Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period. The newspaper is owned by Congress Rajya Sabha M. P. Shobhana Bhartia, it is the flagship publication of an entity controlled by the KK Birla family. Hindustan Times is one of the largest newspapers in India, by circulation. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 993,645 copies as of November 2017; the Indian Readership Survey 2014 revealed that HT is the second most read English newspaper in India after The Times of India. It is popular in North India, with simultaneous editions from New Delhi, Kolkata, Patna and Chandigarh; the print location of Jaipur was discontinued from June 2006 and that of Nagpur edition was discontinued from September 1997. HT launched a youth daily, HT Next, in 2004; the Mumbai edition was launched on 14 July 2005 and the Kolkata edition was launched in early 2000. In The Brand Trust Report 2012, Hindustan Times was ranked 291st among India's most trusted brands and subsequently, according to the Brand Trust Report 2013, Hindustan Times was ranked 434th among India's most trusted brands.
In 2014 however, Hindustan Times was ranked 360th among India's most trusted brands according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, a study conducted by Trust Research Advisory, a brand analytics company. Other sister publications of Hindustan Times are Mint, Hindustan and Kadambani; the media group owns a radio channel, Fever 104.0 FM and have education related company called Studymate and organises an annual Luxury Conference which has featured speakers like designer Diane von Fürstenberg, shoemaker Christian Louboutin, Gucci CEO Robert Polet and Cartier MD Patrick Normand. Hindustan Times is owned by the KK Birla branch of the Birla family. Hindustan Times was founded in 1924 by Sunder Singh Lyallpuri, founder-father of the Akali movement and the Shiromani Akali Dal in Punjab Province. S Mangal Singh Gill and S. Chanchal Singh were made in charge of the newspaper. Madan Mohan Malaviya and Tara Singh were among the members of the Managing Committee; the Managing Chairman and Chief Patron was Master Sunder Singh Lyallpuri.
K. M. Panikkar was the person of behaviour; the opening ceremony was performed by Mahatma Gandhi on 26 September 1924. The first issue was published from Delhi, it contained writings and articles among others. K. M. Panikkar known as Sardar Panikkar launched the Hindustan Times as a serious nationalist newspaper; as an Oxonian and litterateur, Panikkar must have hoped to make his paper more than an Akali sheet. He became the editor and funds flowed from activist Akali patrons, he exerted himself strenuously, but the paper made little headway. In two years Panikkar could not take the print order any higher than 3,000. By the Akali movement appeared to lose steam and funds dried up; the paper was saved from an untimely demise when Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya stepped in to realise his vision of a newspaper in Delhi. Malaviya raised ₹50,000 rupees to acquire the Hindustan Times along with the help of nationalist leaders Lajpat Rai and M. R. Jayakar and industrialist G. D. Birla, who paid most of the cash.
Birla took full control of the paper in 1933. The paper continues to be owned by the Birla family, it has its roots in the Indian independence movement of the first half of the twentieth century and faced the noted "Hindustan Times Contempt Case" at Allahabad High Court. It was edited at times by many important people in India, including Devdas Gandhi, Sri Mulgaonkar, B. G. Verghese and Khushwant Singh. Sanjoy Narayan was editor in chief of the paper from August 2008 till July 2016; the Delhi-based English daily Hindustan Times is part of the KK Birla group and managed by Shobhana Bhartia, Rajya Sabha member of Congress party and daughter of the industrialist Krishna Kumar Birla and granddaughter of Ghanshyam Das Birla. HT Media Limited is a subsidiary of The Hindustan Times Limited, a subsidiary of Earthstone Holding Limited; the KK Birla group owns a 69 percent stake in HT Media valued at ₹834 crore. When Shobhana Bhartia joined Hindustan Times in 1986, she was the first woman chief executive of a national newspaper.
Shobhana has been nominated as a Rajya Sabha MP from Congress Party. Along with Hindustan Times, HT Media owns Desimartini, Fever 104 FM, the Mint newspaper. Former Executive Editor Shishir Gupta left the newspaper after Frontline reported about his emails to Amit Shah and Mr Shah's Officer on Special Duty; the Frontline story detailed how the Prime Minister's Office was taking extraordinary interest in the Delhi Government led by Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal. Appointed editor Bobby Ghosh left the newspaper abruptly and The Wire reports that he was asked to leave the newspaper after Shobhana Bhartia met Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently. B'rishu HT Education HT Estates Shine Jobs HT Livebhopal ht48hours HT Cafe D. K. Issar: former Chief Reporter, wrote on crime and terrorism Barkha Dutt: Journalist and NDTV Group editor. Writes a fortnightly column. Karan Thapar: President of Infotainment Television, television commentator and interviewer, weekly columnist Manas Chakravarty: Capital market analyst for Mint.
