AIBO is a series of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony. Sony announced a prototype Aibo in mid-1998; the first consumer model was introduced on 11 May 1999. New models were released every year until 2006. Although most models were dog-like, other inspirations included lion-cubs and space explorer, only the ERS-7 version and ERS-1000 versions was explicitly a "robotic dog". In 2006, AIBO was added into the Carnegie Mellon University Robot Hall of Fame. On 26 January 2006 Sony announced that it would discontinue AIBO and several other products in an effort to make the company more profitable. Sony's AIBO customer support was withdrawn with support for the final ERS-7M3 ending in March 2013. In July 2014, Sony stopped providing repairs for AIBO products and did not provide customer support or repair for AIBO robots. In November 2017, Sony announced a new generation of AIBO after 11 years; the fourth generation model, ERS-1000, was launched in Japan on 11 January 2018. The second lottery sale was set on 6 February 2018.
AIBO is meant to be a companion robot for adults. AIBO grew out of Sony's Computer Science Laboratory. Founded in 1990, CSL was set up to emulate the innovation center at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center. CSL's first product was the Aperios operating system to form the base software some AIBO models used; when Nobuyuki Idei became president of Sony in 1995, he sought to adopt a digital agenda, reflected in the new motto he gave the company, “Digital Dream Kids,” and the prominence he gave to CSL. Dr. Toshitada Doi is credited as AIBO’s original progenitor: in 1994 he had started work on robots with artificial intelligence expert Masahiro Fujita within CSL. Fujita would write that the robot's behaviors will need to “be sufficiently complex or unexpected so that people keep an interest in watching or taking care of it”. Fujita argued that entertainment robots might be viable as "A robot for entertainment can be designed using various state-of-the-art technologies, such as speech recognition and vision though these technologies may not be mature enough for applications where they perform a critical function.
While there exists special and difficult requirements in entertainment applications themselves, limited capabilities in the speech and vision systems may turn out to be an interesting and attractive feature for appropriately designed entertainment robots." His early monkey-like prototype "MUTANT" included behaviors that would become part of AIBOs including tracking a yellow ball, shaking hands, karate strikes and sleeping. Fujita would receive the IEEE Inaba Technical Award for Innovation Leading to Production for "AIBO, the world's first mass-market consumer robot for entertainment applications". A friend of Doi's, the artist Hajime Sorayama, was enlisted to create the initial designs for the AIBO's body; those designs are now part of the permanent collections of Museum of Modern Art and the Smithsonian Institution. The first generation AIBO design won Japan's prestigious "Good Design Award, Grand Prize" and a special Intelligent Design award in the 2000 German Red Dot awards. In 1997 Doi received backing from Idei to form Sony’s Digital Creatures Lab.
Believing that robots would be commonplace in households by 2010, but aware of the shortcomings of available technology for functional uses, he decided to focus on robots for entertainment. The AIBO talked in a tonal language. Two of the first generation AIBOs exported into the USA came to New York, NY and one remains in the archives and display at Artspace Company Y LLC. Models of AIBOs were designed jointly with prestigious Japanese designers, continued to gain design awards; the ERS-210 design was inspired by lion cubs. The bodies of the "ERS-3x" series were designed by visual artist Katsura Moshino winning the "Good Design Award" The sleek and futuristic, space-exploration inspired body of the "ERS-220" was designed by Shoji Kawamori. Winning the "Good Design Award" and a "Design for Asia" award; the ERS-7 Also won a "Good Design Award". Ten years Idei's successor, Howard Stringer closed down AIBO and other robotic projects. Doi staged a mock funeral, attended by more than 100 colleagues from Sony.
