Sony α, is a camera system introduced on 5 June 2006. It uses and expands upon Konica Minolta camera technologies, including the Minolta AF SLR lens mount, whose assets were acquired by Sony after the end of Konica Minolta's photography operations in early 2006. Sony has an 11.08% ownership stake in Japanese lens manufacturer Tamron, known to have partnered with Konica Minolta and Sony in the design and manufacture of many zoom lenses. Prior to the acquisition by Sony, the α branding had been used on the Japanese market by Minolta for their AF camera system. Sony adopted the name "A-mount system" for the Minolta AF lens mount, retained in their new SLR range. Sony's entry into the DSLR market dates back to July 2005 where a joint venture with Konica Minolta would have resulted in both companies marketing an updated line of DSLRs to the masses. Between 2006 and 2008 Sony was the fastest growing company on the DSLR market, reaching 13% market share in 2008 to become the third largest DSLR company in the world.
In May 2010, Sony introduced two α NEX mirrorless interchangeable lens cameras equipped with the new proprietary Sony E-mount. A-mount lenses can be used in E-mount cameras with an adapter - four different adapters are available from Sony alone. Sony announced plans to introduce a special camera service programme for professional photographers since the launch of the α900 in 2008. Sony Imaging PRO Support was established starting between 2013 and 2015 depending on country; the Sony α model system works on the principle that the next model up in the series has additional features to the one below. Only a few Sony APS-C DSLRs have Live View, except for the Sony α100, α200, α230, α290, α700, α850 and α900 series. Live View mode features a 1.4x or 2x Smart Teleconverter which digitally zooms in on the subject and reproduces pixels on a 1:1 basis, preventing degradation of picture quality. In 2010 Sony replaced the legacy DSLR design with SLT cameras, where the "SLT" stands for "single-lens translucent" which refers to a fixed beam splitter in the image path.
Sony SLT can shoot movie files at Full HD 1080p AVCHD with continuous phase detection autofocus. Along with the α33 and α55 cameras, Sony announced one of the last Sony DSLRs - the α560 which can shoot movie files at full HD stereo 1080p AVCHD, but with limited manual controls and no continuous AF; these three cameras use. The α33 and α55 are SLT based and can take movie files with continuous Auto Focus, whereas DSLRs using reflex mirrors cannot, at least not without limitations; the A-mount known as the A-type bayonet mount was introduced by Minolta in 1985 as the world's first integrated SLR autofocus system. As a result, all Minolta A-mount lenses can be used on Sony DSLRs, all Sony A-mount lenses work on Minolta's film and digital SLRs. During the initial introduction of the α system in 2006, Sony announced 19 lenses and 2 tele-converters, of which the majority were rebranded Konica Minolta lenses. At the 2007 PMA trade show, Sony unveiled several new lenses, but referred to them only in qualitative terms and did not provide specifications.
On 18 May 2009, Sony introduced the first A-mount lenses to feature their new SAM in-lens auto-focus motor for more lens-specific AF speed improvements. This introduction was made with the new "+30" series camera bodies; these new bodies retain an in-body focus motor for backward compatibility with the historic lens collection. In addition, the new bodies utilize HDMI output for display on HDTV sets and feature dual memory card slots for both Sony's proprietary Memory Stick Pro Duo chips as well as SDHC media format, while eliminating CompactFlash support. In 2010 Sony added the E-mount system to their Sony α lineup; this includes mirrorless cameras as well as camcorders. First they were all called "NEX" but this name has been dropped for "ILCE" for the mirrorless stills cameras; the 4-pin Auto-lock Accessory Shoe on all Sony DSLRs/SLTs and some NEX models up to 2012-08 was introduced by Minolta in 1988 for their Maxxum/Dynax/α series of A-mount AF SLRs and was used on their digital DiMAGE A cameras series.
