Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The Mail on Sunday
The Mail on Sunday is a British conservative newspaper, published in a tabloid format. It was launched in 1982 by Lord Rothermere, its sister paper, the Daily Mail, was first published in 1896. In July 2011, after the closure of the News of the World, The Mail on Sunday sold some 2.5 million copies a week—making it Britain's biggest-selling Sunday newspaper—but by September that had fallen back to just under 2 million. Like the Daily Mail it is owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust, but the editorial staffs of the two papers are separate, it had an average daily circulation of 1,284,121 in December 2016. The Mail on Sunday was launched on 2 May 1982; the first story on the front page was the Royal Air Force's bombing of Port Stanley airport in the Falkland Islands. The newspaper's owner, the Daily Mail and General Trust wanted a circulation of 1.25 million. Its sports coverage was seen to be among its weaknesses at the time of its launch; the Mail on Sunday's first back-page splash was a report from the Netherlands on the rollerskating world championships, which led to the paper being ridiculed in the industry.
Lord Rothermere the proprietor, brought in the Daily Mail's editor David English who, with a task force of new journalists, redesigned and re-launched The Mail on Sunday. Over a period of three-and-a-half months English managed to halt the paper's decline, its circulation increased to 840,000. Three new sections were introduced: firstly a sponsored partwork, the initial one forming a cookery book; the newspaper's reputation was built on the work of Stewart Steven. The newspaper's circulation grew from around 1 million to just under 2 million during his time in charge. Although its sister paper the Daily Mail has invariably supported the Conservative Party, Steven backed the Social Democratic Party in the 1983 General Election; the subsequent editors were Jonathan Holborow, Peter Wright and Geordie Greig. At the 2015 general election The Mail on Sunday urged its readers to vote Conservative to prevent the country "veering left" under a Labour-SNP pact, it urged UKIP voters to "please come home to the Conservatives" as their "protest has been registered".
In the EU membership referendum, the paper came out unequivocally in favour of the Remain campaign, arguing that it would provide a safer and more prosperous UK. Under Peter Wright's editorship of the Mail on Sunday and his membership of the Press Complaints Commission, the Mail newspaper organisation withheld important evidence about phone hacking from the PCC when the latter held its inquiry into the News of the World's interception of voicemail messages; the PCC was not informed that four Mail on Sunday journalists—investigations editor Dennis Rice, news editor Sebastian Hamilton, deputy news editor David Dillon and feature writer Laura Collins—had been told by the Metropolitan police in 2006 that their mobile phones had been hacked though Wright, editor of the Mail on Sunday, had been made aware of the hacking. The facts did not emerge until several years when they were revealed in evidence at the News of the World phone hacking trial. Wright became a member of the PCC from May 2008, he took over the place held by the Daily Mail's editor-in-chief Paul Dacre, who had served on the body from 1999 to April 2008.
The PCC issued two reports, in 2007 and 2009, which were compiled in ignorance of the significant information from the Mail group about the hacking of its journalists’ phones. According to The Guardian journalist Nick Davies, whose revelations had resulted in the News of the World phone hacking trial and subsequent conviction of Andy Coulson, this reinforced News International's "rogue reporter" defence; the PCC's 2009 report, which had rejected Davies' claims of widespread hacking at the News of the World, was retracted when it became clear that they were true. Wright and Dacre both failed to mention the hacking of the four Mail on Sunday staff in the evidence they gave to the Leveson inquiry in 2012. You -- You featured in The Mail on Sunday, its mix of in-depth features plus fashion, beauty advice, practical insights on health and relationships, food recipes and interiors pages make it a regular read for over 3 million women every week. The Mail on Sunday is read by over six million a week.
Event – this magazine includes articles on the arts and culture and carries reviews of all media and entertainment forms and interviews with sector personalities. It has columns by well-known people such as Piers Morgan. Sport on Sunday – a separate 24-page section edited by Alison Kervin, it features coverage of the Premier League and Football League games from Sunday and important international football games, motor racing and many other sports. Columnists include Glenn Hoddle, it is a campaigning and investigative sports section which ran a three year concussion campaign to keep players in rugby union safe from ECT and brain damage. Financial Mail on Sunday – now part of the main paper, this section includes the Financial Mail Enterprise, focusing on small business. Mail on Sunday 2 – This pullout includes review, featuring articles on the arts and culture and it consists of reviews of all media and entertainment forms and interviews with sector personalities, property and health. Cartoons including The Gambols and Peanuts.