At the funeral, Doi said that the Aibo was a symbol of a risk-taking spirit at Sony, now dead. In November 2017, Sony Corporation announced that AIBO would return with a new model that would be capable of forming an emotional bond with users. Several prototypes have been displayed by Sony. Early models were insect-like with six legs; the specifications and design of the 1998 prototype, described in a Sony press release match those of the first generation AIBOs. Differences include the use of PC-Cards for memory, the use of two batteries, the option to use a 2-wheeled "rolling module" in place of legs; the first commercially available AIBO. It has a beagle-like appearance. Sales began on 1 June 1999. There was a limited production of 3,000 for Japan and 2,000 for the USA, they sold out in 20 minutes after launch. It cost 250,000 YEN; the ERS-111 was an improved version of the original AIBO released in November 1999 as a limited edition model. All 3,000 units of the Japanese stock were bought within 17 seconds of launch.
The ERS-210 was designed to look like a cub. It has speech recognition capabilities; the colours were black, gold, blue, white. The ERS-300 had an "AIBO's heart" slogan. Original production design illustrator was Katsura Moshino; the price was 98,000 YEN. The Latte version is the low-end mod
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
Cell is a multi-core microprocessor microarchitecture that combines a general-purpose PowerPC core of modest performance with streamlined coprocessing elements which accelerate multimedia and vector processing applications, as well as many other forms of dedicated computation. It was developed by Sony, IBM, an alliance known as "STI"; the architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center in Austin, Texas over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a budget reported by Sony as approaching US$400 million. Cell is shorthand for Cell Broadband Engine Architecture abbreviated CBEA in full or Cell BE in part; the first major commercial application of Cell was in Sony's PlayStation 3 game console. Mercury Computer Systems has a dual Cell server, a dual Cell blade configuration, a rugged computer, a PCI Express accelerator board available in different stages of production. Toshiba had announced plans to incorporate Cell in high definition television sets, but seems to have abandoned the idea.
Exotic features such as the XDR memory subsystem and coherent Element Interconnect Bus interconnect appear to position Cell for future applications in the supercomputing space to exploit the Cell processor's prowess in floating point kernels. The Cell architecture includes a memory coherence architecture that emphasizes power efficiency, prioritizes bandwidth over low latency, favors peak computational throughput over simplicity of program code. For these reasons, Cell is regarded as a challenging environment for software development. IBM provides a Linux-based development platform to help developers program for Cell chips; the architecture will not be used unless it is adopted by the software development community. However, Cell's strengths may make it useful for scientific computing regardless of its mainstream success. In mid-2000, Sony Computer Entertainment, Toshiba Corporation, IBM formed an alliance known as "STI" to design and manufacture the processor; the STI Design Center opened in March 2001.
The Cell was designed over a period of four years, using enhanced versions of the design tools for the POWER4 processor. Over 400 engineers from the three companies worked together in Austin, with critical support from eleven of IBM's design centers. During this period, IBM filed many patents pertaining to the Cell architecture, manufacturing process, software environment. An early patent version of the Broadband Engine was shown to be a chip package comprising four "Processing Elements", the patent's description for what is now known as the Power Processing Element; each Processing Element contained 8 APUs, which are now referred to as SPEs on the current Broadband Engine chip. This chip package was regarded to run at a clock speed of 4 GHz and with 32 APUs providing 32 gigaFLOPS each, the Broadband Engine was shown to have 1 teraFLOPS of raw computing power; this design was fabricated using a 90 nm SOI process. In March 2007, IBM announced that the 65 nm version of Cell BE is in production at its plant in East Fishkill, New York.
Bandai Namco Entertainment used the cell processor for their 357 arcade board as well as the subsequent 369. In February 2008, IBM announced that it will begin to fabricate Cell processors with the 45 nm process. In May 2008, IBM introduced the high-performance double-precision floating-point version of the Cell processor, the PowerXCell 8i, at the 65 nm feature size. In May 2008, an Opteron- and PowerXCell 8i-based supercomputer, the IBM Roadrunner system, became the world's first system to achieve one petaFLOPS, was the fastest computer in the world until third quarter 2009; the world's three most energy efficient supercomputers, as represented by the Green500 list, are based on the PowerXCell 8i. The 45 nm Cell processor was introduced in concert with Sony's PlayStation 3 Slim in August 2009. By November 2009, IBM had discontinued the development of a Cell processor with 32 APUs but was still developing other Cell products. On May 17, 2005, Sony Computer Entertainment confirmed some specifications of the Cell processor that would be shipping in the then-forthcoming PlayStation 3 console.
