John Towner Williams is an American composer and pianist. With a career spanning over six decades, he has composed some of the most popular and critically acclaimed film scores in cinematic history, including those of the Star Wars series, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, the Indiana Jones series, the first two Home Alone films, the first two Jurassic Park films, Schindler's List, the first three Harry Potter films. Williams has been associated with director Steven Spielberg since 1974, composing music for all but four of his feature films––Duel, The Color Purple, Bridge of Spies, Ready Player One. Other works by Williams include theme music for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, NBC Sunday Night Football, "The Mission" theme used by NBC News and Seven News in Australia, the television series Lost in Space and Land of the Giants, the incidental music for the first season of Gilligan's Island. Williams has composed numerous classical concertos and other works for orchestral ensembles and solo instruments.
He served as the Boston Pops's principal conductor from 1980 to 1993, is the orchestra's laureate conductor. Williams has won 24 Grammy Awards, seven British Academy Film Awards, five Academy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards. With 51 Academy Award nominations, Williams is the second most-nominated individual, after Walt Disney. In 2005, the American Film Institute selected Williams's score to 1977's Star Wars as the greatest American film score of all time; the soundtrack to Star Wars was additionally preserved by the Library of Congress into the National Recording Registry for being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Williams was inducted into the Hollywood Bowl's Hall of Fame in 2000, was a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2004 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2016. Williams composed the score for eight of the top 20 highest-grossing films at the U. S. box office. John Towner Williams was born on February 8, 1932 in Floral Park, New York, to Esther and Johnny Williams, a jazz percussionist who played with the Raymond Scott Quintet.
Williams has said of his lineage, "My father was a Maine man—we were close. My mother was from Boston. My father's parents ran a department store in Bangor, my mother's father was a cabinetmaker. People with those roots are not inclined to be lazy."In 1948, the Williams family moved to Los Angeles where John attended North Hollywood High School, graduating in 1950. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, studied with the Italian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco. Williams attended Los Angeles City College for one semester as the school had a Studio Jazz Band. In 1952, Williams was drafted into the U. S. Air Force, where he played the piano and conducted and arranged music for The U. S. Air Force Band as part of his assignments. In a 2016 interview with the US Air Force band, he recounted having attended basic Air Force training at Lackland base, after which he served as a pianist and brass player, with secondary duties of making arrangements for three years, he attended music courses at the University of Arizona as part of his service.
In 1955, following his Air Force service, Williams moved to New York City and entered the Juilliard School, where he studied piano with Rosina Lhévinne. During this time Williams worked as a jazz pianist in the city's many jazz clubs. After moving to Los Angeles, he began working as a session musician, most notably for composer Henry Mancini, he worked with Mancini on the Peter Gunn soundtrack, along with guitarist Bob Bain, bassist Rolly Bundock, drummer Jack Sperling, many of whom were featured on the Mr. Lucky television series. Known as "Johnny" during the 1950s and early 1960s, Williams composed the music for many television programs, served as music arranger and bandleader for a series of popular music albums with the singer Frankie Laine. While skilled in a variety of 20th-century compositional idioms, Williams's most familiar style may be described as a form of neoromanticism, inspired by the late 19th century's large-scale orchestral music—in the style of Tchaikovsky or Richard Wagner and their concept of leitmotif—that inspired his film music predecessors.