Peter Hitchens Liz Jones Piers Morgan Tom Parker Bowles Derek D
The i is a British newspaper based in London. It is aimed at'readers and lapsed readers' of all ages and commuters with limited time, was launched in 2010 as a sister paper to The Independent, but was acquired by Johnston Press in 2016 after The Independent shifted to a digital-only model; the i came under the control of JPIMedia a day after Johnston Press filed for administration on 16 November 2018. The i was named National Newspaper of the Year in 2015. Since its inception, the i has expanded its layout and coverage, adding special sections for notable events and revamping its weekend edition; the paper had an average daily circulation of 302,757 in March 2013 more than The Independent, though that figure has since continued to decline, had dropped to 233,869 by February 2019. The paper is classified as a'quality' in the UK market but is published in the standard compact tabloid-size format. A press statement released on the website of The Independent on 19 October 2010 announced the launch of the i.
In October 2010, Independent Print Limited launched an advertising campaign to promote the new publication. The first issue of the i went on sale for 20p on 26 October 2010, along with a new-look version of The Independent. Starting on 7 May 2011 a Saturday edition was published, at the price of 30p; this increased to 40p with the weekday edition rising to 30p. In September 2016, the price was raised with the weekday edition rising to 50p; the i was named National Newspaper of the Year in 2015. At the start of September 2017, the price rose once again, to 60p for the weekday edition and 80p for the relaunched i weekend beginning that month; the paper cited the rising cost of materials needed to print the paper and the difficult environment in which print journalism finds itself. On 11 February 2016, it was revealed that regional publisher Johnston Press, which owned the Yorkshire Post and The Scotsman, were in the advanced stages of talks to buy the i for around £24 million; the acquisition was completed before The Independent became a digital-only publication, a "significant number" of staff joined the team from The Independent.
The new editorial team was moved one floor down in Northcliffe House. On 30 September 2017, a new, version of the weekend edition of the i went on sale, costing 80p; this relaunch of the weekend paper saw circulation rise by around 30,000, to around 290,000 of the first edition of the redesigned paper being sold. By August 2018, the weekend edition had become the strongest day of trading for the i. In December 2017, the owners of the i, Johnston Press, announced the newspaper was bringing in a monthly profit of around £1 million, they stated that this was the result of: "Johnston Press management’s strategy of investing in improved content under editor Olly Duff’s clear leadership, increased brand awareness and advertiser solutions, while delivering efficiencies”. A February 2018 trading update from parent company Johnston Press stated that the paper held a 20% market share of the'Quality' weekday market; the i website, inews.co.uk, was reported to attract around two million unique viewers at the start of 2018, but that figure had grown 457% by November, with Comscore reporting unique visitors to the website stood at 5.2 million, surpassing the reach of The Times and Huffington Post UK.
In November 2018, ownership of the i alongside the other assets of Johnston Press were transferred in a pre-packaged administration deal to JPIMedia, a company set up by the bondholders of Johnston Press, after several attempts to restructure the debt or sell the business were unsuccessful. The i is tabloid-size and stapled, the first issue contained 56 pages; the Friday edition of the paper, which contains the "Friday" section, has a increased page count, at around 65. The weekend version of the paper is larger than the weekday version, containing 87 pages; the i prides itself on having no supplements, something common in many other quality British newspapers, saying they want to give readers the best experience without supplements that "clog up" recycling bins. The newspaper contains "matrices" for news and sports—small paragraphs of information which are expanded upon in full articles further on in the paper; the title includes a features section titled iQ, Arts and Business sections and a television guide.
The managing director of The Independent stated several days before the newspaper went into print that the publication is designed for people who do not have much time to read a newspaper. On 20 April 2011, editor Simon Kelner announced that a Saturday edition of the i would be published, starting from 7 May 2011 and costing 30 pence, 10 pence more than the weekday version; the paper is now 60p on £ 1 on the weekend, running Monday to Saturday. The paper now runs a subscription, whereby customers can buy pre-paid vouchers to exchange for their copy of the paper; the subscription can be either six months or a year long and can be chosen Monday to Friday or including Saturday. There is a discounted student subscription that lasts for one academic year; the i takes a political stance on the centre of the political spectrum, with many front-page headline articles being concerned with social issues and inequality - but it claims to be politically balanced and to publish points of view from both left and right.