It offers a slide-on auto-locking mechanism but is mechanically incompatible with hotshoes based on the ISO 518 standard as utilized by most other camera and accessory manufacturers. A compatible 7-pin variant existed as well, but was used by Minolta, not at all by Sony; the passive adapters Minolta FS-1100 and FS-PC allow to adapt Minolta AF and TTL flashes with ISO-based foot to cameras with Auto-lock Accessory Shoe, whereas the FS-1200 allows users to use AF TTL flashes with Auto-lock Accessory Foot on earlier Minolta SLRs. These adapters provide no voltage protection or galvanic isolation, but they maintain TTL support with Minolta film cameras. Digital cameras, require digital-ready flashes for TTL support. If no TTL support, but voltage protection and galvanic isolation is required, the Sony FA-HS1AM can be used instead to mount ISO-based equipment on Auto-lock Accessory Shoe cameras. If no electrical connection is re
VAIO Corporation, headquartered in Azumino, Nagano in Japan, is a manufacturer that makes personal computers and smartphones. VAIO was a brand of Sony, introduced in 1996. Sony sold its PC business to the investment firm Japan Industrial Partners in February 2014 as part of a restructuring effort to focus on mobile devices. Sony maintains a minority stake in the new, independent company, which sells computers in the United States and Brazil as well as an exclusive marketing agreement. Sony still holds the copyright trademarks for logo. In the US, VAIO products are sold by Trans Cosmos America, Inc. An acronym of Video Audio Integrated Operation, this was amended to Visual Audio Intelligent Organizer in 2008 to celebrate the brand's 10th anniversary; the logo concept was created by Teiyu Goto, supervisor of product design from the Sony Creative Center in Tokyo. He incorporated many meanings into the logo and acronym: the pronunciation is similar to "bio", symbolic of life and the product's future evolution.
Additionally, the logo is stylized to make the "VA" look like a sine wave and the "IO" like binary digits 1 and 0, the combination representing the merging of analog and digital signals. The sound some Vaio models make when starting up is derived from the melody created when pressing a telephone keypad to spell the letters V-A-I-O. Although Sony made computers in the 1980s for the Japanese market, the company withdrew from the computer business around the beginning of the 1990s. Sony's re-entry into the global computer market, under the new Vaio brand, began in 1996 with the PCV series of desktops—the PCV-90 was designed with a 3D graphical interface as a novelty for new users; the first generation of Vaio laptop computers was released in 1997 and the US$2,000 PCG-505 model was designed to be "SuperSlim," and was kept in a four-panel magnesium body. Sony Vaio's latest designs were released during a period of low PC sales and included models with innovations such as magnetized stands and the Vaio Tap, designed with a separate keyboard.
The latest models were complemented by the Windows 10 operating system. On 16 October 2015, Vaio agreed to introduce their products in Brazil through a partnership with a local manufacturer Positivo Informática. On 4 February 2014, Sony announced. In March 2014, it was announced; the sale was closed on 1 July 2014. The re-launched products distributed in Japan later in Brazil. In August 2015, Vaio announced plans to re-enter international markets, beginning with Brazil and the United States. Vaio CEO Yoshimi Ota stated that the company planned to focus more on high-end products in niche segments, as they felt Sony had focused too much on attempting to garner a large market share in its PC business; the Canvas Z tablet was released in the United States on 5 October 2015, through Microsoft Store and the Vaio website. On 2 February 2016, Vaio announced; that month, it was reported that Vaio was negotiating with Toshiba and Fujitsu Technology Solutions to consolidate their personal computer businesses together.
On 4 June 2018, Nexstgo Company Limited announced that they will be licensed by VAIO Corporation to oversee the business in Asia. This license agreement between Hong Kong-based Nexstgo and the Japan-based VAIO Corporation will include manufacturing and marketing as well as servicing of VAIO laptops under the VAIO trademark in the Hong Kong, Malaysia and Taiwan markets. Sony Corp. has expanded its use of the Vaio brand, which can now be found on notebooks, subnotebooks and media centres. Network media solutions by Sony will carry the Vaio brand. Sony Vaio notebooks are shipped with Microsoft Windows 10 or Windows 10 Pro. Beginning in mid-2005, a hidden partition on the hard drive, accessible at boot via the BIOS or within Windows via an utility was used instead of recovery media for many Vaio laptops. Pressing at the Vaio logo during boot-up will cause the notebook to boot from the recovery partition; when first running a Vaio system out of the box, users are prompted to create a set of recovery DVDs, which will be required in case of hard disk failure and replacement with a new drive.
