Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format; the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages; the word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as "Tabloid" pills in the late 1880s. The connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items. A 1902 item in London's Westminster Gazette noted, "The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals." Thus "tabloid journalism" in 1901 meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified absorbed format.
The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories. Tabloid newspapers in the United Kingdom, vary in their target market, political alignment, editorial style, circulation. Thus, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two main types of tabloid newspaper: red top and compact; the distinction is of editorial style. Red top tabloids are so named due to their tendency, in British and Commonwealth usage, to have their mastheads printed in red ink. Red top tabloids, named after their distinguishing red mastheads, employ a form of writing known as tabloid journalism. Celebrity gossip columns which appear in red top tabloids and focus on their sexual practices, misuse of narcotics, the private aspects of their lives border on, sometimes cross the line of defamation. Red tops tend to be written with a straightforward vocabulary and grammar; the writing style of red top tabloids is accused of sensationalism.
In the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation. Examples of British red top newspapers include the Daily Star and the Daily Mirror. In contrast to red-top tabloids, compacts use an editorial style more associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids used the broadsheet paper size, but changed to accommodate reading in tight spaces, such as on a crowded commuter bus or train; the term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the earlier newspapers to make the change, although it now once again calls itself a tabloid. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, salacious editorial style of the red top newspaper; the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s. In 2003, The Independent made the change for the same reasons followed by The Scotsman and The Times. On the other hand, The Morning Star had always used the tabloid size, but stands in contrast to both the red top papers and the former broadsheets.
Compact tabloids, just like broadsheet- and Berliner-format newspapers, span the political spectrum from progressive to conservative and from capitalist to socialist. In Morocco, Maroc Soir, launched in November 2005, is published in tabloid format. In South Africa, the Bloemfontein-based daily newspaper Volksblad became the first serious broadsheet newspaper to switch to tabloid, but only on Saturdays. Despite the format proving to be popular with its readers, the newspaper remains broadsheet on weekdays; this is true of Pietermaritzburg's daily, The Witness in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The Daily Sun, published by Naspers, has since become South Africa's biggest-selling daily newspaper and is aimed at the black working class, it sells over 500,000 copies per day, reaching 3,000,000 readers. Besides offering a sometimes satirical view of the seriousness of mainstream news, the Daily Sun covers fringe theories and paranormal claims such as tokoloshes, ancestral visions and all things supernatural.
It is published as the Sunday Sun. In Bangladesh, The Daily Manabzamin became the first and is now the largest circulated Bengali language tabloid in the world, in 1998. Published from Bangladesh, by renowned news presenter Mahbuba Chowdhury, the Daily Manab Zamin is ranked in the Top 500 newspaper websites, in the Top 10 Bengali news site categories in the world, is the only newspaper in Bangladesh which houses credentials with FIFA, UEFA, The Football Association, Warner Bros. A
Freesat is a British free-to-air satellite television service, provided by joint venture between the BBC and ITV plc. The service was formed as a memorandum in 2007 and has been marketed since 6 May 2008. Freesat offers a satellite alternative to the Freeview service on digital terrestrial television, with a broadly similar selection of channels available without subscription for users purchasing a receiver; the service makes use of the additional capacity available on satellite broadcasting to offer a selection of 17 high-definition channels from the BBC, ITV, Channel 5, Arirang TV, Daystar, Discovery Networks, France 24, NHK, RT UK and TRT World. Freesat's main competitors are Freeview, Freesat from Sky, Virgin Media and BT. TalkTalk offer a YouView service; the BBC and ITV, the two biggest free-to-air broadcasters in the UK, make their services available digitally through three routes: free-to-air via digital terrestrial and digital satellite, subscription-only via digital cable. On digital terrestrial, the channels have always been available free-to-air with the appropriate equipment.