Nick Clegg, former UK Deputy Prime Minister and former leader of the Liberal Democrats, a centrist party, is a fortnightly columnist for the i. His column features in the "My View" comment section of the paper. During an interview for the i in December 2017, Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn declared
The Sunday Mirror is the Sunday sister paper of the Daily Mirror. It began life in 1915 as the Sunday Pictorial and was renamed the Sunday Mirror in 1963. In 2016 it had an average weekly circulation of 620,861, dropping markedly to 505,508 the following year. Competing with other papers, in July 2011, on the second weekend after the closure of the News of the World, more than 2,000,000 copies sold, the highest level since January 2000; the paper launched as the Sunday Pictorial on 14 March 1915. Lord Rothermere – who owned the paper – introduced the Sunday Pictorial to the British public with the idea of striking a balance between responsible reporting of great issues of the day and sheer entertainment. Although the newspaper has gone through many refinements in its near 100-year history those original core values are still in place today. Since 1915, the paper has continually published the best and most revealing pictures of the famous and the infamous, reported on major national and international events.
The first editor of the Sunday Pictorial, or the Sunday Pic as it was known, was F. R Sanderson, his launch edition led with three stories on the front page, two of which reported from the front line of the war: "THE TASK OF THE RED CROSS" and "ALL THAT WAS LEFT OF A BIG GUN". From day one the paper was a huge success and within six months of launch the Sunday Pictorial was selling more than one million copies. One of the reasons for this early success was due to a series of articles written by Winston Churchill. In 1915, disillusioned with government, resigned from the Cabinet; the articles he wrote for the Sunday Pictorial attracted such high levels of interest that sales lifted by 400,000 copies every time his stories appeared. A further reason for the paper's success was its political influence; as a popular paper that always spoke its mind, the Sunday Pictorial struck a chord with millions. Sport was a key ingredient of the Sunday Pictorial's success. Football then, made it onto the front pages, for many of the same reasons it does today: WEMBLEY STADIUM STORMED BY EXCITED CUP FINAL CROWDS dominates a front page from 1923.
Although the paper's early life started with a flourish, by the mid-1930s its success began to flounder. That, all changed when the editorship was given to 24-year-old Hugh Cudlipp in 1937. Within three years of taking over he saw the circulation of the paper rise to more than 1,700,000 by the time he went to fight in World War II in 1940. On resuming the editorship in 1946, Cudlipp developed the Sunday Pic to reflect the greater social awareness of the post-war years. In all, Cudlipp edited the title for three long spells and has been described as the "greatest of all popular journalists". After his final editorship in 1953 he became editor-in-chief and editorial director of Mirror Group, where he pushed the daily title, the Daily Mirror, to a circulation in excess of five million copies. Cultural change in perspectives towards homosexualityReflecting prevailing cultural views across the papers across the generations, in 1952, the Sunday Pictorial ran a three-part series entitled "Evil Men" promising an "end to the conspiracy of silence" about homosexuality in Britain.
"Most people know there are such things –'pansies' – mincing, young men who call themselves queers but simple decent folk regard them as freaks and rarities." The Sunday Pictorial compared homosexuality to a "spreading fungus" that had contaminated "generals, fighter pilots, engine drivers and boxers". In April 1963, under its new title, the paper published a two-page guide called "How to Spot a Homo" which, inter alia, listed "shifty glances", "dropped eyes" and "a fondness for the theatre" as signs of being gay. In December 2012 before MPs voted for gay marriage, the paper reported, "Cameron and Clegg ruin progressive moves by making it illegal for Anglican church to conduct gay marriage ceremonies" in one of its campaign articles entitled "Gay marriage is jilted: Vicars lose chance to join 21st century"; this sided with organisations such as Stonewall in supporting the move, against the more traditional majority of decision makers in the established and catholic churches, as well as in Judaism and the main forms of Islam.
In 1963 the newspaper’s name was changed to the Sunday Mirror. One of the earliest stories covered by the newly named paper was the Profumo Affair, catastrophic for the government of the day. While frontbenchers involved in sleaze scandals exposed in the British press have led to reshuffles, contemporary accounts and research has credited the coverage, associating the involved young socialite to a Russian senior attaché, for triggering the replacement of the conservative prime minister with another, Alec Douglas-Home; this leader was less popular, alongside many press reports of scandals in the Macmillan Ministry, this led to the party's election defeat of 1964 and to the establishment of the second Labour Ministry after World War II led by twice-Prime Minister Harold Wilson. In 1974, following a succession of editors, Robert Edwards took the chair and within a year, circulation rose to 5.3 million. Edwards remained for a record 13 years, ended as deputy chairman of Mirror Group in 1985. By the end of his time in charge Edwards oversaw the introduction of colour to the paper.