In cases where the system comes with Windows 7 64 bit pre-installed, the provided recovery media restores the system to Windows 7 32 or 64 bit. Therefore, the user must create their own recovery disks. Included as part of the out-of-box experience, are prompts to register at Club Vaio, an online community for Vaio owners and enthusiasts, which provides automatic driver updates and technical support via email, along with exclusive desktop wallpapers and promotional offers. On recent models, the customer is prompted to register the installed trial versions of Microsoft Office 2010 and the antivirus software upon initial boot. Vaio computers come with components from companies such as Intel processors, Seagate Technology, Fujitsu or Toshiba hard drives, Infineon or Elpida RAM, A
IEEE 1394 is an interface standard for a serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer. It was developed in early 1990s by Apple, which called it FireWire; the 1394 interface is known by the brands i. LINK, Lynx; the copper cable it uses in its most common implementation can be up to 4.5 metres long. Power is carried over this cable, allowing devices with moderate power requirements to operate without a separate power supply. FireWire is available in Cat 5 and optical fiber versions; the 1394 interface is comparable to USB. USB gained much greater market share. USB requires a master controller whereas IEEE 1394 is cooperatively managed by the connected devices. FireWire is Apple's name for the IEEE 1394 High Speed Serial Bus, it was initiated by Apple and developed by the IEEE P1394 Working Group driven by contributions from Apple, although major contributions were made by engineers from Texas Instruments, Digital Equipment Corporation, IBM, INMOS/SGS Thomson. IEEE 1394 is a serial bus architecture for high-speed data transfer.
FireWire is a serial bus. Parallel buses utilize a number of different physical connections, as such are more costly and heavier. IEEE 1394 supports both isochronous and asynchronous applications. Apple intended FireWire to be a serial replacement for the parallel SCSI bus, while providing connectivity for digital audio and video equipment. Apple's development began in the late 1980s presented to the IEEE, was completed in January 1995. In 2007, IEEE 1394 was a composite of four documents: the original IEEE Std. 1394-1995, the IEEE Std. 1394a-2000 amendment, the IEEE Std. 1394b-2002 amendment, the IEEE Std. 1394c-2006 amendment. On June 12, 2008, all these amendments as well as errata and some technical updates were incorporated into a superseding standard, IEEE Std. 1394-2008. Apple first included on-board FireWire in some of its 1999 Macintosh models, most Apple Macintosh computers manufactured in the years 2000 through 2011 included FireWire ports. However, in February 2011 Apple introduced the first commercially available computer with Thunderbolt.
Apple released its last computers featuring FireWire late 2012. By 2014, Thunderbolt had become a standard feature across Apple's entire line of computers becoming the spiritual successor to FireWire in the Apple ecosystem. Sony's implementation of i. LINK, used a smaller connector with only four signal conductors, omitting the two conductors that provide power for devices in favor of a separate power connector; this style was added into the 1394a amendment. This port is sometimes labeled S400 to indicate speed in Mbit/s; the system was used to connect data storage devices and DV cameras, but was popular in industrial systems for machine vision and professional audio systems. Many users preferred it over the more common USB 2.0 for its greater effective speed and power distribution capabilities. Benchmarks show that the sustained data transfer rates are higher for FireWire than for USB 2.0, but lower than USB 3.0. Results are marked on Apple Mac OS X but more varied on Microsoft Windows. Implementation of IEEE 1394 is said to require use of 261 issued international patents held by 10 corporations.
