe Centre, the Salvation Army Headquarters, Imperial Oil Building, Bell Telephone Building, Central Hospital, he was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Lela M. Wilson. Edited by Sandra Dyck. York Wilson: His Life and Work, 1907-1984. Carleton University Press. ISBN 0-88629-337-5. Ronald York Wilson at The Canadian Encyclopedia
Ethel Merman was an American actress and singer. Known for her distinctive, powerful voice and leading roles in musical theatre, she has been called "the undisputed First Lady of the musical comedy stage". Among the many standards introduced by Merman in Broadway musicals are "I Got Rhythm"; the Irving Berlin song "There's No Business Like Show Business", written for the musical Annie Get Your Gun, became Merman's signature song. Merman was born in her maternal grandmother's house located at 359 4th Avenue in Astoria, Queens in New York City in 1908, though she would emphatically insist that it was 1912, her father, Edward Zimmermann, was an accountant with James H. Dunham & Company, a Manhattan wholesale dry-goods company, her mother, Agnes Zimmermann, was a teacher. Edward Zimmermann had been raised in the Dutch Reformed Church and his wife was Presbyterian. Shortly after they married, they joined the Episcopal congregation at Church of the Redeemer, where their daughter was baptized, her parents were strict about church attendance, she spent every Sunday there, at morning services, followed by Sunday school, an afternoon prayer meeting, an evening study group for children.
Her family was of Scottish ancestry. Merman attended P. S. 4 and William Cullen Bryant High School, where she pursued a commercial course that offered secretarial training. She was active in numerous extracurricular activities, including the school magazine, the speakers' club, student council, she frequented the local music store to peruse the weekly arrivals of new sheet music. On Friday nights, the Zimmermann family would take the subway into Manhattan to see the vaudeville show at the Palace Theatre, where Merman saw Blossom Seeley, Fanny Brice, Sophie Tucker, Nora Bayes. At home, she tried to emulate their singing styles, but her own distinctive voice was difficult to disguise. After graduating from Bryant High School in 1924, Merman was hired as a stenographer by the Boyce-Ite Company. One day during her lunch break, she met Vic Kliesrath, who offered her a job at the Bragg-Kliesrath Corporation for a $5 increase above the weekly $23 salary she was earning, Merman accepted the offer, she was made personal secretary to company president Caleb Bragg, whose frequent lengthy absences from the office to race automobiles allowed her to catch up on the sleep she had lost the previous night when she was out late performing at private parties.
During this period, Merman began appearing in nightclubs, first hired by Jimmy Durante's partner Lou Clayton. At this time, she decided the name, she considered combining Ethel with Gardner or Hunter, her grandmother's maiden name. These considerations caused her father's ire, she abbreviated Zimmermann to Merman to appease her father. During a two-week engagement at a club in midtown Manhattan called Little Russia, Merman met agent Lou Irwin, who arranged for her to audition for Archie Mayo, a film director under contract at Warner Bros, he offered her an exclusive six-month contract, starting at $125 per week, Merman quit her day job, only to find herself idle for weeks while waiting to be cast in a film. She urged Irwin to try to cancel her agreement with Mayo. Merman was hired as a torch singer at Les Ambassadeurs, where the headliner was Jimmy Durante, the two became lifelong friends, she caught the attention of columnists such as Walter Winchell and Mark Hellinger, who began giving her publicity.
Soon after, Merman underwent a tonsillectomy she feared might damage her voice, but after recovering, she discovered it was more powerful than ever. While performing on the prestigious Keith Circuit, Merman was signed to replace Ruth Etting in the Paramount film Follow the Leader, starring Ed Wynn and Ginger Rogers. Following a successful seven-week run at the Brooklyn Paramount, she was signed to perform at the Palace for $500 per week. During the run, theatre producer Vinton Freedley saw her perform and invited her to audition for the role of San Francisco café singer Kate Fothergill in the new George and Ira Gershwin musical Girl Crazy. Upon hearing her sing "I Got Rhythm", the Gershwins cast her, Merman began juggling daytime rehearsals with her matinee and evening performance schedule at the Palace. Girl Crazy opened on October 1930, at the Alvin Theatre, where it ran for 272 performances; the New York Times noted Merman sang "with dash, good voice and just the right knowing style", while The New Yorker called her "imitative of no one."