In 2007 Freeview was available to only 73% of the population. After analogue TV services were replaced in the digital switchover, this increased to 98.5% for the public service channels and 90% for the full'Freeview' service. To provide more widespread coverage and a larger number of channels, a digital satellite alternative was felt necessary. Both the BBC's and ITV's channels were encrypted since the original Astra satellites used for Sky broadcast to most of Europe but the broadcasters' rights for premium content such as films and sports covered the UK only; the use of encryption meant that anyone wishing to view the channels had to purchase equipment from Sky and pay for a free-to-view viewing card to decrypt the channels. To use the Videoguard encryption, the broadcasters needed to pay a fee to NDS Group. In May 2003 the BBC moved most of its channels from the Astra 2A satellite to Astra 2D, which has a footprint that focuses more on the UK; this move allowed the BBC to stop encrypting its broadcasts while continuing to meet its rights obligations.
It dropped the encryption two months later. Two months ITV, whose channels had been located on the Astra 2D satellite since launching on the Sky platform some years earlier made their channels free-to-air. On 18 November 2008, Channel 5 commenced broadcasting a single channel via Freesat adding its ancillary services 5USA and 5* three years in December 2011, it added Channel 5 HD to Freesat following the removal of BBC Three as an SD & HD TV channel. Viva moved from free-to-view to free-to-air on satellite on 19 March 2013, before launching on Freesat on 2 April 2013. On 2 April 2013, all seven of Box Television's channels left Sky's subscription package, with six becoming free-to-air on satellite. TV, Kiss TV and Smash Hits – were added to the Freesat EPG; this was followed by Magic on 29 April. The free-to-air channels can be received using any standard digital satellite receiver, although those not licensed by Freesat will need to be re-tuned manually if/when channel frequencies are changed.
The Freesat project aims to provide a managed service with an Electronic Programme Guide and interactive features similar to the Freeview service launched three years earlier. Unlike Freeview, these features are only available on approved receivers manufactured under licence from Freesat; the initial plan was to launch the service in early 2006. This was postponed to Autumn 2007 as approval from the BBC Trust was only received in April 2007. However, the service was further delayed and was launched on 6 May 2008; the service launched on 6 May 2008. From the launch, Freesat advertised all national television channels from the BBC and ITV as being available on the platform, as well as all national BBC radio networks. Channel 4 managed to make most of its channels free-to-air in preparation for the launch. In addition some channels from other broadcasters such as Chello Zone, CSC Media Group, Al Jazeera English, Zee Live, Zee News, RIA Novosti and Euronews were included on the channel list. BBC HD was the only high-definition channel available on Freesat from launch day, with ITV HD added as a "red-button" interactive service from 7 June 2008.
On 2 April 2010 ITV HD changed from an interactive service to a full-time channel called ITV1 HD, simulcasting the main ITV1 channel. The name was changed back to ITV HD on 14 January 2013. BBC One HD, a high-definition simulcast of BBC One, was made available on Freesat and other platforms on 3 November 2010. Channel 4 HD became available on the platform on 19 April 2011, but will be withdrawn from 22 February 2018. NHK World HD was added to Freesat on 9 May 2011. On 23 July 2012, the BBC added 24 temporary channels to cover the 2012 Summer Olympics, the channels share their EPG slot with their standard definition counterpart. On 29 August 2012, Channel 4 added three temporary channels covering the 2012 Summer Paralympics in high definition from the following day. On 14 February 2013, RT HD was added to Freesat, sharing its channel number with its standard definition simulcast. On 26 March 2013, BBC HD was replaced by a high-definiti
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
The Daily Express is a daily national middle-market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom. It is the flagship of a subsidiary of Northern & Shell, it was first published as a broadsheet in 1900 by Sir Arthur Pearson. Its sister paper, the Sunday Express, was launched in 1918. In February 2019, it had an average daily circulation of 315,142; the paper was acquired by Richard Desmond in 2000. Hugh Whittow was the editor from February 2011 until he retired in March 2018. Gary Jones took over as editor-in-chief in March 2018; the paper's editorial stances have been seen as aligned to the UK Independence Party and other right-wing factions including the right-wing of the Conservative Party. On 9 February 2018, Trinity Mirror said it would acquire the Daily Express' parent company and Shell Media, in a deal worth £126.7m. In addition to its sister paper, Express Newspapers publishes the red top newspapers the Daily Star and Daily Star Sunday; the Daily Express was founded in 1900 by Sir Arthur Pearson, with the first issue appearing on 24 April 1900.