After his studies at Juilliard and the Eastman School of Music, Williams returned to Los Angeles, where he began working as an orchestrator at film studios. Among other composers, Williams worked with Franz Waxman, Bernard Herrmann, Alfred Newman, with his fellow orchestrators Conrad Salinger and Bob Franklyn. Williams was a studio pianist, performing on film scores by composers such as Jerry Goldsmith, Elmer Bernstein, Henry Mancini. With Mancini Williams recorded the scores of 1959's Peter Gunn, 1962's Days of Wine and Roses, 1963's Charade. Williams composed music for various television programs in the 1960s: the pilot episode of Gilligan's Island, Bachelor Father, the Kraft Suspense Theatre, Lost in Space, The Time Tunnel, Land of the Giants. Williams's first film composition was for the 1958 B movie Daddy-O, his first screen credit came two years in Because They're Young, he soon gained notice in Hollywood for his versatility in composing jazz and symphonic music. Williams received his first Academy Award nomination for his score for 1967's Valley of the Dolls, was nominated again for
Fred W. Friendly
Fred W. Friendly was a president of CBS News and the creator, along with Edward R. Murrow, of the documentary television program See It Now, he originated the concept of public-access television cable TV channels. Friendly was born in New York City to Therese Friendly Wachenheimer and Samuel Wachenheimer, a jewelry manufacturer; the family moved from Manhattan's Morningside Heights district to Providence, Rhode Island, where he was graduated from Hope Street High School in 1933. He received an associate degree from Nichols Junior College in 1936, he entered radio broadcasting in 1937 at WEAN in Providence, Rhode Island, where he reversed the order of his middle and last names, began using Friendly as his last name. In World War II, he served as an instructor in the Army Signal Corps and reported for an Army newspaper in the Pacific Theater before mustering out as a master sergeant in 1945, his decorations included the Soldier's Medal. By the late 1940s, Friendly was an experienced radio producer.
It was in this role that Friendly first worked with Murrow on the Columbia Records historical albums, I Can Hear It Now. The first entry in the series, released on Thanksgiving Day 1948, covered the crisis and war years 1933–1945, it was a ground-breaker in that it used clips of radio news coverage and speeches of the major events from that twelve-year time span. Friendly created the concept after noticing the new use of audiotape in regular radio news coverage, as opposed to wire or disc recordings, an industry standard. Periodically, Friendly created recordings of news events when such recordings didn't exist or, recreated ones that were considered too chaotic to use on an album. CBS correspondent David Schoenbrun, in his memoir On and Off the Air, said he once was forced by Friendly to ask Charles de Gaulle if he would recreate the speech he gave upon his return to Paris; the recreations never were identified as such, trying to separate the real from the recreated, continues to be problematic for radio historians.
Although Murrow was an established CBS name and at the time Columbia Records was owned by CBS, Friendly's next full-time work came as a news producer at NBC. It was there that Friendly originated the idea for the news-oriented quiz show Who Said That?, first hosted by NBC newsman Robert Trout, followed by Walter Kiernan, John Charles Daly. The program, which Friendly edited, ran irregularly on NBC and ABC between 1948 and 1955. Friendly wrote and produced the NBC Radio series The Quick and the Dead during the Summer of 1950, it was about the development of the atomic bomb. It featured Trout, Bob Hope, New York Times writer Bill Laurence, who had won a Pulitzer Prize for his coverage of the Manhattan Project. After the success of The Quick and the Dead, Friendly was recruited to work full-time for CBS by news executive Sig Mickelson; that fall and Friendly collaborated to produce a CBS Radio documentary series inspired by their record albums—a weekly show called Hear It Now, hosted by Murrow. The show moved to television as See It Now on Sunday, November 18, 1951.
Murrow and Friendly broadcast a revealing See It Now documentary analysis on Senator Joseph McCarthy, credited with changing the public view of McCarthy and, being a key event leading to McCarthy's fall from power. It was an extension of the duo's continuing probe of the conflict between McCarthy's anti-Communist crusade and individual rights; the previous fall and Friendly had produced a notable See It Now episode on the topic, when the show probed the case of Air Force Reserve Lieutenant Milo Radulovich, who had lost his security clearance because of the supposed leftist leanings of his sister and father—evidence the Air Force kept sealed. Five weeks Radulovich was reinstated by the secretary of the Air Force. Radulovich was granted leave of his duties that same year, when he was forced to move temporarily to Phoenix, Arizona to care for his nephew, involved in a dog mauling incident. After See It Now ended, in the Summer of 1958, Friendly and Murrow worked together on its successor, CBS Reports, although Friendly alone was executive producer and Murrow no more than an occasional reporter and narrator.
