Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. is an American film studio, production company and film distributor, a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, a division of Sony Entertainment's Sony Pictures subsidiary of the Japanese multinational conglomerate Sony Corporation. What would become Columbia Pictures, CBC Film Sales Corporation, was founded on June 19, 1918 by Harry Cohn, his brother Jack Cohn, Joe Brandt, it went public two years later. In its early years, it was a minor player in Hollywood, but began to grow in the late 1920s, spurred by a successful association with director Frank Capra. With Capra and others, Columbia became one of the primary homes of the screwball comedy. In the 1930s, Columbia's major contract stars were Cary Grant. In the 1940s, Rita Hayworth became the studio's premier star and propelled their fortunes into the late 1950s. Rosalind Russell, Glenn Ford, William Holden became major stars at the studio, it is one of the leading film studios in the world and is a member of the "Big Five" major American film studios.
It was one of the so-called "Little Three" among the eight major film studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. Today, it has become the world's fifth largest major film studio; the studio was founded on June 19, 1918 as Cohn-Brandt-Cohn Film Sales by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn and Jack's best friend Joe Brandt, released its first feature film in August 1922. Brandt was president of CBC Film Sales, handling sales and distribution from New York along with Jack Cohn, while Harry Cohn ran production in Hollywood; the studio's early productions were low-budget short subjects: "Screen Snapshots", the "Hall Room Boys", the Chaplin imitator Billy West. The start-up CBC leased space in a Poverty Row studio on Hollywood's famously low-rent Gower Street. Among Hollywood's elite, the studio's small-time reputation led some to joke that "CBC" stood for "Corned Beef and Cabbage". Brandt tired of dealing with the Cohn brothers, in 1932 sold his one-third stake to Harry Cohn, who took over as president. In an effort to improve its image, the Cohn brothers renamed the company Columbia Pictures Corporation on January 10, 1924.
Cohn remained head of production as well. He would run one of the longest tenures of any studio chief. In an industry rife with nepotism, Columbia was notorious for having a number of Harry and Jack's relatives in high positions. Humorist Robert Benchley called it the Pine Tree Studio, "because it has so many Cohns". Columbia's product line consisted of moderately budgeted features and short subjects including comedies, sports films, various serials, cartoons. Columbia moved into the production of higher-budget fare joining the second tier of Hollywood studios along with United Artists and Universal. Like United Artists and Universal, Columbia was a horizontally integrated company, it controlled distribution. Helping Columbia's climb was the arrival of Frank Capra. Between 1927 and 1939, Capra pushed Cohn for better material and bigger budgets. A string of hits he directed in the early and mid 1930s solidified Columbia's status as a major studio. In particular, It Happened; until Columbia's existence had depended on theater owners willing to take its films, since as mentioned above it didn't have a theater network of its own.
Other Capra-directed hits followed, including the original version of Lost Horizon, with Ronald Colman, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, which made James Stewart a major star. In 1933, Columbia hired Robert Kalloch to be women's costume designer, he was the first contract costume designer hired by the studio, he established the studio's wardrobe department. Kalloch's employment, in turn, convinced leading actresses that Columbia Pictures intended to invest in their careers. In 1938, the addition of B. B. Kahane as Vice President would produce Charles Vidor's Those High Gray Walls, The Lady in Question, the first joint film of Rita Hayworth and Glenn Ford. Kahane would become the President of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1959, until his death a year later. Columbia could not afford to keep a huge roster of contract stars, so Cohn borrowed them from other studios. At Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the industry's most prestigious studio, Columbia was nicknamed "Siberia", as Louis B. Mayer would use the loan out to Columbia as a way to punish his less-obedient signings.