Pearson, who had lost his sight to glaucoma in 1913, sold the title to the future Lord Beaverbrook in 1916. It was one of the first papers to place news instead of advertisements on its front page, carried gossip and women's features, it was the first in Britain to have a crossword puzzle. The Express began printing in Manchester in 1927. In 1931 it moved to 120 a specially commissioned art deco building. Under Beaverbrook, the paper set, its success was due to aggressive marketing campaign and a circulation war with other populist newspapers. Arthur Christiansen became editor in October 1933. Under his direction sales climbed from two million in 1936 to four million in 1949, he retired in 1957. The paper featured Alfred Bestall's Rupert Bear cartoon and satirical cartoons by Carl Giles which it began publishing in the 1940s. On 24 March 1933, "Judea Declares War on Germany", was published. During the late 1930s, the paper advocated the appeasement policies of the Chamberlain government, due to the influence of Lord Beaverbrook.
The ruralist author Henry Williamson wrote for the paper on many occasions for half a century the whole of his career. He wrote for the Sunday Express at the beginning of his career. In 1938, the publication moved to the Daily Express Building, Manchester designed by Owen Williams on the same site in Great Ancoats Street, it opened a similar building in Glasgow in 1936 in Albion Street. Glasgow printing ended in Manchester in 1989 on the company's own presses. Johnston Press has a five-year deal, begun in March 2015, to print the northern editions of the Daily Express, Daily Star, Sunday Express and the Daily Star Sunday at its Dinnington site in Sheffield; the Scottish edition is printed by facsimile in Glasgow by contract printers, the London editions at Westferry Printers. In March 1962, Beaverbrook was attacked in the House of Commons for running "a sustained vendetta" against the British Royal Family in the Express titles. In the same month, the Duke of Edinburgh described the Express as "a bloody awful newspaper.
It is full of lies and imagination. It is a vicious paper." At the height of Beaverbrook's control, in 1948, he told a Royal Commission on the press that he ran his papers "purely for the purpose of making propaganda". The arrival of television, the public's changing interests, took their toll on circulation, following Beaverbrook's death in 1964, the paper's circulation declined for several years. During this period, the Express alone among mainstream newspapers, was vehemently opposed to entry into what became the European Economic Community; as a result of the rejuvenation of the Daily Mail under David English and the emergence of The Sun under Rupert Murdoch and editorship of Larry Lamb, average daily sales of the Express dropped below four million in 1967, below three million in 1975, below two million in 1984. The Daily Express switched from broadsheet to tabloid in 1977, was bought by the construction company Trafalgar House in the same year, its publishing company, Beaverbrook Newspapers, was renamed Express Newspapers.
In 1982, Trafalgar House spun off its publishing interests to a new company, Fleet Holdings, under Lord Matthews, but this succumbed to a hostile takeover by United Newspapers in 1985. Under United, the Express titles moved from Fleet Street to Blackfriars Road in 1989. Express Newspapers was sold to publisher Richard Desmond in 2000, the names of the newspapers reverted to Daily Express and Sunday Express. In 2004, the newspaper moved to its present location on Lower Thames Street in the City of London. On 31 October 2005, UK Media Group Entertainment Rights secured majority interest from the Daily Express for Rupert Bear, they paid £6 million for a 66.6% control of the character. The Express retains minority interest of one-third plus the right to publish Rupert Bear stories in certain Express publications. In 2000, Express Newspapers was bought by Richard Desmond, publisher of celebrity magazine OK!, for £125 million. Controversy surrounded the deal since Desmond owned softcore pornography magazines.
As a result, many staff left, including columnist Peter Hitchens. Hitchens moved to The Mail on Sunday, saying working for the new owner was a moral conflict of interest since he had always attacked the pornographic magazines that Desmond published. Despite their divergent politics, Desmond respected Hitchens. In 2007, Express Newspape
Animax Broadcast Japan Inc. stylized as ANIMAX, is a Japanese anime satellite television network, dedicated to broadcasting anime programming. The channel dubbed cartoons in Japanese language. A subsidiary of Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan and Mitsui & Co.'s joint venture AK Holdings, it is headquartered in New Pier Takeshiba North Tower in Minato, Japan, with its co-founders and shareholders including Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan and the noted anime studios Sunrise, Toei Animation, TMS Entertainment and production company NAS. Animax is the largest 24-hour network in the world dedicated to anime. Animax operates as separate 24-hour TV channels for Japan and South Korea, in addition to VOD platforms in the United Kingdom, Germany and Switzerland. In India Animax is available online as live channel via Sony LIV. Established on May 20, 1998 by Sony, Animax Broadcast Japan Inc. premiered in Japan on July 1, the same year, across the SKY PerfecTV! Satellite television platform. Headquartered in Minato, Tokyo and presided by Masao Takiyama, Animax's shareholders and founders include Sony Pictures Entertainment, Toei Animation, TMS Entertainment, NAS.