The paper introduced the Sunday Mirror Magazine which had an extra-large format and was printed on glossy paper. It had the best of big name stories, star photographs, money-saving offers and glittering prizes for competition winners. Today's incarnation of the magazine is Notebook. In 1992 the Sunday Mirror was criticized and challenged by attorneys of Mel Gibson for reporting what was said in confidential Alconholics Anony
The Daily Express is a daily national middle-market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom. It is the flagship of a subsidiary of Northern & Shell, it was first published as a broadsheet in 1900 by Sir Arthur Pearson. Its sister paper, the Sunday Express, was launched in 1918. In February 2019, it had an average daily circulation of 315,142; the paper was acquired by Richard Desmond in 2000. Hugh Whittow was the editor from February 2011 until he retired in March 2018. Gary Jones took over as editor-in-chief in March 2018; the paper's editorial stances have been seen as aligned to the UK Independence Party and other right-wing factions including the right-wing of the Conservative Party. On 9 February 2018, Trinity Mirror said it would acquire the Daily Express' parent company and Shell Media, in a deal worth £126.7m. In addition to its sister paper, Express Newspapers publishes the red top newspapers the Daily Star and Daily Star Sunday; the Daily Express was founded in 1900 by Sir Arthur Pearson, with the first issue appearing on 24 April 1900.
Pearson, who had lost his sight to glaucoma in 1913, sold the title to the future Lord Beaverbrook in 1916. It was one of the first papers to place news instead of advertisements on its front page, carried gossip and women's features, it was the first in Britain to have a crossword puzzle. The Express began printing in Manchester in 1927. In 1931 it moved to 120 a specially commissioned art deco building. Under Beaverbrook, the paper set, its success was due to aggressive marketing campaign and a circulation war with other populist newspapers. Arthur Christiansen became editor in October 1933. Under his direction sales climbed from two million in 1936 to four million in 1949, he retired in 1957. The paper featured Alfred Bestall's Rupert Bear cartoon and satirical cartoons by Carl Giles which it began publishing in the 1940s. On 24 March 1933, "Judea Declares War on Germany", was published. During the late 1930s, the paper advocated the appeasement policies of the Chamberlain government, due to the influence of Lord Beaverbrook.
The ruralist author Henry Williamson wrote for the paper on many occasions for half a century the whole of his career. He wrote for the Sunday Express at the beginning of his career. In 1938, the publication moved to the Daily Express Building, Manchester designed by Owen Williams on the same site in Great Ancoats Street, it opened a similar building in Glasgow in 1936 in Albion Street. Glasgow printing ended in Manchester in 1989 on the company's own presses. Johnston Press has a five-year deal, begun in March 2015, to print the northern editions of the Daily Express, Daily Star, Sunday Express and the Daily Star Sunday at its Dinnington site in Sheffield; the Scottish edition is printed by facsimile in Glasgow by contract printers, the London editions at Westferry Printers. In March 1962, Beaverbrook was attacked in the House of Commons for running "a sustained vendetta" against the British Royal Family in the Express titles. In the same month, the Duke of Edinburgh described the Express as "a bloody awful newspaper.
It is full of lies and imagination. It is a vicious paper." At the height of Beaverbrook's control, in 1948, he told a Royal Commission on the press that he ran his papers "purely for the purpose of making propaganda". The arrival of television, the public's changing interests, took their toll on circulation, following Beaverbrook's death in 1964, the paper's circulation declined for several years. During this period, the Express alone among mainstream newspapers, was vehemently opposed to entry into what became the European Economic Community; as a result of the rejuvenation of the Daily Mail under David English and the emergence of The Sun under Rupert Murdoch and editorship of Larry Lamb, average daily sales of the Express dropped below four million in 1967, below three million in 1975, below two million in 1984. The Daily Express switched from broadsheet to tabloid in 1977, was bought by the construction company Trafalgar House in the same year, its publishing company, Beaverbrook Newspapers, was renamed Express Newspapers.
In 1982, Trafalgar House spun off its publishing interests to a new company, Fleet Holdings, under Lord Matthews, but this succumbed to a hostile takeover by United Newspapers in 1985. Under United, the Express titles moved from Fleet Street to Blackfriars Road in 1989. Express Newspapers was sold to publisher Richard Desmond in 2000, the names of the newspapers reverted to Daily Express and Sunday Express. In 2004, the newspaper moved to its present location on Lower Thames Street in the City of London. On 31 October 2005, UK Media Group Entertainment Rights secured majority interest from the Daily Express for Rupert Bear, they paid £6 million for a 66.6% control of the character. The Express retains minority interest of one-third plus the right to publish Rupert Bear stories in certain Express publications. In 2000, Express Newspapers was bought by Richard Desmond, publisher of celebrity magazine OK!, for £125 million. Controversy surrounded the deal since Desmond owned softcore pornography magazines.