This Cell configuration has one PPE on the core, with eight physical SPEs in silicon. In the PlayStation 3, one SPE is locked-out during the test process, a practice which helps to improve manufacturing yields, another one is reserved for the OS, leaving 6 free SPEs to be used by games' code; the target clock-frequency at introduction is 3.2 GHz. The introductory design is fabricated using a 90 nm SOI process, with initial volume production slated for IBM's facility in East Fishkill, New York; the relationship between cores and threads is a common source of confusion. The PPE core is dual threaded and manifests in software as two independent threads of execution while each active SPE manifests as a single thread. In the PlayStation 3 configuration as described by Sony, the Cell processor provides nine independent threads of execution. On June 28, 2005, IBM and Mercury Computer Systems announced a partnership agreement to build Cell-based computer systems for embedded applications such as medical imaging, industrial inspection and defense, seismic processing, telecommunications.
Mercury has since released blades, conventional rack servers and PCI Express accelerator boards with Cell processors. In the fall of 2006, IBM released the QS20 blade module using double Cell BE processors for tremendous performance in certain applications, reaching a peak of 410 gigaFLOPS in FP8 quarter precision per module; the QS22 based on the PowerXCell 8i processor was used for the IBM Roadrunner supercomputer. Mercury and IBM uses the utilized Cell processor with eight active SPEs. On April
PlayStation is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines. It is created and owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment since December 3, 1994, with the launch of the original PlayStation in Japan; the original console in the series was the first video game console to ship 100 million units, 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. Its successor, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold as of December 28, 2012. Sony's next console, the PlayStation 3, was released in 2006 and has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013. Sony's latest console, the PlayStation 4, was released in 2013, selling 1 million consoles in its first 24 hours on sale, becoming the fastest selling console in history; the first handheld game console in the PlayStation series, the PlayStation Portable or PSP, sold a total of 80 million units worldwide by November 2013.
Its successor, the PlayStation Vita, which launched in Japan on December 17, 2011 and in most other major territories in February 2012, had sold over 4 million units by January 2013. PlayStation TV is a microconsole and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. Other hardware released as part of the PlayStation series includes the PSX, a digital video recorder, integrated with the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, though it was short lived due to its high price and was never released outside Japan, as well as a Sony Bravia television set which has an integrated PlayStation 2; the main series of controllers utilized by the PlayStation series is the DualShock, a line of vibration-feedback gamepad having sold 28 million controllers as of June 28, 2008. The PlayStation Network is an online service with over 110 million users worldwide, it comprises an online virtual market, the PlayStation Store, which allows the purchase and download of games and various forms of multimedia, a subscription-based online service known as PlayStation Plus and a social gaming networking service called PlayStation Home, which had over 41 million users worldwide at the time of its closure in March 2015.
PlayStation Mobile is a software framework. Version 1.xx supports both PlayStation Vita, PlayStation TV and certain devices that run the Android operating system, whereas version 2.00 released in 2014 would only target PlayStation Vita and PlayStation TV. Content set to be released under the framework consist of only original PlayStation games currently.7th generation PlayStation products use the XrossMediaBar, an award-winning graphical user interface. A touch screen-based user interface called LiveArea was launched for the PlayStation Vita, which integrates social networking elements into the interface. Additionally, the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 consoles featured support for Linux-based operating systems; the series has been known for its numerous marketing campaigns, the latest of which being the "Greatness Awaits" commercials in the United States. The series has a strong line-up of first-party titles due to Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a group of fifteen first-party developers owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment which are dedicated to developing first-party games for the series.