Their most famous CBS Reports installment—the probe of migrant farm workers Harvest of Shame—aired in November 1960 and still is considered one of television's finest single programs. After Murrow's departure from the television network in 1961, Friendly continued to oversee several notable CBS Reports documentaries, including Who Speaks for Birmingham?, Birth Control and the Law, The Business of Heroin. Under CBS president James T. Aubrey, Jr. the pressures on CBS News operations escalated. Aubrey fought with Friendly. Friendly felt Aubrey was insufficiently concerned with public affairs and in his memoir, Due to Circumstances Beyond Our Control, recounts one budget meeting at CBS when Aubrey spoke at length of how much money the news was costing the company, being a sea of red ink that could be stopped by replacing news with more entertainment programs. CBS founder and board chairman William S. Paley supported the news and protected Friendly's division from Aubrey's proposed budget cuts. In 1962, Aubrey ordered that there would be fewer specials, both entertainment and news, because he felt interruptions to the schedule alienated viewers by disrupting their routine viewing, sending them to the competition.
Friendly resented this move. To Friendly's relief, in 1965 Aubrey was fired. Friendly served as president of CBS News from 1964 to 1966. In 1966, Fr
Evángelos Odysséas Papathanassíou, known professionally as Vangelis, is a Greek musician and composer of electronic, ambient and orchestral music. He is best known for his Academy Award-winning score to Chariots of Fire composing scores for the films Blade Runner, Antarctica, The Bounty, 1492: Conquest of Paradise, Alexander, the use of his music in the PBS documentary Cosmos: A Personal Voyage by Carl Sagan. Vangelis began his career working with several popular bands of the 1960s such as the Forminx and Aphrodite's Child, with the latter's album 666 going on to be recognized as a progressive-psychedelic rock classic. Throughout the 1970s, Vangelis composed music scores for several animal documentaries, including L'Apocalypse des Animaux, La Fête sauvage and Opéra sauvage. In the early 1980s, Vangelis formed a musical partnership with Jon Anderson, the lead singer of progressive rock band Yes, the duo went on to release several albums together as Jon & Vangelis. In 1981, he composed the score for the Oscar-winning film Chariots of Fire, for which he won an Academy Award for Best Original Score.
The soundtrack's single, the film's "Titles" theme reached the top of the American Billboard Hot 100 chart and was used as the background music at the London 2012 Olympics winners' medal presentation ceremonies. Vangelis received acclaim for his synthesizer-based soundtrack for the 1982 film Blade Runner. Having had a career in music spanning over 50 years and having composed and performed more than 50 albums, Vangelis is considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of electronic music. Evángelos Odysséas Papathanassíou was born on 29 March 1943 in Agria, a coastal town in Magnesia, Thessaly and raised in Athens, his father Ulysses was an amateur sprinter. He has Nico. Vangelis developed an interest in music at age four, composing on the family piano and experimenting with sounds by placing nails and kitchen pans inside it and with radio interference. At six his parents enrolled him for music tuition, but Vangelis said that his parents' attempts to study "failed" as he preferred to develop technique on his own.
He considers himself fortunate not to attend music school as it impedes creativity, learned to play from memory. "When the teachers asked me to play something, I would pretend that I was reading it and play from memory. I didn't fool them, but I didn't care". Vangelis studied painting at the Athens School of Fine Arts. Vangelis found traditional Greek music as important in his childhood, but at twelve developed an interest in jazz and rock. At fifteen, he started not to cover other musicians but to have fun. Vangelis acquired his first Hammond organ at eighteen. In 1963, Vangelis and three school friends started a five-piece rock band The Forminx, playing cover songs and original material written by Vangelis with English lyrics by radio DJ and record producer Nico Mastorakis. After nine singles and one Christmas EP, which found success across Europe, the group disbanded in 1966. Following the split of The Forminx, Vangelis spent the next two years studio-bound and producing for other Greek artists.