Writes weekly column "Loose Canon" on Sundays'. Poonam Saxena: She is the editor of Brunch, the Hindustan Times Sunday maga
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
Sony Entertainment Television
Sony Entertainment Television is an Indian Hindi-language general entertainment television channel. It was launched in October 1995, is owned by Sony Pictures Networks India, a subsidiary of Sony Pictures Entertainment, which in turn is owned by the Japanese Sony Corporation. SET has been one of India's most popular television channels, having produced many iconic shows such as CID, Indian Idol, Boogie Woogie and Crime Patrol. A version for international transmission exists, known as Sony Entertainment Television Asia. Launched on 8 October 1998, it is based in the United Kingdom; the international version is available in several countries and regions, including Australia, Europe, Guyana, the Middle East, New Zealand, South Africa, Suriname and Tobago, the United Kingdom, the United States. Official website
Now TV (Hong Kong)
Now TV is a pay-TV service provider in Hong Kong operated by PCCW Media Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of PCCW. It provides 197 TV channels including 176 channels branded under now TV, 21 channels from TVB Network Vision, over 30 video on demand categories. Launched on 26 September 2003, its TV signal is transmitted with IPTV technology through HKT's fixed broadband network. Now TV is the largest pay-TV operator in Hong Kong in terms of number of subscribers, number of channels, number of HD channels and quantity of VOD contents; the word "Now" is abbreviated from "Network Of the World". Launched in March 1998, PCCW's services included a wide range of information and entertainment, such as news, video-on-demand, music videos, home-shopping, home-banking and educational content. ITV had some 67,000 subscribers at the end of 2000. Due to the liberalization of the pay-TV market by the HKSAR government in early July 2000, the existing duopolists, iTV and i-Cable, were confronted with ferocious competition.
With fewer subscribers and hence the decline in the revenue generated from iTV, the interactive television operation was terminated in the final quarter of 2002. Now Broadband pay-TV service was launched in September 2003 with 23 channels under the same umbrella company PCCW. In December 2005, Now TV introduced a technology with connection speed up to 18 megabits per second. At least 75% of the service area will be offered a service running up to 8Mbit/s. In addition, Video-On-Demand services were launched in January 2006. Now TV subscribers have access to 136 channels. March 1998 Hong Kong Telecom commercially launched iTV July 2000 Liberalisation of the pay-TV market Last quarter of 2002 Termination of iTV August 2003 Now TV was unveiled September 2003 Now TV was launched Since each household has to install a special decoder to view the channels, there is an extra deposit and installation for the decoder. However, these charges are waived for Netvigator broadband subscribers. With the decoder, households are able to watch 20 free channels.
For the subscription channels, Now uses the pricing model of pay-per-channel basis. There are bundle offers in existence, for given bouquet of channels, but these are less comprehensive than those offered by rivals. Now TV offers a business package for businesses at a higher price than household subscribers. Since 1 September 2007, Now TV no longer offers STAR Sports or ESPN as stand-alone packages, preferring instead to bundle them into a single multi-sport package; this has caused some distress amongst many viewers who view this move as a breach of their commitment contract's that stipulates that upon expiry of channel contracts, contracts are automatically renewed. In the beginning, Now TV only operated 23 channels. In response to competition, it has expanded its repertoire of new channels, adding programming such as the Disney Channel and ESPN. By June 2005, the number of channels grew to more than 70, with an increased number of Cantonese channels. In 2006, Now TV outbid i-Cable for the rights to broadcast English Premier League football in Hong Kong, starting with the 2007-08 season.
It is the broadcaster of LaLiga, the Spanish football competition Now TV has the most channels of any pay TV provider in Hong Kong. At present, it offers 103 pay channels, including 15 audio channels; the total number of channels exceeds 130. The majority of its programming is in English, Cantonese or Putonghua, though some programming in Hindi, French, is available. Now TV service was launched with 23 channels in September 2003 but was soon expanded to exceed 30 with the addition of sports-related channels and BBC World and the Animax channel, as well as the Cantonese-language Star Chinese Movies and Xing Kong channels. Within four months of launch, Now TV had attracted more than 200,000 customers by end-2003. Although Now TV targets high-income viewers, its subscriber numbers have grown sharply; as well as home viewership, the service has been extended to hotel rooms, sports bars and hotels. According to a report in Ming Pao Finance on 5 October 2005, the number of subscribers to Now TV exceeded 450,000.
Per annual reports issued by PCCW, at the end of December 2005 the number of paying subscribers to Now TV stood at 549,000. These figures compare with totals of 361,000 at end-December 2004 and 269,000 at end-June 2004. Despite the growth in subscribers, Now TV was operating at a loss in 2005. By August 2006, Now TV had in excess of 654,000 subscribers. Although NOW TV can claim consistent growth in subscriber numbers, quality of service remains'average' at best. Many viewers report'jerky' TV reception, slow refresh times when changing channels, picture freezing extending over several minutes at multiple instances during single programming. In early July 2000, the HKSAR government awarded five new pay-TV licences; the new entrants were all seasoned broadcasting companies including Galaxy Satellite Broadcasting, Hong Kong DTV Company, a British broadcaster Elmsdsale, Hong Kong Network TV and Pacific Digital Media HK. The considerable opening of the market sparked intense competition for programming and viewer share, which can be seen by the extensive use of advertising.