In addition, the series features various budget re-releases of titles by Sony with different names for each region. In October 2018, Sony President Kenichiro Yoshida stated the necessity of the new PlayStation console. Yoshida said, it has become "necessary to have a next-generation hardware" to replace the PlayStation 4, now 5 years old. PlayStation was the brainchild of Ken Kutaragi, a Sony executive who had just finished managing one of the company's hardware engineering divisions at that time and would be dubbed as "The Father of the PlayStation"; the console's origins date back to 1988 where it was a joint project between Nintendo and Sony to create a CD-ROM for the Super Famicom. Although Nintendo denied the existence of the Sony deal as late as March 1991, Sony revealed a Super Famicom with a built-in CD-ROM drive, that incorporated Green Book technology or CD-i, called "Play Station" at the Consumer Electronics Show in June 1991. However, a day after the announcement at CES, Nintendo announced that it would be breaking its partnership with Sony, opting to go with Philips instead but using the same technology.
The deal was broken by Nintendo after they were unable to come to an agreement on how revenue would be split between the two companies. The breaking of the partnership infuriated Sony President Norio Ohga, who responded by appointing Kutaragi with the responsibility of developing the PlayStation project to rival Nintendo. At that time, negotiations were still on-going between Nintendo and Sony, with Nintendo offering Sony a "non-gaming role" regarding their new partnership with Philips; this proposal was swiftly rejected by Kutaragi, facing increasing criticism over his work with regard to entering the video game industry from within Sony. Negotiations ended in May 1992 and in order to decide the fate of the PlayStation project, a meeting was held in June 1992, consisting of Sony President Ohga, PlayStation Head Kutaragi and several senior members of Sony's board. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a pro
BRAVIA is a brand of Sony Visual Products Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation, used for its television products. Its backronym is "Best Resolution Audio Visual Integrated Architecture". All Sony high-definition flat-panel LCD televisions in North America have carried the logo for BRAVIA since 2005. BRAVIA replaces the "LCD WEGA" which Sony used for their LCD TVs until Summer 2005. Bravia televisions and their components are manufactured in Sony's plants in Mexico and Slovakia for their respective regions and are assembled from imported parts in Brazil, China and Ecuador. Principal design work for BRAVIA products is performed at Sony's research facilities in Japan, at the research and development department at the Sony de Mexico facility in Baja California, Mexico and at the Sony Europe facility in Nitra, Slovakia; the brand is used on mobile phones in North American and European markets. In 2014, in part of Hirai's plans to turn Sony around, BRAVIA was made into an subsidiary rather than just a brand of products.
In May 2015 Sony launched their first lineup of Android television Bravia models, which allows users to access content from services like YouTube and Hulu as well as install apps and games from the Google Play Store. Noteworthy for being the first Android TV available. Android TV on Sony televisions are now integrated with the Google Assistant for controlling your home automation and voice commands. In September 2016, Sony announced. Sony introduced their OLED TV under the BRAVIA brand, named as the A1E in January 2017 with a X1 Extreme processor; the AF8 was the next OLED TV introduced by SONY at CES 2018. At IFA 2018, the A9F was unveiled. Like other TVs from SONY, their OLED TVs have Android TV. In April 2007, Sony launched the BRAVIA TDM-IP1, a docking cradle to permit playback of audio and video hosted on an Apple iPod on a BRAVIA model television. Current accessories available include Wi-Fi adapter. Sony Bravia Internet Video first became available in late 2009 on Internet enabled Bravia TV's becoming available on Sony Blu-ray and home theatre systems.
