Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter. A satellite receiver decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be a built-in television tuner. Satellite television provides a wide range of services, it is the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service. Modern systems signals are relayed from a communications satellite on the Ku band frequencies requiring only a small dish less than a meter in diameter; the first satellite TV systems were an obsolete type now known as television receive-only. These systems received weaker analog signals transmitted in the C-band from FSS type satellites, requiring the use of large 2–3-meter dishes.
These systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, were more expensive and less popular. Early systems used analog signals, but modern ones use digital signals which allow transmission of the modern television standard high-definition television, due to the improved spectral efficiency of digital broadcasting; as of 2018, Star One C2 from Brazil is the only remaining satellite broadcasting in analog signals, as well as one channel on AMC-11 from the United States. Different receivers are required for the two types; some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are transmitted with encryption, requiring the viewer to subscribe and pay a monthly fee to receive the programming. The satellites used for broadcasting television are in a geostationary orbit 37,000 km above the earth's equator; the advantage of this orbit is that the satellite's orbital period equals the rotation rate of the Earth, so the satellite appears at a fixed position in the sky.
Thus the satellite dish antenna which receives the signal can be aimed permanently at the location of the satellite, does not have to track a moving satellite. A few systems instead use a elliptical orbit with inclination of +/−63.4 degrees and orbital period of about twelve hours, known as a Molniya orbit. Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are large, as much as 9 to 12 meters in diameter; the increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite; the transponder re-transmits the signals back to Earth at a different frequency in the 10.7-12.7 GHz band, but some still transmit in the C-band, Ku-band, or both.
The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink. A typical satellite has up to 32 Ku-band or 24 C-band transponders, or more for Ku/C hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 50 MHz; each geostationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2° longitude from the next satellite to avoid interference. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites or 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain; the latter is more adversely affected by ice crystals in thunder clouds. On occasion, sun outage will occur when the sun lines up directly behind the geostationary satellite to which the receiving antenna is pointed; the downlink satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance, is collected with a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point.
Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn or collector. The feedhorn is a section of waveguide with a flared front-end that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and conducts them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter; the LNB amplifies the signals and downconverts them to a lower block of intermediate frequencies in the L-band. The original C-band satellite television systems used a low-noise amplifier connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish; the amplified signal, still at the higher microwave frequencies, had to be fed via expensive low-loss 50-ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable with complex N-connectors to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, a downconverter for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend, but this design evolved. Designs for microstrip-based converters for amateur radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-band.
Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, more handled IF. The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable can be used to connect the indoor receiver to the satellite te
PlayStation is a gaming brand that consists of four home video game consoles, as well as a media center, an online service, a line of controllers, two handhelds and a phone, as well as multiple magazines. It is created and owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment since December 3, 1994, with the launch of the original PlayStation in Japan; the original console in the series was the first video game console to ship 100 million units, 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. Its successor, the PlayStation 2, was released in 2000; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold as of December 28, 2012. Sony's next console, the PlayStation 3, was released in 2006 and has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013. Sony's latest console, the PlayStation 4, was released in 2013, selling 1 million consoles in its first 24 hours on sale, becoming the fastest selling console in history; the first handheld game console in the PlayStation series, the PlayStation Portable or PSP, sold a total of 80 million units worldwide by November 2013.
Its successor, the PlayStation Vita, which launched in Japan on December 17, 2011 and in most other major territories in February 2012, had sold over 4 million units by January 2013. PlayStation TV is a microconsole and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. Other hardware released as part of the PlayStation series includes the PSX, a digital video recorder, integrated with the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, though it was short lived due to its high price and was never released outside Japan, as well as a Sony Bravia television set which has an integrated PlayStation 2; the main series of controllers utilized by the PlayStation series is the DualShock, a line of vibration-feedback gamepad having sold 28 million controllers as of June 28, 2008. The PlayStation Network is an online service with over 110 million users worldwide, it comprises an online virtual market, the PlayStation Store, which allows the purchase and download of games and various forms of multimedia, a subscription-based online service known as PlayStation Plus and a social gaming networking service called PlayStation Home, which had over 41 million users worldwide at the time of its closure in March 2015.