In the 1930s, Columbia signed Jean Arthur to a long-term contract, after The Whole Town's Talking, Arthur became a major comedy star. Ann Sothern's career was launched when Columbia signed her to a contract in 1936. Cary Grant signed a contract in 1937 and soon after it was altered to a non-exclusive contract shared with RKO. Many theaters relied on westerns to attract big weekend audiences, Columbia always recognized this market, its first cowboy star was Buck Jones, who signed with Columbia in 1930 for a fraction of his former big-studio salary. Over the next two decades Columbia released scores of outdoor adventures with Jones, Tim McCoy, Ken Maynard, Jack Luden, Bob Allen, Russell Hayden, Tex Ritter, Ken Curtis, Gene Autry. Columbia's most popular cowboy was Charles Starrett, who signed with Columbia in 193
Dubbing, mixing, or re-recording is a post-production process used in filmmaking and video production in which additional or supplementary recordings are "mixed" with original production sound to create the finished soundtrack. The process takes place on a dub stage. After sound editors edit and prepare all the necessary tracks – dialogue, automated dialogue replacement, Foley, music – the dubbing mixers proceed to balance all of the elements and record the finished soundtrack. Dubbing is sometimes confused with ADR known as "additional dialogue replacement", "automated dialogue recording" and "looping", in which the original actors re-record and synchronize audio segments. Outside the film industry, the term "dubbing" refers to the replacement of the actor's voices with those of different performers speaking another language, called "revoicing" in the film industry. In the past, dubbing was practiced in musicals when the actor had an unsatisfactory singing voice. Today, dubbing enables the screening of audiovisual material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the performers in the original production.
Films and sometimes video games are dubbed into the local language of a foreign market. In foreign distribution, dubbing is common in theatrically released films, television films, television series and anime. Automated Dialog Replacement is the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes. In India the process is known as "dubbing", while in the UK, it is called "post-synchronisation" or "post-sync"; the insertion of voice actor performances for animation, such as computer generated imagery or animated cartoons, is referred to as ADR although it does not replace existing dialogue. The ADR process may be used to: remove extraneous sounds such as production equipment noise, wind, or other undesirable sounds from the environment. Replace foul language for TV broadcasts of the movie. In conventional film production, a production sound mixer records dialogue during filming. During post-production, a supervising sound editor, or ADR supervisor, reviews all of the dialogue in the film and decides which lines must be re-recorded.
ADR is recorded during an ADR session. The actor the original actor from the set, views the scene with the original sound attempts to recreate the performance. Over the course of multiple takes, the actor performs the lines while watching the scene; the ADR process does not always take place in a post-production studio. The process may be recorded with mobile equipment. ADR can be recorded without showing the actor the image they must match, but by having them listen to the performance, since some actors believe that watching themselves act can degrade subsequent performances. Sometimes, a different actor than the original actor on set is used during ADR. One famous example is the Star Wars character Darth Vader portrayed by David Prowse. Other examples include: Ray Park, who acted as Darth Maul from Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace had his voice dubbed over by Peter Serafinowicz Frenchmen Philippe Noiret and Jacques Perrin, who were dubbed into Italian for Cinema Paradiso Austrian bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger, dubbed for Hercules in New York Argentine boxer Carlos Monzón, dubbed by a professional actor for the lead in the drama La Mary Gert Frobe, who played Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film Goldfinger, dubbed by Michael Collins Andie MacDowell's Jane, in Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes, dubbed by Glenn Close Tom Hardy, who portrayed Bane in The Dark Knight Rises, re-dubbed half of his own lines for ease of viewer comprehension Harvey Keitel was dubbed by Roy Dotrice in post production for Saturn 3 Dave Coulier dubbed replacement of swear words for Richard Pryor in multiple TV versions of his movies An alternative method to dubbing, called "rythmo band", has been used in Canada and France.
It provides a more precise guide for the actors and technicians, can be used to complement the traditional ADR method. The "band" is a clear 35 mm film leader on which the dialogue is hand-written in India ink, together with numerous additional indications for the actor—including laughs, length of syllables, mouth sounds and mouth openings and closings; the rythmo band is projected in scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture. Studio time is used more efficiently, since with the aid of scrolling text and audio cues, actors can read more lines per hour than with ADR alone. With ADR, actors can average 10–12 lines per hour, while rythmo band can facilitate the reading of 35-50 lines per hour. However, the preparation of a rythmo band is a time-consuming process involving a series of specialists organized in a production line; this has prevented the technique from being more adopted, but software emulations of rythmo band technology overcome the dis
CSI: Miami is an American police procedural drama television series that premiered on September 23, 2002, on CBS. Starring David Caruso as Lieutenant Horatio Caine, Emily Procter as Detective Calleigh Duquesne, Kim Delaney as Lieutenant Megan Donner, the series is the first direct spin-off of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, "transplanting the same template and trickery—gory crimes, procedural plot and dazzling graphics—into while retaining the essence of the original idea". CSI: Miami is executive produced by Carol Mendelsohn, Anthony E. Zuiker, Ann Donahue, with the latter acting as show-runner; the series ended on April 2012, after 10 seasons and 232 episodes. Following the series finale, Nina Tassler credited CSI: Miami as a "key player in CBS's rise to the top", stating that the series "leaves an amazing television legacy—a signature look and style global popularity". In 2006, BBC News published an article stating that CSI: Miami was the world's most popular television series, featuring in more countries' top ten rankings for 2005 than any other series.