Its founders include noted anime producer and production designer Yoshirō Kataoka. The network began broadcasting in high definition from October 2009. Animax exhibits affiliations with anime pioneer Osamu Tezuka's Tezuka Productions company, Nippon Animation, numerous others, it has produced and premiered several anime in Japan, such as Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, Ultra Maniac, Astro Boy, Hungry Heart: Wild Striker, Aishiteruze Baby, many others, including Madhouse's anime adaptations of Marvel's Iron Man, X-Men. Noted Japanese celebrities and personalities to have appeared on Animax with their own programs, include actress Natsuki Katō, among numerous others; the network's narrators are the voice actors Yukari Tamura and Kōsuke Okano, from October 2007, Sayuri Yahagi. Animax hosts and organizes several anime-based competitions across Japan, such as the Animax Taishō scriptwriting competition and Animax Anison Grand Prix anime song music competition, which are judged by a panel of noted anime figures, as well as several events and concerts across Japan, such as the annual Animax Summer Fest, an annual live concert during which renowned Japanese bands and voice actors perform to a live audience held at Zepp Tokyo.
Apart from operating its business as a television network, Animax has begun operating a mobile television service. In February 2007, Animax announced that it would be launching a mobile television service of its network on the mobile phone company MOBAHO! from April 2007, having its programming being viewable by the company's mobile phone subscribers. Since July 2011 a program called STUDIO MUSIX has been transmitted the first Sunday of every month, featuring popular singer May'n as the MC. In each episode there's a segment of May'n and the guests on an interview and a live stage featuring them. Animax launched separate Asian versions of the channel featuring its anime programming within separate networks and feeds in the respective regions and languages beginning in 2004; the first one was launched in Taiwan and the Philippines on January 1, 2004, in Hong Kong on January 12, 2004. A week Animax launched in Southeast Asia on January 19, 2004, featuring its programming within feeds in English audio, as well as Japanese audio, with English subtitling, other languages in the region, becoming the company's first English-language network.
On July 5, 2004, Animax started operations across South Asia including India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives, featuring its programming within an English-language feed. On April 29, 2006, Animax started its operations in South Korea. On August 31, 2006, Animax launched its Malaysian feed. Animax used the latest logo launched on May 3, 2010, until it reverted to their previous logo sometime in 2013. Animax ceased its operations in India and was replaced by Sony Yay on April 18, 2017; the channel moved to its digital platform Sony LIV in HD and Asian feed instead. Animax was launched in Latin America on July 31, 2005, replacing Locomotion after Sony's purchase from Hearst Corporation and Corus Entertainment, in January 2005; the channel's non-anime programming were removed from the lineup, replaced with an all-anime lineup. Animax Latin America began operating across the entire region and broadcasting its anime programming. Unlike Animax's networks in other countries, Animax Latin America was distributed by HBO Latin America Group under license from Sony.