Use of these patents requires licensing. Companies holding IEEE 1394 IP formed a patent pool with MPEG LA, LLC as the license administrator, to whom they licensed patents. MPEG LA sublicenses these patents to providers of equipment implementing IEEE 1394. Under the typical patent pool license, a royalty of US$0.25 per unit is payable by the manufacturer upon the manufacture of each 1394 finished product. A person or company may review the actual 1394 Patent Portfolio License upon request to MPEG LA. Implementors would thereby ordinarily reveal some interest to MPEG LA early in the design process. MPEG LA does not provide assurance of protection to licensees beyond its own patents. At least one licensed patent is known to be removed from the pool, other hardware patents exist that reference 1394-related hardware and software functions related to use in IEEE 1394. In total, over 1770 patents issued in the 20 years preceding 2011 contain "IEEE 1394" in their titles alone, placing 1500 unavailable from MPEG LA.
The 1394 High Performance Serial Bus Trade Association was formed to aid marketing of IEEE 1394. Its bylaws prohibit dealing with intellectual property issues; the 1394 Trade Association operates on an individual no cost membership basis to further enhancements to 1394 standards. The Trade Association is the library source for all 1394 documentation and standards available. FireWire can connect up to 63 peripherals in a daisy-chain topology, it allows peer-to-peer device communication — such as communication between a scanner and a printer — to take place without using system memory or the CPU. FireWire supports multiple hosts per bus, it is designed to support hot swapping. The copper cable it uses in its most common implementation can be up to 4.5 metres long and is more flexible than most parallel SCSI cables. In its six-conductor or nine-conductor variations, it can supply up to 45 watts of power per port at up to 30 volts, allowing moderate-consumption devices to operate without a separate power supply.
FireWire devices implement
A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor diode that has negative resistance due to the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling. It was invented in August 1957 by Leo Esaki, Yuriko Kurose, Takashi Suzuki when they were working at Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, now known as Sony. In 1973, Esaki received the Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Brian Josephson, for discovering the electron tunneling effect used in these diodes. Robert Noyce independently devised the idea of a tunnel diode while working for William Shockley, but was discouraged from pursuing it. Tunnel diodes were first manufactured by Sony in 1957, followed by General Electric and other companies from about 1960, are still made in low volume today. Tunnel diodes have a doped p–n junction, about 10 nm wide; the heavy doping results in a broken band gap, where conduction band electron states on the n-side are more or less aligned with valence band hole states on the p-side. They are made from germanium, but can be made from gallium arsenide and silicon materials.
Their negative differential resistance in part of their operating range allows them to function as oscillators and amplifiers, in switching circuits using hysteresis. They are used as frequency converters and detectors, their low capacitance allows them to function at microwave frequencies, above the range of ordinary diodes and transistors. Tunnel diodes are not used due to their low output power. In recent years, new devices that use the tunneling mechanism have been developed; the resonant-tunneling diode has achieved some of the highest frequencies of any solid-state oscillator. Another type of tunnel diode is a metal–insulator–metal diode, but its present application appears to be limited to research environments due to inherent sensitivities. There is a metal–insulator–insulator–metal diode, where an additional insulator layer allows "step tunneling" for precise diode control. Under normal forward bias operation, as voltage begins to increase, electrons at first tunnel through the narrow p–n junction barrier and fill electron states in the conduction band on the n-side which become aligned with empty valence band hole states on the p-side of the p-n junction.
As voltage increases further, these states become misaligned, the current drops. This is called negative differential resistance because current decreases with increasing voltage; as voltage increases, the diode begins to operate as a normal diode, where electrons travel by conduction across the p–n junction, no longer by tunneling through the p–n junction barrier. The most important operating region for a tunnel diode is the negative resistance region, its graph is different from normal p–n junction diode. When used in the reverse direction, tunnel diodes are called back diodes and can act as fast rectifiers with zero offset voltage and extreme linearity for power signals. Under reverse bias, filled states on the p-side become aligned with empty states on the n-side, electrons now tunnel through the p–n junction barrier in reverse direction. In a conventional semiconductor diode, conduction takes place while the p–n junction is forward biased and blocks current flow when the junction is reverse biased.