He scored music for three Greek films. During this time, Vangelis worked on the scores to Frenzy for director Jan Christian, Apollo Goes on Holiday for George Skalenakis, Antique Rally, 5,000 Lies for Giorgos Konstantinou. In 1968, the 25-year-old Vangelis wished to further his career and, amongst the political turmoil surrounding the 1967 coup, left Greece for London. However, he was settled in Paris for the next six years. In 1968 he formed the progressive rock band Aphrodite's Child with Demis Roussos, Loukas Sideras, Anargyros "Silver" Koulouris, their debut single, "Rain and Tears", was a commercial success in Europe, followed by the albums End of the World and It's Five O'Clock. Vangelis conceived the idea of their third, 666, a double concept album based on the Book of Revelation. After increasing tensions during the recording of 666, the group split in 1971. Vangelis would produce future singles by their singer Demis Roussos. Vangelis recalled after the split: "I couldn't follow the commercial way anymore, it was boring.
You have to do something like that in the beginning for showbiz, but after you start doing the same thing everyday you can't continue."From 1970 to 1974, Vangelis took part in various solo projects in film and theatre. He composed the score for Sex Power directed by Henry Chapier, followed by Salut, Jerusalem in 1972 and Amore in 1974. In 1971, he took part in a series of jam sessions with various musicians in London which resulted in two albums released without Vangelis' permission in 1978: Hypothesis and The Dragon. Vangelis succeeded in taking legal action to have them withdrawn. 1972 saw the release of his debut solo album Fais que ton rêve soit plus long que la nuit, French for Make Your Dream Last Longer Than the Night. It was inspired by the 1968 French student riots, after which Vangelis decided to write a "poemme symphonique" to express his solidarity with the students, comprising musical with news snippets and protest songs. A soundtrack album of music that Vangelis performed for a 1970 wildlife documentary serie
Peter Gelb is an American arts administrator. Since August 2006, he has been General Manager of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. While in high school, Gelb began his association with the Metropolitan Opera as an usher. At age 17, Gelb began his career in classical music as office boy to impresario Sol Hurok. Gelb managed the Boston Symphony Orchestra’s 1979 tour to China at the end of the Cultural Revolution; the following year Gelb became Vladimir Horowitz's manager. Gelb assisted the pianist in the revival of his performing career, managed his return to Russia in 1986. In partnership with the Chinese government, Gelb commissioned the premiere of Tan Dun's Symphony 1997, featuring Yo-Yo Ma, performed at the handover of Hong Kong to China. In 1982, Gelb founded, served as president of, CAMI Video, a division of Columbia Artists Management. In this capacity, he served for six years as executive producer of "The Metropolitan Opera Presents", the Met's series of televised opera broadcasts.
Gelb produced 25 televised productions for the Met, including the 1990 telecast of Richard Wagner’s complete Der Ring des Nibelungen, conducted by James Levine. While at CAMI, Gelb produced and directed more than 50 programs for television featuring such artists as Herbert von Karajan and Mstislav Rostropovich. In 1992, Gelb produced both the stage and film versions of Julie Taymor’s first opera production, Oedipus Rex, for Seiji Ozawa’s Saito Kinen Festival. For that Japanese festival, in 1994 he commissioned an early opera staging by Robert Lepage, La Damnation de Faust. A re-conceived version of that production was presented at the Met in the 2008–09 season. From 1995 until joining the Met, Gelb was president of Sony Classical Records. Gelb pursued a strategy of emphasizing crossover music over mainstream classical repertoire. Examples include cellist Yo-Yo Ma, encouraged to record Americana, including an album with fiddler and composer Mark O'Connor and double-bassist and composer Edgar Meyer, Appalacia Waltz.
Gelb expanded the focus of recording projects to include film music, among them the Academy Award-winning scores for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon by Tan Dun, The Red Violin by John Corigliano, Titanic, by James Horner, while preserving the label’s tradition of recording Broadway musicals and maintaining a catalogue of classical works. Gelb initiated Sony Classical’s program of commissioning new music. Gelb became the 16th General Manager of the Metropolitan Opera, taking over from Joseph Volpe, on August 1, 2006, he launched the beginning of his tenure with several new productions, including Madama Butterfly directed by Anthony Minghella. Gelb launched a number of new ventures for the Met, capitalizing on new media technology to distribute Met performances to a wider global audience; this became The Met: Live in HD series, the Met becoming the first performing arts company to offer live high definition broadcasts of its operas to cinemas and other performing arts centres in many countries of the world.