The network's initial programming lineup consisted of shows that aired on Locomotion, which were Saber Marionette J, Saber Marionette J to X, Soul Hunter/Senkai-den Hōshin Engi, Serial Experiments Lain, The Candidate for Goddess and Earth Girl Arjuna, newer series such as Di Gi Charat Nyo!, Fullmetal Alchemist, GetBackers.hack//Sign, Hungry Heart: Wild Striker, Hunter × Hunter, Initial D, Last Exile, Lunar Legend Tsukihime, Martian Successor Nadesico, Pita-Ten, The Prince of Tennis, Crayon Shin-chan, Stratos 4, Vandread. Over the years, Animax has aired various anime series, with the Spanish versions being dubbed in Venezuela by Estudios Lain and after in Mexico, the Portuguese versions dubbed in Brazil, most of whom have never been shown before locally. Its
The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, in turn owned by News Corp. Times Newspapers publishes The Times; the two papers were founded independently and have been under common ownership only since 1966. They were bought by News International in 1981; the Sunday Times occupies a dominant position in the quality Sunday market. While some other national newspapers moved to a tabloid format in the early 2000s, The Sunday Times has retained the larger broadsheet format and has said that it will continue to do so, it sells more than twice as many copies as its sister paper, The Times, published Monday to Saturday. The Sunday Times has acquired a reputation for the strength of its investigative reporting – much of it by its award-winning Insight team – and for its wide-ranging foreign coverage, it has a number of popular writers and commentators including Jeremy Clarkson and Bryan Appleyard.
A. A. Gill was a prominent columnist for many years, it was Britain's first multi-section newspaper and remains larger than its rivals. A typical edition contains the equivalent of 450 to 500 tabloid pages. Besides the main news section, it has standalone News Review, Sport and Appointments sections – all broadsheet. There are two tabloid supplements, it has a website and separate digital editions configured for both the iOS operating system for the Apple iPad and the Android operating system for such devices as the Google Nexus, all of which offer video clips, extra features and multimedia and other material not found in the printed version of the newspaper. The paper publishes The Sunday Times Rich List, an annual survey of the wealthiest people in Britain and Ireland, equivalent to the Forbes 400 list in the United States, a series of league tables with reviews of private British companies, in particular The Sunday Times Fast Track 100; the paper produces an annual league table of the best-performing state and independent schools at both junior and senior level across the United Kingdom, entitled Parent Power, an annual league table of British universities and a similar one for Irish universities.
It publishes The Sunday Times Bestseller List of books in Britain, a list of the "100 Best Companies to Work For", focusing on UK companies. It organises The Sunday Times Oxford Literary Festival, held annually, The Sunday Times Festival of Education, which takes place every year at Wellington College; the paper began publication on 18 February 1821 as The New Observer, but from 21 April its title was changed to the Independent Observer. Its founder, Henry White, chose the name in an apparent attempt to take advantage of the success of The Observer, founded in 1791, although there was no connection between the two papers. On 20 October 1822 it was reborn as The Sunday Times, although it had no relationship with The Times. In January 1823, White sold the paper to a radical politician. Under its new owner, The Sunday Times notched up several firsts: a wood engraving it published of the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838 was the largest illustration to have appeared in a British newspaper; the paper was bought in 1887 by Alice Anne Cornwell who had made a fortune in mining in Australia and floating the Midas Mine Company of the London Stock Exchange.
She bought the paper to promote her new company, The British and Australasian Mining Investment Company, as a gift to her lover Frederick Stannard Robinson. Robinson was installed as editor and she married him in 1894, she sold it in 1893 to Frederick Beer, who owned Observer. Beer appointed Rachel Sassoon Beer, as editor, she was editor of Observer – the first woman to run a national newspaper – and continued to edit both titles until 1901. There was a further change of ownership in 1903, in 1915 the paper was bought by William Berry and his brother, Gomer Berry ennobled as Lord Camrose and Viscount Kemsley respectively. Under their ownership, The Sunday Times continued its reputation for innovation: on 23 November 1930, it became the first Sunday newspaper to publish a 40-page issue and on 21 January 1940, news replaced advertising on the front page. In 1943, the Kemsley Newspapers Group was established, with The Sunday Times becoming its flagship paper. At this time, Kemsley was the largest newspaper group in Britain.
On 12 November 1945, Ian Fleming, who created James Bond, joined the paper as foreign manager and special writer. The following month, circulation reached 500,000. On 28 September 1958 the paper launched a separate Review section, becoming the first newspaper to publish two sections regularly. In 1959 the Kemsley group was bought by Lord Thomson, in October 1960 circulation reached one million for the first time. In another first, on 4 February 1962 the editor, Denis Hamilton, launched The Sunday Times Magazine; the cover picture of the first issue was of Jean Shrimpton wearing a Mary Quant outfit and was taken by David Bailey. The magazine got off to a slow start, but the advertising soon began to pick up, over time, other newspapers laun