The original Bravia Internet Video was built around Sony's XMB interface and had several streaming media partners including: Amazon Video On Demand, YouTube, Yahoo!, Netflix and Sony Video. 2011 saw a revamp of Bravia Internet Video, with a rework of the interface and an added Skype capability. Sony Bravia Internet TV is the first TV to incorporate Google TV only available in the US it plans to revolutionize IPTV. XBR8 is a series of Sony BRAVIA LCD High Definition Televisions, they were released into the US marketplace starting in September 2008. The 46- and 55-inch models of the XBR8 series features an RGB LED backlight system which Sony calls Triluminos; the new backlight system is claimed to provide a truer and higher color spectrum and allows this series of televisions to rival plasma displays in terms of dark blacks. This model marked the debut of Sony's new video processor, the BRAVIA Engine 2 Pro; the display panel offers the 120 Hz MotionFlow technology. The XBR8 line offers two screen sizes.
The second model, the 55" became available for order in October 2008. For sale in Japan on July 30, 2008, Sony's green product, a new flat-panel 32-inch TV for ¥150,000 BRAVIA KDL-32JE1 offers ecological consumers the advantage of 70% less energy consumption than regular models with same image quality. For consumers who rely on electricity generated from carbon dioxide emitting sources, it reduces carbon dioxide emissions totaling 79 kilograms a year. Sony uses a BRAVIA image processing engine in high-end mobile devices produced by its Sony Mobile Communications), starting with the Xperia arc model in 2011. Subsequent flagship models of Sony's smartphone range such as the Xperia S, Xperia Z use enhanced versions of the BRAVIA engine. In addition, BRAVIA brand phones have been produced by Sony/Sony Ericsson. BRAVIA brand phones are able to watch 1seg terrestrial television. For NTT DoCoMo FOMA SO903iTV FOMA SO906i FOMA SO-01C For au by KDDIU1 S004 S005 The LCD panels within BRAVIA TVs are manufactured by Sony corporation with a special architecture.
Since 2010, high end Bravia LX, HX and selected NX series use 10th gen Sony Bravia ASV panel. The 8th gen SPVA panel from Sony LCD continue to serve other budget Bravia models. Many Sony televisions with USB connectivity run Linux; the software can be upgraded via a USB type A interface labeled "DMEx / service only" and via the Internet for models. 2006–2007 models may be updated using Memory Stick or USB. Depending upon the country and TV standard the Tuner may need a Service Device to update it, it appears that units manufactured through November 2005 for sale in Asia and North America contained a software bug that prevented the device from powering up/down after 1200 hours. A free upgrade is available
8 mm video format
The 8mm video format refers informally to three related videocassette formats for the NTSC and PAL/SECAM television systems. These are the original Video8 format and its improved successor Hi8, as well as a more recent digital recording format known as Digital8, their user base consisted of amateur camcorder users, although they saw important use in the professional television production field. In January 1984, Eastman Kodak announced the new technology. In 1985, Sony of Japan introduced the Handycam, one of the first Video8 cameras with commercial success. Much smaller than the competition's VHS and Betamax video cameras, Video8 became popular in the consumer camcorder market; the three formats are physically similar, featuring both the same magnetic tape width and near-identical cassette shells, measuring 95 × 62.5 × 15 mm. This gives a measure of backward compatibility in some cases. One difference between them is in the quality of the tape itself, but the main differences lie in the encoding of the video when it is recorded onto the tape.
Video8 was the earliest of the three formats, is analog. The 8mm tape width was chosen as smaller successor to the 12mm Betamax format, using similar technology but in a smaller configuration in response to the small configuration VHS-C compact camcorders introduced by the competition, it was followed by a version with improved resolution. Although this was still analog, some professional Hi8 equipment could store additional digital stereo PCM sound on a special reserved track. Digital8 is the most recent 8mm video format, it retains the same physical cassette shell as its predecessors, can record onto Video8 or Hi8 cassettes. However, the format in which video is encoded and stored on the tape itself is the digital DV format; some Digital8 camcorders support Video8 and Hi8 with analog sound, but this is not required by the Digital8 specification. In all three cases, a length of 8mm-wide magnetic tape is wound between two spools and contained within a hard-shell cassette; these cassettes share similar size and appearance with the audio cassette, but their mechanical operation is far closer to that of VHS or Betamax videocassettes.