This occurs up to a point known as the "reverse breakdown voltage". In the tunnel diode, the dopant concentrations in the p and n layers are increased to a level such that the reverse breakdown voltage becomes zero and the diode conducts in the reverse direction. However, when forward-biased, an effect occurs called quantum mechanical tunneling which gives rise to a region in its voltage-current behavior where an increase in forward voltage is accompanied by a decrease in forward current; this negative resistance region can be exploited in a solid state version of the dynatron oscillator which uses a tetrode thermionic valve. The tunnel diode showed great promise as an oscillator and high-frequency threshold device since it operated at frequencies far greater than the tetrode could: well into the microwave bands. Applications for tunnel diodes included local oscillators for UHF television tuners, trigger circuits in oscilloscopes, high-speed counter circuits, fast-rise time pulse generator circuits.
In 1977, the Intelsat V satellite receiver used a microstrip tunnel diode amplifier front-end in the 14 to 15.5 GHz frequency band. Such amplifiers were considered state-of-the-art, with better performance at high frequencies than any transistor-based front end; the tunnel diode can be used as a low-noise microwave amplifier. Since its discovery, more conventional semiconductor devices have surpassed its performance using conventional oscillator techniques. For many purposes, a three-terminal device, such as a field-effect transistor, is more flexible than a device with only two terminals. Practical tunnel diodes operate at a few milliamperes and a few tenths of a volt, making them low-power devices; the Gunn diode can handle more power. Tunnel diodes are more resistant to ionizing radiation than other diodes; this makes them well suited to higher radiation environments such as those found in space. Tunnel diodes are notable with devices made in the 1960s still functioning. Writing in Nature and coauthors state that semiconductor devices in general are stable, suggest that their shelf life should be "infinite" if kept at room temperature.
They go on to report that a
Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. is an American entertainment company that produces and distributes filmed entertainment through multiple platforms. Through an intermediate holding company called Sony Film Holding Inc. it is operated as a subsidiary of Sony Entertainment Inc., itself a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, a wholly owned subsidiary and the US headquarters of the Tokyo-based multinational technology and media conglomerate Sony Corporation. Based in Culver City, California, it encompasses Sony's motion picture, television production and distribution units, its group sales in the fiscal year 2017 has been reported to be $9.133 billion. SPE is the Motion Picture Association of America. Sony Pictures' film franchises include The Karate Kid, Spider-Man, Stuart Little, Men in Black, Robert Langdon, The Smurfs, Hotel Transylvania, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, many more. On September 1, 1987, The Coca-Cola Company announced plans to spin off its assets of Columbia Pictures, which it had owned since 1982.
Under this arrangement, Coca-Cola would sell its entertainment assets to TriStar Pictures, of which it owned 39.6%. Tri-Star would be renamed to Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. with Coca-Cola owning 49%, its shareholders owning 31%, Tri-Star's shareholders owning 20%. A new company was formed in early 1988 with the Tri-Star name to take over the studio's operations. On September 28, 1989, Sony obtained an option to purchase all of The Coca-Cola Company's stock in CPE for $27 per share; the next day, Sony announced that it reached an agreement with Guber-Peters Entertainment Company, Inc. to acquire CPE for $200 million when Sony hired Peter Guber and Jon Peters to be its co-chairmen. This was all led by Norio Ohga, the president and CEO of Sony during that time; the hiring of Guber and Peters by Sony to run Columbia was conflicted by a previous contract the producers had signed at Warner Bros. Time Warner's chairman, Steve Ross, threatened Sony with a lawsuit for breach of contract; the lawsuit would be subsequently dropped when Sony sold half-interest in Columbia House and cable distribution rights to Columbia's feature films, TV movies, miniseries to Warner Bros.