To avoid direct competition with the two local digital terrestrial channels - Television Broadcasts Limited and ViuTV - Now TV h
Sony Marathi is an Indian pay television channel that broadcasts programming in Marathi. It was owned and operated by Sony Pictures Networks India. Julta Julta Jultay Ki Ek Hoti Rajkanya Sare Tuzyachsathi Ti Phulrani Hum Bane Tum Bane Bheti Lagi Jeeva Year Down Duniyadari Filmy Ishtyle Maharashtrachi Hasya Jatra Garja Maharashtra Kon honar crorepati www.sonymarathi.com
Dish Network Corporation is a U. S. television provider. Based in Meridian, Colorado, it is the owner of the direct-broadcast satellite provider Dish, the over-the-top IPTV service Sling TV; as of November 2016, the company provided services to 13.7 million television and 580,000 broadband subscribers. The company has 17,000 employees. In January 2008, Dish Network was spun off from its former parent company EchoStar, founded by Charlie Ergen as a satellite television equipment distributor in 1980; the company began using Dish Network as its consumer brand in March 1997 after the successful launch of its first satellite, EchoStar I, in December 1995. That launch marked the beginning of its subscription television services, EchoStar has since launched numerous satellites, with nine owned and leased satellites in its fleet as of January 2013. EchoStar continues to be the primary technology partner to Dish Network. Joseph Clayton became president and chief executive officer of the company in June 2011, while Charlie Ergen remained chairman.
Clayton remained in the position until March 31, 2015 when he retired leaving Ergen to resume the post. Ergen has said diversifying and updating technology for the company will be a high priority, with an expectation that, over the coming decade, the company will provide internet and telephone service for both home and mobile applications. In December 2017, Dish Network announced that Ergen will be replaced by Erik Carlson. Dish Network began operations on March 4, 1996, as a service of EchoStar. EchoStar, a precursor to Dish Network, was formed in 1980 by its chairman and chief executive officer, Charlie Ergen along with colleagues Candy Ergen and Jim Defranco, as a distributor of C-band satellite television systems. In 1987, EchoStar applied for a direct-broadcast satellite broadcast license with the Federal Communications Commission and was granted access to orbital slot 119° west longitude in 1992. In 1998 EchoStar purchased the broadcasting assets of a satellite broadcasting joint venture of News Corporation and MCI Worldcom, called ASkyB.
With this purchase EchoStar obtained 28 of the 32 transponder licenses in the 110° West orbital slot, more than doubling existing continental United States broadcasting capacity at a value of $682.5 million. The acquisition inspired the company to introduce a multi satellite system called Dish 500, theoretically capable of receiving more than 500 channels on one Dish. In the same year, EchoStar, partnering with Bell Canada, launched Dish Network Canada. On December 7, 2007, EchoStar announced that it would spin off its technology and infrastructure assets into a separate company under the EchoStar name, after which the remainder of the company would be renamed Dish Network Corporation; the spun-out EchoStar began trading on January 3, 2008. In 2011, Dish Network spent over $3 billion in acquisitions of companies in bankruptcy, which The Motley Fool's Anders Bylund described as "a veritable buying rampage in the bargain bin." This includes the April 6, 2011, purchase of Blockbuster Inc. in a bankruptcy auction in New York, agreeing to pay $322 million in cash and assume $87 million in liabilities and other obligations for the nationwide video-rental company.
Dish Network acquired the defunct companies DBSD and Terrestar. Dish Network made a bid to purchase Hulu on October 2011, but Hulu's owners chose not to sell the company. There was speculation that Dish Network might purchase Sprint Nextel or Clearwire. In 2013, Dish made a bid for both companies. CEO Charles Ergen plans on adding wireless internet and mobile video services that can compete with Netflix and cable companies. About the new markets, Ergen said, "Given the assets we've been accumulating, I don't think it's hard to see we're moving in a different direction from pay-TV, a market that's becoming saturated."Dish Network put its Blockbuster acquisition to work by making available Dish Movie Pack for Dish Network subscribers and Sling TV for non-Dish Network subscribers. Blockbuster has agreements that allow it to receive movies 28 days before Netflix and Redbox which could encourage customers to use these services. Dish Network plans on offering high-speed internet; the company plans a hybrid satellite/terrestrial mobile broadband service.
In 2011, it petitioned the FCC to combine the S-Band spectrum it acquired from DBSD and Terrestar, combine this spectrum with LTE. Unlike LightSquared, Dish's spectrum has minimal risk of disrupting Global Positioning Systems. At the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show, Dish Network announced a corporate rebranding, under which the company would publicly refer to itself as just "Dish" rather than "Dish Network". After changing the position of a satellite orbital position from being over Mexico to Brazil in 2011, Dish Network sought companies that could make a deal, among them Telefónica. However, nothing came of this, Dish decided to enter the country itself. According to the Brazilian Agency of Telecommunications, they await the authorization of the application. Dish's main service is satellite television, its offerings are similar to other cable companies. Viewers can choose from a series of service bundles. A la carte programming is available, however limited other than p