Merman was blasé about her notices, prompting George Gershwin to ask her mother, "Have you seen a person so unconcerned as Ethel?" During the run of Girl Crazy, Paramount signed Merman to appear in a series of 10 short musical films, most of which allowed her to sing a rousing number, as well as a ballad. She performed at the Central Park Casino, the Paramount Theatre, a return engagement at the Palace; as soon as Girl Crazy closed, her parents and she departed for a much-needed vacation in Lake George in Upstate New York, but after their first day there, Merman was summoned to Atlantic City, New Jersey, to help salvage
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
GO Transit is a regional public transit system serving the Greater Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, Canada. With its hub at Union Station in Toronto, GO Transit’s distinctive green and white trains and buses serve a population of more than seven million across an area over 11,000 square kilometres stretching from Brantford and Kitchener in the west to Newcastle and Peterborough in the east, from Barrie in the north to Niagara Falls in the south. GO Transit carried 68.5 million passengers in 2017, its ridership continues to grow. GO Transit operates diesel-powered double-decker trains and coach buses, on routes that connect with all local transit systems in its service area, as well as Via Rail, Canada's national rail system. Canada's first regional public transit system, GO Transit began regular passenger service on May 23, 1967 as a part of the Ontario Ministry of Transportation. Since it has grown from a single train line to seven, expanded to include complementary bus service. GO Transit has been constituted in a variety of public-sector configurations, today existing as an operating division of Metrolinx, a provincial Crown agency with overall responsibility for integrative transportation planning within the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area.
Cities in and around the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area experienced huge expansions in the 1950s, influenced by growth in immigration and industrialization. Much of the existing commuter service was provided by Canadian National Railway, it faced mounting pressure to expand its service beyond Lakeshore trains it ran between Hamilton in the west and Danforth in the east, to Toronto. Real improved commuter service was not considered until the 1962 Metropolitan Toronto and Region Transportation Study, which examined land use and traffic in the newly created Metropolitan Toronto; the idea of GO Transit was created out of fear of becoming lost in years of planning. In May 1965, the Government of Ontario granted permission to proceed with the launch of Canada's first specially-designed commuter rail service, at a cost of $9.2 million. Government of Ontario Transit started as a three-year long experiment on May 23, 1967 running single-deck trains powered by diesel locomotives in push-pull configuration on a single rail line along Lake Ontario's shoreline.
GO Train service ran throughout the day from Oakville to Pickering with limited rush hour train service to Hamilton. The experiment proved to be popular; this line, now divided as the Lakeshore East and Lakeshore West lines is the keystone corridor of GO Transit. Expansion of rail service continued in the 1970s and 1980s, aimed at developing ridership in with the introduction of the Georgetown line in 1974 and the Richmond Hill line in 1978; the Milton GO Train line opened in 1981, followed by the Bradford and Stouffville lines a year establishing the 7 rail corridors that today's rail service is based upon. Other than establishing new rail corridors, GO Transit introduced the Bi-Level coaches in 1979, in order to increase the number of passengers carried per train; these unique rail cars were developed in partnership with Bombardier Transportation. In that same year, the current GO concourse at Union Station was built to accommodate these additional passengers. GO Bus service started on September 8, 1970, extending the original Lakeshore line to Hamilton and Oshawa, as well as providing service north to Newmarket and Barrie.
It became a full-fledged network in its own right after 1989, feeding rail service and serving communities beyond the reach of existing trains. Near the end of 1982, Ontario Minister of Transportation and Communications James W. Snow announced the launching of GO-ALRT, an interregional light rail transit program providing $2.6 billion of infrastructure. Although this plan did not come to fruition, certain key objectives from it were established in other ways: additional stations were built, all-day service to Whitby and Burlington was established and networks of buses and trains interconnected the network. GO extended limited rush hour train service on the Bradford and both Lakeshore lines and began offering off-peak service on the Milton line in 1990. Train service was extended to Burlington on the Lakeshore West line in 1992. In a series of cost-cutting measures, then-Ontario Premier Bob Rae announced a "temporary" reduction in spending on services, causing all of the expansions of the 1990s to be reduced or eliminated.
All day train service was restored from Burlington to Whitby, peak service was brought to Oshawa in 2000, but this would be only one indicator of things to come. A large initiative to expand the GO Transit network in the mid-2000s under the GO Transit Rail Improvement Plan, or GO TRIP. $1 billion was invested in multiple rail and bus projects, making it the largest commuter rail project in Canadian history. This was dwarfed by a further slate of new GO infrastructure proposed in MoveOntario 2020, the provincial transit plan announced by Premier Dalton McGuinty in the leadup to the 2007 provincial election. With significant re-investment in regional transit, GO experienced significant growth in its train network: all day service was restored to Oshawa in 2006 and Aldershot in 2007. GO Transit also