CSI: Miami follows a group of detectives assigned to the Miami-Dade Police Department's Crime Scene Investigations, an elite unit operating out of the "Miami Dade police headquarters, with its eerie blue light and flickering screens". The team is led by Lieutenant Horatio Caine, through his history as a bomb-disposal expert, has gained specialized knowledge in explosive forensics. Horatio believes that "evil is" and lives "between the perpetrators of this evil and the people who try and come between that evil and the citizen". In his pursuit of justice, he has proven that "he can handle himself on the street and he's not a person to be messed with"The New York Sun has described Caine as an amalgam of "the spirits of all the laconic American law men who preceded him", while The New York Post describes Caine's partner Detective Calleigh Duquesne as "a bilingual Southern beauty with a specialty in ballistics". Together and Calleigh head a team of forensic investigators that includes Lieutenant Megan Donner, conceived as "a strong woman duplicate the chemistry that Caruso displayed with Marg Helgenberger" during Cross Jurisdictions, Detective Eric Delko, an underwater recovery expert, Walter Simmons, a Detective who forces the "CSIs to do more science and research instead of relying on databases", Los Angeles Police-transfer Jesse Cardoza, former FBI agent Natalia Boa Vista, Ryan Wolfe, a master of genetics recruited following the death of Detective Timothy Speedle.
The team are assisted by Medical Examiner Alexx Woods, who began her career as Medical Examiner in New York, her replacement Tara Price, Miami Dade Police Sergeant Frank Tripp, Horatio's sister-in-law, Detective Yelina Salas. During their investigations, the team cooperate with both allies and nemeses, including Internal Affairs Lieutenant Rick Stetler, States Attorney Rebecca Nevins, Medical Examiner Tom Loman, newly minted detective Sam Owens. On April 17, 2002, CBS Television Studios announced plans to launch a series titled CSI: Miami-Dade, a spin-off to the hit procedural CSI. On the location choice, co-creator Carol Mendelsohn stated that " felt Miami was the most happening place Miami is so rich as a character. There is so much water. There are so many different cultures here all colliding, its politics are so interesting. All that gives Miami an edge."CBS ordered 22 episodes of the series, with Anthony Zuiker stating that whilst he intended for the series to look "ridiculously gorgeous", he felt that the "show not about women walking around in bikinis.
It's about science." The series was launched as a second-season episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, featured a cast led by David Caruso, Emily Procter, Adam Rodriguez, Khandi Alexander, with Rory Cochrane. Kim Delaney joined the series following the pilot episode's broadcast; the series is executive produced by creators Carol Mendelsohn, Anthony E. Zuiker, Ann Donahue, with Ann Donahue acting as show-runner. Jerry Bruckheimer executive-produces the series. CSI: Crime Scene Investigation stars William Petersen and Marg Helgenberger expressed their displeasure at CBS' launch of Miami, with Petersen stating that " should have waited five years for a CSI spinoff." Helgenberger supported Petersen's comments during an Emmy acceptance speech, noting that "as far as concerned, there’s only one CSI." Petersen jestingly referred to the series NYPDCSI, as it featured both David Caruso and Kim Delaney, of NYPD Blue fame. In 2002, CSI executive producer Anthony Zuiker began casting for the then-unnamed Miami based spin-off.
First cast was Emily Procter, as Calleigh Duquesne. Regarding her decision to leave The West Wing and join Miami, Procter stated that "It was like choosing between a boyfriend that wants to be with you casually or a man that says I love you." She described her character as "a weird girl bright and nerdy. She looks like a hippie. I just like to pretend I'm Velma in Scooby-Doo."Adam Rodriguez, Rory Cochrane, Khandi Alexander were cast alongside Procter, completing the supporting ensemble. For the lead, CBS suggested David Caruso. Zuiker, who stated that he had "heard about the NYPD Blue thing", was hesitant. Elaborating, Zuiker stated that he "sort of jumped in and said,'Naw, I don't know about this guy; the show's tough eno
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
Manga Entertainment is a producer and distributor of Japanese animation in the United Kingdom. It co-produces several anime series, including Ghost in the Shell, Street Fighter Alpha: The Animation, Highlander: The Search for Vengeance and Eon Kid through financial contributions toward production costs; the American branch was established in 1991 following the acquisition of the UK rights to Akira, by Laurence Guinness, the Head of Acquisition and Development at Island World Communications. Andy Frain, was the Managing Director of Island World Communications. Manga has played a part in dubbing anime, when it is not sub-licensing a production, licensed by another company, it is the designated home video distributor for the Pokémon franchise in the UK, including some of the movies apart from the ones distributed by Miramax. Despite its name, the company's principal business is the distribution of anime rather than manga, although they have published some manga, such as Crying Freeman, in the United Kingdom under the Manga Books imprint.