That same agreement saw Columbia sell its 35% interest in the Burbank Studios and acquired Lorimar Studios the MGM lot, from Warner Bros. On October 31, 1989, Sony completed a friendly takeover bid for the rest of shares of CPE, a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, acquired 99.3% of the common stock of the company. On November 8, 1989, Sony completed the acquisition by a "short-form" merger of its wholly owned subsidiary Sony Columbia Acquisition Corporation into CPE under Delaware law. Sony completed a tender offer for shares of common stock of the Guber-Peters Entertainment Company on November 6, 1989 and acquired the company 3 days later; the acquisition cost Sony $4.9 billion and was backed by five major Japanese banks Mitsui, Fuji and Industrial Bank of Japan. The company was renamed Sony Pictures Entertainment on August 7, 1991. Sony has since created numerous other film production and distribution units, such as creating Sony Pictures Classics for art-house fare, by forming Columbia TriStar Pictures by merging Columbia Pictures and TriStar Pictures in 1998, revitalizing Columbia's former television division Screen Gems.
It expanded its operations on April 8, 2005, when a Sony-led consortium acquired the legendary Hollywood studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, in a US$4.8 billion leveraged buyout, through the holding company MGM Holdings Inc. This in effect re-united the MGM studio name, with the MGM main studio lot, although somewhat confusingly, the bulk of the pre-1986 original MGM library ended up at Warner Bros. via the Ted Turner-Kirk Kerkovian "Turner Entertainment Company" transactions. The post-1986 MGM library consists of acquisitions of various third-party libraries, such as the Orion Pictures catalogue, leading to the MGM version of "Robocop". On June 4, 2008, SPE's wholly owned group 2JS Productions B. V. acquired Dutch production company 2waytraffic N. V. famous for Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, acquired from the original production company Celador, You Are What You Eat for £114.3 million. In 2011, the Sony Pictures computer network was breached and one million user accounts associated with the SonyPictures.com website were leaked.
On November 18, 2012, Sony Pictures announced it has passed $4 billion with the success of releases: Skyfall, The Amazing Spider-Man, 21 Jump Street, Men in Black 3, Hotel Transylvania, Underworld: Awakening, The Vow, Resident Evil: Retribution. On November 21, 2013, SPE and Sony Entertainment's CEO Michael Lynton announced that SPE will shift emphasis from movies to television by cutting its 2014 film slate, it was announced on the same day, that there will be more Spider-Man sequels and spin-offs, though in February 10, 2015, Sony Pictures signed a deal with Disney's Marvel Studios to allow Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, beginning with Captain America: Civil War, before appearing in Spider-Man: Homecoming, released on July 7, 2017. The deal allowed Sony to distribute and have creative control on any MCU film where Spider-Man is the main chara
PlayStation is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines. It is created and owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment since December 3, 1994, with the launch of the original PlayStation in Japan; the original console in the series was the first video game console to ship 100 million units, 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. Its successor, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold as of December 28, 2012. Sony's next console, the PlayStation 3, was released in 2006 and has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013. Sony's latest console, the PlayStation 4, was released in 2013, selling 1 million consoles in its first 24 hours on sale, becoming the fastest selling console in history; the first handheld game console in the PlayStation series, the PlayStation Portable or PSP, sold a total of 80 million units worldwide by November 2013.
Its successor, the PlayStation Vita, which launched in Japan on December 17, 2011 and in most other major territories in February 2012, had sold over 4 million units by January 2013. PlayStation TV is a microconsole and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. Other hardware released as part of the PlayStation series includes the PSX, a digital video recorder, integrated with the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, though it was short lived due to its high price and was never released outside Japan, as well as a Sony Bravia television set which has an integrated PlayStation 2; the main series of controllers utilized by the PlayStation series is the DualShock, a line of vibration-feedback gamepad having sold 28 million controllers as of June 28, 2008. The PlayStation Network is an online service with over 110 million users worldwide, it comprises an online virtual market, the PlayStation Store, which allows the purchase and download of games and various forms of multimedia, a subscription-based online service known as PlayStation Plus and a social gaming networking service called PlayStation Home, which had over 41 million users worldwide at the time of its closure in March 2015.