Standard recording time is up to 180 minutes for PAL and 120 minutes for NTSC. Like most other videocassette systems, Video8 uses a helical-scan head drum to read from and write to the magnetic tape; the drum rotates at high speed. Because the tape and drum are oriented at a slight angular offset, the recording tracks are laid down as parallel diagonal stripes on the tape. Unlike preceding systems, 8mm did not use a control track on the tape to facilitate the head following the diagonal tracks. Instead 8mm recorded a sequence of four sine waves on each video track such that adjacent tracks would produce one of two heterodyne frequencies if the head mistracked; the system automatically adjusted the tracking such that the two frequencies produced were of equal magnitude. This system was derived from the dynamic track following used by the Philips Video 2000 system. Sony rechristened the system as automatic track following as the 8mm system lacked the ability of the heads to physically move within the head drum.
The main disadvantage of the ATF system was that unlike in the case of a control track, an 8mm camera or player cannot keep track of where the tape is during fast forward and rewind. This made editing using a linear editing system problematic; some cameras and players attempted to derive the tape position from the differential rotation of the spools with limited success. Video8 was launched into a market dominated by the VHS-C and Betamax formats; the first model was the Sony Handycam CCD-V8, a record only model with no play back features, only three focus settings and a 6x zoom. Soon after, an Auto-focus model was introduced. In terms of video quality, Video8 and Beta-II offer similar performance in their standard-play modes. In terms of audio, Video8 outperforms its older rivals. Standard VHS and Beta audio is recorded along a narrow linear track at the edge of the tape, where it is vulnerable to damage. Coupled with the slow horizontal tape speed, the sound was comparable with that of a low-quality audio cassette.
By contrast, all Video8 machines used audio frequency modulation to record sound along the same helical tape path as that of the video signal. This meant that Video8's standard audio was of a far higher quality than that of its rivals, although linear audio did have the advantage that it could be re-recorded without disturbing the video. Video8 included true stereo, but the limitations of camcorder microphones at the time meant that there was little practical difference between the two AFM systems for camcorder usage. In general, Video8 comfortably outperforms non-HiFi VHS/Beta. Video8 has one major advantage over the full-size competition. Thanks to their compact size, Video8 camcorders are small enough to hold in the palm of the user's hand; such a feat was impossible with Betamax and full-sized VHS camcorders, which operate best on sturdy tripods or strong shoulders. Video8 has an advantage in terms of time, because although VHS-C offers the same "p
Exmor is the name of a technology Sony implemented on some of their CMOS image sensors. It performs on-chip analog/digital signal conversion and two-step noise reduction in parallel on each column of the CMOS sensor. Exmor R is a back-illuminated version of Sony's CMOS image sensor. Exmor R was announced by Sony on 11 June 2008 and was the world's first mass-produced implementation of the back-illuminated sensor technology Sony claims that Exmor R is twice as sensitive as a normal front illuminated sensor; this active pixel sensor is found in several Sony mobile phones and cameras as well as Apple's iPhone 2G and 5. The Exmor R sensor allows the camera of the smartphone to capture high definition movies and stills in low light areas. Exmor R was limited to smaller sensors for camcorders, compact cameras and mobile phones, but the Sony ILCE-7RM2 full-frame camera introduced on the 10 June 2015 features an Exmor R sensor as well. Exmor RS is a stacked CMOS image sensor announced by Sony on 20 August 2012.
Not Backlit + Not Stacked. Backlit + Not Stacked. Backlit + Stacked. Bionz – image processor HAD CCD – Sony Expeed – Nikon image/video processors Toshiba CMOS Samsung CMOS OmniVision