Since 2005, Manga Entertainment UK has operated independently from its American branch though both companies were still owned by IDT Entertainment and Starz Media. In 2011, the American branch ceased licensing new products after the release of Redline and went dormant. In February 26, 2015, the U. K branch would be bought from Starz Media alongside its parent Anchor Bay UK to managing director Colin Lomax. Anchor Bay UK was renamed to Platform Entertainment and went on to have exclusive rights to the Manga Entertainment branding and catalog in the UK and Ireland. Manga Entertainment UK have licensing and distribution deals with Funimation, Sentai Filmworks and Viz Media. Unlike previous licensing agreements, they do not bring titles from Funimation and Viz to Australia under their brand as Manga's Australian distributor. In December 2016, Platform Entertainment would be bought by Kaleidoscope Film Distribution, who split Manga UK off to become a separate entity. In 2017, Lionsgate Home Entertainment, the new owner of the dormant US branch, relaunched the Manga.com website and Facebook page, planning a re-launch in the near future.
Lionsgate licenses the Manga Entertainment brand-name from the now non-related UK branch. Manga Entertainment expanded into Australia in late 1993 when Manga's main headquarters were still based in London. Although Manga's titles were to be released in Australia by PolyGram who owned Island and Manga, they decided to sub-license their properties to Siren Entertainment. In late 1996, Manga Entertainment UK gave the sub-distribution license to the newly founded Madman Entertainment who in turn were distributed by Siren; this meant that both Madman has equal rights to Manga's properties. In 1997, PolyGram Australia gained the rights to some of Manga's more recent additions to its catalogue; this included Lupin the Third properties, except The Castle of Cagliostro, Violence Jack. Violence Jack: Evil Town was banned in Australia when PolyGram submitted the UK cut to the Australian Government for classification; the other two OVAs in the series submitted were the uncut dubbed versions that were released in the USA by Critical Mass, however due to Evil Town's banning, PolyGram scrapped the release of Violence Jack in Australia.
PolyGram had the UK cut of Evil Town in circulation despite its banning. In late 1996, Madman Entertainment was founded by former employees of Siren, they were given exclusive sub-license rights to Manga UK's catalogue, including Part 4 of Macross Plus, released in 1997. Despite this, Madman did not take on some titles, e.g. RG Veda and Shadow Skill, let PolyGram Australia distribute them. Siren decided to license Street Fighter II V from Manga USA in 1997 and released the series without input from Madman, as Madman had an exclusive licensing deal with ADV Films, who had licensed Street Fighter II V in the UK and re-dubbed it; this property was taken over by Madman in 1999. In this same time period Manga Entertainment had licensed Voltron for the Australian market and was released by Siren instead of Polygram Australia. In 1998, after Manga was purchased by former Island CEO Chris Blackwell, Madman Entertainment was given the rights to the entire Manga catalogue from Manga's UK and USA subsidiaries except Street Fighter II V, still licensed by Siren.