The series gained both an Emmy Award. Several digitally-recorded performances are offered on public television stations and released on DVDs for purchase. In September 2006, Sirius Satellite Radio launched Metropolitan Opera Radio, broadcasting live performances each week as well as historic performances from the Met’s radio archive; the Met presents free, live audio streaming of performances from its website once a week. Other initiatives launched by Gelb include a commissioning program for new operas. Gelb asserted the importance of his combining the roles of financial and general management with that of being overall creative director, he described plans to stage more productions each year but in an era of computer-generated visual effects no longer needing "tons of scenery" built and retained for each new production. These were among other plans for drawing in new audiences without deterring the older opera lovers, the wealth and patronage of some of whom sustains the most lavish financed opera house in the world.
During his tenure at the Met, Gelb has spearheaded the production of contemporary works, including the staging of two of John Adams's operas, Doctor Atomic and Nixon in China, with a third, The Death of Klinghoffer, planned for autumn 2014. His other ideas have included an annual "family-oriented" presentation at Christmas time, collaborations with the Vivian Beaumont Theater of Lincoln Center to develop newer musical works with musicians such as Wynton Marsalis, Rachel Portman, Rufus Wainwright. In January 2007 Gelb announced a commission for a new opera from Osvaldo Golijov, tentatively scheduled for the 2010-11 season. However, following the death in 2008 of Anthony Minghella, to have written the libretto, the premiere was postponed to 2018. Among Gelb’s Emmy Award-winning films are Soldiers of Music: Rostropovich Returns to Russia and Vladimir Horowitz: The Last Romantic, both with Maysles Films. Gelb r
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming and financial services; the company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics, motion pictures and financial services; these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, others.
Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense. The company's current slogan is Be Moved, their former slogans were The One and Only, It's like.no.other and make.believe. Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo; the company started with a total of eight employees. In May 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; the company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to "Sony"; when Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK.
The company used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name, tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company using Teletech as a brand name; the name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word "sonus", the root of sonic and sound, the other was "sonny", a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a young boy. In 1950s Japan, "sonny boys" was a loan word in Japanese, which connoted smart and presentable young men, which Sony founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka considered themselves to be; the first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958. At the time of the change, it was unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji; the move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, had strong feelings about the name.
They pushed for a name such as Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however. Both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. According to Schiffer, Sony's TR-63 radio "cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid-1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5 million units by the end of 1968. Sony co-founder Akio Morita founded Sony Corporation of America in 1960. In the process, he was struck by the mobility of employees between American companies, unheard of in Japan at that time; when he returned to Japan, he encouraged experienced, middle-aged employees of other companies to reevaluate their careers and consider joining Sony. The company filled many positions in this manner, inspired other Japanese companies to do the same. Moreover, Sony played a major role in the development of Japan as a powerful exporter during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
It helped to improve American perceptions of "made in Japan" products. Known for its production quality, Sony was able to charge above-market prices for its consumer electronics and resisted lowering prices. In 1971, Masaru Ibuka handed the position of president over to his co-founder Akio Morita. Sony began a life insurance company in one of its many peripheral businesses. Amid a global recession in the early 1980s, electronics sales dropped and the company was forced to cut prices. Sony's profits fell sharply. "It's over for Sony," one analyst concluded. "The company's best days are behind it." Around that time, Norio Ohga took up the role of president. He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, of the PlayStation in the early 1990s. Ohga went on to purchase CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989 expanding Sony's media presence. Ohga would succeed Morita as chief executive officer in 1989. Under the vision of co-founder Akio Morita and his successors, the company had aggressively expanded in
Crossover is a term applied to musical works or performers who appeal to different types of audience, for example by appearing on two or more of the record charts which track differing musical styles or genres. If the second chart combines genres, such as a "Hot 100" list, the work is not a crossover. In some contexts the term "crossover" can have negative connotations associated with cultural appropriation, implying the dilution of a music's distinctive qualities to appeal to mass tastes. For example, in the early years of rock and roll, many songs recorded by African-American musicians were re-recorded by white artists such as Pat Boone in a more toned-down style with changed lyrics, that lacked the hard edge of the original versions; these covers were popular with a much broader audience. In practice crossover results from the appearance of the music in question in a film soundtrack. For instance, Sacred Harp music experienced a spurt of crossover popularity as a result of its appearance in the 2003 film Cold Mountain, bluegrass music experienced a revival due to the reception of 2000's O Brother, Where Art Thou?.