As a result, many staff left, including columnist Peter Hitchens. Hitchens moved to The Mail on Sunday, saying working for the new owner was a moral conflict of interest since he had always attacked the pornographic magazines that Desmond published. Despite their divergent politics, Desmond respected Hitchens. In 2007, Express Newspape
History of British newspapers
The history of British newspapers dates to the 17th century with the emergence of regular publications covering news and gossip. The relaxation of government censorship in the late 17th century led to a rise in publications, which in turn led to an increase in regulation throughout the 18th century; the Times began publication in 1785 and became the leading newspaper of the early 19th century, before the lifting of taxes on newspapers and technological innovations led to a boom in newspaper publishing in the late 19th century. Mass education and increasing affluence led to new papers such as the Daily Mail emerging at the end of the 19th century, aimed at lower middle-class readers. In the early 20th century the British press was dominated by a few wealthy press barons. In a bid to increase circulation many papers included more popular and human-interest stories, as well as sports and other features. In 1969 Rupert Murdoch bought and relaunched The Sun as a tabloid and soon added pictures of topless models on Page 3.
Within a few years the Sun was the UK's most popular newspaper. In the 1980s national newspapers began to move out of Fleet Street, the traditional home of the British national press since the 18th century. By the early 21st century newspaper circulation began to decline. In the early 2010s many British newspapers were implicated in a major phone hacking scandal which led to the closure of the News of the World after 168 years of publication and the Leveson Inquiry into press standards. During the 17th century there were many kinds of news publications that told both the news and rumours, such as pamphlets and ballads; when news periodicals emerged, many of these co-existed with them. A news periodical differs from these because of its periodicity; the definition for 17th century newsbooks and newspapers is that they are published at least once a week. Johann Carolus' Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, published in Strassburg in 1605, is regarded as the first news periodical.
At the beginning of the 17th century, the right to print was controlled in England. This was the reason why the first newspaper in the English language was printed in Rome by Joris Veseler around 1620; this followed the style established by Veseler's earlier Dutch paper Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c. However, when the English started printing their own papers in London, they reverted to the pamphlet format used by contemporary books; the publication of these newsbooks was suspended between 1638 by order of the Star Chamber. After they resumed publication, the era of these newsbooks lasted until the publication of the Oxford Gazette in 1665; the control over printing relaxed after the abolition of the Star Chamber in 1641. The Civil War escalated the demand for news. News pamphlets or books reported the war supporting one side or the other. A number of publications arose after the Restoration, including the London Gazette, the first official journal of record and the newspaper of the Crown.
Publication was controlled under the Licensing Act of 1662, but the Act's lapses from 1679–1685 and from 1695 onwards encouraged a number of new titles. Mercurius Caledonius founded in Edinburgh in 1660, was Scotland's short-lived newspaper. Only 12 editions were published during 1660 and 1661. There were 24 provincial papers by the 1720s; the Public Advertiser was started by Henry Woodfall in the 18th century. The first English journalist to achieve national importance was Daniel Defoe. In February 1704, he began his weekly, The Review, printed three times a week and was a forerunner of The Tatler and The Spectator. Defoe's Review came to an end in 1713. Between 1716 and 1720 he published a monthly newspaper with Mercurius Politicus; the Examiner started in 1710 as the chief Conservative political mouthpiece, which enjoyed as its most influential contributor, Jonathan Swift. Swift had control of the journal for 33 issues between November 1710 and June 1711, but once he became dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, he gave up regular journalistic work.
In 1702 Edward Lloyd, the virtual founder of the famous "Lloyd's" of commerce, started a thrice a week newspaper, Lloyd's News, which had but a brief existence in its initial form, but was the precursor of the modern Lloyd's List. The 76th issue of the original paper contained a paragraph mentioning the House of Lords, for which the publisher was told he would have to pay a fine, he preferred to discontinue his publication instead. In 1726 he in part revived it, under the title of Lloyd's List, published at first weekly, it would become a daily; the Edinburgh Courant was published out of Edinburgh, Scotland. Its first issue was sold for a penny, it was one of the country's first regional papers, second only to the Norwich Post. The paper was produced twice weekly for five years continued as the Scots Courant until April 1720; that same year, the Edinburgh Evening Courant began publication, it survived until the Evening News came into existence in 1873. The increasing popularity and influence of newspapers was problematic to the government of the day.
The first bill in parliament advocating a tax on newspapers was proposed in 1711. The duty imposed in 1712 was a halfpenny on papers of half a sheet or less and a penny on newspapers that ranged from half a sheet to a single sheet in size. Jonathan Swift expressed in his Journal to Stella on 7 August 1712, doubt in the ability of The Spectator to hold out against