Manga Entertainment has since had a special relationship with Madman Entertainment and Manga was credited by many as the major force behind turning Anime into mainstream entertainment in Australia during the 1990s and early 2000s. Manga's latest DVD and Blu-ray masters are encoded and provided by Madman Entertainment because of Madman's large and modern DVD and Blu-ray authoring division. In 1999, Siren relinquished its licensing deal with Manga UK and its separate deal for SFII: V from Manga USA as Madman had become big enough for Siren to make the same amount of profit distributing for them as it was when it was the sole distributor of Manga products in Australia. In 2001, Siren Entertainment restructured itself and split the company into 2 separate entities: Siren Visual and The AV Channel. Madman's founders who were former employees of the company and owned shares of Siren decided to take The AV Channel and turn it into Madman's distribution arm, absorbed into Madman in 2008. Madman Entertainment in the mid 2000s decided to align itself with Manga USA, but since
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
TriStar Pictures, Inc. is an American film studio, a division of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group and part of Sony Pictures, owned by Japanese multinational conglomerate Sony Corporation. The concept for TriStar Pictures was the brainchild of Victor Kaufman, a senior executive of Columbia Pictures, who convinced the studio, HBO, CBS to pool resources and split the ever-growing costs of making movies, creating a new joint venture in 1982. On May 16, 1983, it was given the name Tri-Star Pictures, it was the first new major Hollywood studio to be established since RKO Pictures was founded in 1928. The studio's first produced film in 1984 was The Natural starring Robert Redford, their first release however, was the film, Where the Boys Are'84. During this venture, many of Tri-Star's releases were released on VHS by either RCA/Columbia Pictures Home Video, CBS/Fox Video and HBO/Cannon Video. In addition, HBO would gain exclusive cable distribution rights to these films, broadcast television licenses would go to CBS.
CBS dropped out of the venture in 1985, though they still distributed some of TriStar's films on home video until at least 1992. In 1986, HBO dropped out of the Tri-Star venture as well and sold half of its shares to Columbia Pictures; the same year, Tri-Star entered into the television business as Tri-Star Television. It was formed when the studio joined forces with Stephen J. Cannell Productions and Witt/Thomas/Harris Productions and created a television distribution company called TeleVentures. On December 21, 1987, Tri-Star Pictures, Inc. was renamed to Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. when Coke sold its entertainment business to Tri-Star for $3.1 billion. Both studios continued to distribute films under their separate names. On April 13, 1988, CPE spun off Tri-Star Pictures, Inc. as a reformed company of the Tri-Star studio. In 1989, Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. was acquired by Sony Corporation of Japan, who merged Columbia and Tri-Star, but continued to use the separate labels.
On July 11, 1990, Tri-Star Pictures dissolved and sold its venture in TeleVentures to Stephen J. Cannell Productions and TeleVentures became Cannell Distribution Co. Most of the series and the Tri-Star film packages that were distributed by TeleVentures were transferred to Columbia Pictures Television Distribution; the Tri-Star film packages were transferred to Columbia Pictures Television Distribution. Sony Pictures Entertainment revived TriStar Television as a television production banner in 1991 and merged with its sister television studio Columbia Pictures Television to form Columbia TriStar Television on February 21, 1994. Both studios continued to operate separately until TriStar folded in 1999 and CPT in 2001. In addition to its own slate, TriStar was the theatrical distributor for many films produced by Carolco Pictures. TriStar theatrically distributed some FilmDistrict movies. Around summer 1998, SPE merged Columbia and TriStar to form the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group, but just like Columbia Pictures Entertainment, both divisions continued producing and distributing films under their own names.
TriStar was relaunched on May 13, 2004 as a marketing and acquisitions unit that had a "particular emphasis on genre films". Screen Gems' executive vice president Valerie Van Galder was tapped to run the revived studio after being dormant. However, the release of its 2013 film Elysium represents the label's first big-budget release since The Mask of Zorro in 1998; the same year, former 20th Century Fox co-chairman Tom Rothman joined Sony Pictures and created TriStar Productions as a joint venture with existing Sony Pictures executives. The new TriStar will develop and produce up to four films per year, as well as television programming and acquisitions, starting on September 1. Sony's TriStar Pictures unit will be retained for "other product, including titles from Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions", will distribute product from the new TriStar. TriStar's logo of Pegasus, introduced in 1984, has become something of a cultural icon; the idea came about his family's interest in riding horses.
The original logo was created with the assistance of Sydney Pollack, an adviser at Tri-Star. The horse in that logo was the same one used in Pollack's film The Electric Horseman; the horse in that film was dark, so Pollack had the image altered it to look white in the logo. The second logo was painted by Alan Reingold and debuted in 1992, along with sister studio Columbia Pictures, with both logos sharing a background of clouds; the theatrical version was animated by Intralink Creative in 1993. The white stallion was shot in a hangar at the Santa Monica Airport, The wings were done by combining real white feathers and computer-generated-imagery merged with Pegasus by computer morphing; the background is nighttime blue. The clouds were shot from the Haleakala Crater on Maui. In 2015, a new TriStar Pictures logo was debuted in The Walk; this time it was animated by JAMM VFX. The clouds are white in this new logo