PlayStation Mobile is a software framework. Version 1.xx supports both PlayStation Vita, PlayStation TV and certain devices that run the Android operating system, whereas version 2.00 released in 2014 would only target PlayStation Vita and PlayStation TV. Content set to be released under the framework consist of only original PlayStation games currently.7th generation PlayStation products use the XrossMediaBar, an award-winning graphical user interface. A touch screen-based user interface called LiveArea was launched for the PlayStation Vita, which integrates social networking elements into the interface. Additionally, the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 consoles featured support for Linux-based operating systems; the series has been known for its numerous marketing campaigns, the latest of which being the "Greatness Awaits" commercials in the United States. The series has a strong line-up of first-party titles due to Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a group of fifteen first-party developers owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment which are dedicated to developing first-party games for the series.
In addition, the series features various budget re-releases of titles by Sony with different names for each region. In October 2018, Sony President Kenichiro Yoshida stated the necessity of the new PlayStation console. Yoshida said, it has become "necessary to have a next-generation hardware" to replace the PlayStation 4, now 5 years old. PlayStation was the brainchild of Ken Kutaragi, a Sony executive who had just finished managing one of the company's hardware engineering divisions at that time and would be dubbed as "The Father of the PlayStation"; the console's origins date back to 1988 where it was a joint project between Nintendo and Sony to create a CD-ROM for the Super Famicom. Although Nintendo denied the existence of the Sony deal as late as March 1991, Sony revealed a Super Famicom with a built-in CD-ROM drive, that incorporated Green Book technology or CD-i, called "Play Station" at the Consumer Electronics Show in June 1991. However, a day after the announcement at CES, Nintendo announced that it would be breaking its partnership with Sony, opting to go with Philips instead but using the same technology.
The deal was broken by Nintendo after they were unable to come to an agreement on how revenue would be split between the two companies. The breaking of the partnership infuriated Sony President Norio Ohga, who responded by appointing Kutaragi with the responsibility of developing the PlayStation project to rival Nintendo. At that time, negotiations were still on-going between Nintendo and Sony, with Nintendo offering Sony a "non-gaming role" regarding their new partnership with Philips; this proposal was swiftly rejected by Kutaragi, facing increasing criticism over his work with regard to entering the video game industry from within Sony. Negotiations ended in May 1992 and in order to decide the fate of the PlayStation project, a meeting was held in June 1992, consisting of Sony President Ohga, PlayStation Head Kutaragi and several senior members of Sony's board. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a pro
The Sony Reader was a line of e-book readers manufactured by Sony, who produced the first commercial E Ink e-reader with the Sony Librie in 2004. It used an electronic paper display developed by E Ink Corporation, was viewable in direct sunlight, required no power to maintain a static image, was usable in portrait or landscape orientation. Sony sold e-books for the Reader from the Sony eBook Library in the US, UK, Germany, Austria and was reported to be coming to France and Spain starting in early 2012; the Reader could display Adobe PDFs, ePub format, RSS newsfeeds, JPEGs, Sony's proprietary BBeB format. Some Readers could play unencrypted AAC audio files. Compatibility with Adobe digital rights management protected PDF and ePub files allowed Sony Reader owners to borrow ebooks from lending libraries in many countries; the DRM rules of the Reader allowed any purchased e-book to be read on up to six devices, at least one of which must be a personal computer running Windows or Mac OS X. Although the owner could not share purchased eBooks on others' devices and accounts, the ability to register five Readers to a single account and share books accordingly was a possible workaround.