Classical crossover broadly encompasses both classical music that has become popularized and a wide variety of popular music forms performed in a classical manner or by classical artists. It can refer to collaborations between classical and popular performers, as well as music that blends elements of classical music with popular music. Pop vocalists and musicians, opera singers, classical instrumentalists, rock groups perform classical crossover. Although the phenomenon was long common in the music world, the name "classical crossover" was coined by record companies in the 1980s, it has acquired its own Billboard chart. Particular works of classical music have become popular among individuals who listen to popular music, sometimes appearing on non-classical charts; some classical works that achieved crossover status in the twentieth century include the Canon in D by Johann Pachelbel, the Symphony No. 3 by Henryk Górecki, the second movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 21, K. 467. Such popularity has been assisted by the use of classical music in advertising campaigns.
For example, the long-running British Airways advertisements familiarised a large viewing public with the song Aria by New Age artist Yanni a piece itself based on a duet from the opera Lakmé, by Léo Delibes. Another means of generating vast popularity for the classics has been through their use as inspirational anthems in sports settings; the aria "Nessun Dorma" from Puccini's Turandot Luciano Pavarotti's version, has become indissolubly linked with soccer. Within the classical recording industry, the term "crossover" is applied to classical artists' recordings of popular repertoire such as Broadway show tunes. Two examples of this are Lesley Garrett's excursions into musical comedy and José Carreras's recording West Side Story, as well as Teresa Stratas' recording Showboat. Soprano Eileen Farrell is considered to be one of the first classical singers to have a successful crossover recording with her 1960 album I've Got a Right to Sing the Blues. A popular pioneering figure in classical crossover was classically trained tenor and film star Mario Lanza, although the term "crossover" did not yet exist at the time of his greatest popularity in the 1950s.
Signed to RCA Victor as an artist on its premium Red Seal label, Lanza's albums appealed to more than just classical music audiences. His recording of "Be My Love" from his second film, The Toast of New Orleans, hit Number One on the Billboard pop singles chart in February 1951 and sold more than two million copies, a feat no classical artist before or since has achieved. Lanza recorded two other million-selling singles that made Billboard's top ten, "The Loveliest Night of the Year" and "Because You're Mine". Five of Lanza's albums hit Number One on Billboard's pop album chart between 1951 and 1955; the Great Caruso was the first and to date is the only recording composed of operatic arias to reach Number One on the U. S. pop album charts. The Student Prince, released in 1954, was Number One for 42 weeks. Arguably another early pioneer of crossover was the twentieth century composer Kurt Weill. A writer of avant garde serious music, his collaborations with playwright Bertolt Brecht on projects such as The Threepenny Opera gave an early indication of his interest in writing in an accessible, popular musical style.
This trend in his work came to full fruition in life in the United States, where he switched to writing the scores for Broadway musicals such as Knickerbocker Holiday and One Touch of Venus. Some of the hits from those shows, such as September Song and Speak Low, are better remembered than the musicals from which they came; the first Three Tenors concert in 1990 was a landmark in which Luciano Pavarotti, José Carreras and Plácido Domingo brought a combination of opera, Neapolitan folksong, musical theatre and pop to a vast television audience. This laid the foundations for the modern flourishing of classical crossover; the aspiration of classical singers to appeal to a wide pop audience is exemplified by the career of Rhydian. Classically trained, Rhydian appeared in the UK version of the pop talent show X Factor, his four albums and subsequent appearances have straddled pop, musical theatre and religious television fields. This applies to classically trained instrumentalists, such as Vanessa Mae, Escal