On August 1, 2014, Sony announced. In late 2014, Sony released the Sony Digital Paper DPTS1, only aimed at professional business users that only view PDFs and it has a stylus for making notes. Ten models were produced; the PRS-500 was made available in the United States in September 2006. On 1 November 2006, Readers went on display and for sale at Borders bookstores throughout the US. Borders had an exclusive contract for the Reader until the end of 2006. From April 2007, Sony Reader has been sold in the US by multiple merchants, including Fry's Electronics, Costco and Best Buy; the eBook Store from Sony is only available to US or Canadian residents or to customers who purchased a US-model reader with bundled eBook Store credit. On July 24, 2007, Sony announced that the PRS-505 Reader would be available in the UK with a launch date of September 3, 2008. Waterstone's is the official retail partner and the Reader is available at selected stores such as Argos, Sony Centres and Dixons. On October 2, 2008 the PRS-700, with touch screen and built-in lighting was announced.
On August 5, 2009 Sony announced two new readers, the budget PRS-300 Pocket Edition and the more advanced PRS-600 Touch Edition. On August 25, 2009 Sony announced the Reader PRS-900 "Daily Edition." This features a 7" diagonal screen to compete with the Amazon Kindle DX. It's the first to feature free 3G wireless through AT&T to access the Sony eBookstore without the need of a computer, to increase the grayscale level, from 8 to 16. In September 1, 2010, Sony introduced the PRS-350 Pocket Edition, PRS-650 Touch Edition, PRS-950 "Daily Edition" as replacements for the PRS-300, PRS-600 and PRS-900, with both new models featuring 16-level grey scale touch screens; the launch of the new models represented the introduction of the Sony Reader into the Australian and New Zealand markets for the first time. On August 31, 2011, Sony announced a new reader replacing all of their previous models, the PRS-T1, featuring a 6" screen. On August 16, 2012, Sony announced the PRS-T1 successor, the PRS-T2. On September 4, 2013, Sony announced the PRS-T2 successor, the PRS-T3.
Unlike previous Sony reader models, the T3 is not sold in the US, Sony has abandoned the North American market due to competition from Amazon, B&N and Kobo. On February 6, 2014, Sony announced that it was closing its North American and Australia Reader Stores in late March, migrating all its customers to the Kobo Reader Store. On August 1, 2014, Sony announced that it would not release another ereader but would keep selling its remaining stock; the PRS-T3S is the latest 6". Announced in October 2013 in Japan, it is a PRS-T3 without a cover that costs $99 and was sold in Japan, England and Germany; the PRS-T3 is a 6". Specifications Size: 160 × 109 × 11.3 mm Weight: 200 grams including snap cover Display: size: 15.2 cm diagonal. Resolution: 16-level gray scale 6" Pearl HD E Ink screen 1024 x 758 pixel resolution Memory: 2 GiB of internal storage plus microSD expansion of up to 32 GB Battery Life: 6–8 weeks, assuming 30 minutes reading per day Connectivity: Micro-USB PC interface: USB port Supported e-book formats: EPUB, PDF, FB2, TXT Supported picture formats: BMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG Wireless: Wi-Fi 802.11 b, g, n, simple Web browser Colors: Black and White The PRS-T2 is a 6" Wi-Fi only model.
Its touchscreen supports zoom in and out and adding notes, including export to Evernote. The device has four translation dictionaries built-in. PRS-T2 specifications. Size: 173 × 110 × 9.1 mm Weight: 164 g Display: size: 15.2 cm diagonal resolution: 16-level gray scale E Ink Pearl display portrait: 90.6 × 122.4 mm, 600 × 800 pixels | effective 115.4 × 88.2 mm, 754 × 584 pixels minimum font size: 6 pt legible, 7 pt recommended Memory: 2 GB of internal storage plus microSD expansion of up to 32 GB Battery Life: Up to 2 months with Wi-Fi off Lithium-ion battery: up to two months battery life, with wireless off. Connectivity: Micro-USB PC interface: USB port Supported e-book formats: EPUB, PDF, TXT, BBeB*, Rtf*, Doc* Supported picture formats: Jpg, Png, Bmp. Wireless: Wi-Fi, simple web