PlayStation Mobile is a software framework. Version 1.xx supports both PlayStation Vita, PlayStation TV and certain devices that run the Android operating system, whereas version 2.00 released in 2014 would only target PlayStation Vita and PlayStation TV. Content set to be released under the framework consist of only original PlayStation games currently.7th generation PlayStation products use the XrossMediaBar, an award-winning graphical user interface. A touch screen-based user interface called LiveArea was launched for the PlayStation Vita, which integrates social networking elements into the interface. Additionally, the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 consoles featured support for Linux-based operating systems; the series has been known for its numerous marketing campaigns, the latest of which being the "Greatness Awaits" commercials in the United States. The series has a strong line-up of first-party titles due to Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a group of fifteen first-party developers owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment which are dedicated to developing first-party games for the series.
In addition, the series features various budget re-releases of titles by Sony with different names for each region. In October 2018, Sony President Kenichiro Yoshida stated the necessity of the new PlayStation console. Yoshida said, it has become "necessary to have a next-generation hardware" to replace the PlayStation 4, now 5 years old. PlayStation was the brainchild of Ken Kutaragi, a Sony executive who had just finished managing one of the company's hardware engineering divisions at that time and would be dubbed as "The Father of the PlayStation"; the console's origins date back to 1988 where it was a joint project between Nintendo and Sony to create a CD-ROM for the Super Famicom. Although Nintendo denied the existence of the Sony deal as late as March 1991, Sony revealed a Super Famicom with a built-in CD-ROM drive, that incorporated Green Book technology or CD-i, called "Play Station" at the Consumer Electronics Show in June 1991. However, a day after the announcement at CES, Nintendo announced that it would be breaking its partnership with Sony, opting to go with Philips instead but using the same technology.
The deal was broken by Nintendo after they were unable to come to an agreement on how revenue would be split between the two companies. The breaking of the partnership infuriated Sony President Norio Ohga, who responded by appointing Kutaragi with the responsibility of developing the PlayStation project to rival Nintendo. At that time, negotiations were still on-going between Nintendo and Sony, with Nintendo offering Sony a "non-gaming role" regarding their new partnership with Philips; this proposal was swiftly rejected by Kutaragi, facing increasing criticism over his work with regard to entering the video game industry from within Sony. Negotiations ended in May 1992 and in order to decide the fate of the PlayStation project, a meeting was held in June 1992, consisting of Sony President Ohga, PlayStation Head Kutaragi and several senior members of Sony's board. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a pro
Ultraviolet: Code 044
Ultraviolet: Code 044 is a 2008 anime series loosely based on the 2006 science fiction film Ultraviolet and directed by Kurt Wimmer. The show was directed by Osamu Dezaki. An English dub of the series, produced by Sony Pictures Television and Ocean Productions debuted on Crackle in April 2011. In 2012, it aired on G4 in the United States and was released in a manufacture on demand DVD set. In 2018, the series was released by Mill Creek Entertainment along with Kurozuka and Viper's Creed as part of the Anime 3-Series Collection. In 2140, 044 becomes the strongest female soldier excelling in combat through gene manipulation using the Hemophage Virus. However, in exchange for her abilities, her days become numbered, her next mission from the government is to destroy a bloodthirsty group of people, the Phage, its leader King. In her battle, she encounters a Phage soldier and finds herself unable to kill him, she wonders why, but as a result, Daxus II, the leader of the government group, regards her as a traitor.
She is targeted by the government, as she flees with the injured Luka. 044 Voiced by: Romi Park. At first, she is confused by the unfamiliarity of a life outside being ordered by the Central Government, she becomes contemplative of the fact there exists a world other than her own and escapes. Being a hunter of the Phage and after defying the orders of Daxus II, she becomes targeted by the two powerful forces. After rescuing Luka she is somehow compelled to save him. Together with Luka, she returns to Neo Tokyo to combat the Central Government's rule, she dies in the last episode when the building she was in is destroyed.724 Voiced by: Keiji Fujiwara The most elite member of the Central Government's special agents, next to 044. He is the leader of the SBCU. Following 044's escape, he is sent by Daxus II to apprehend her, he is a rather cynical clone and hates the fact that 044's abilities had always been valued more his own. After relentlessly pursuing 044 throughout Neo Tokyo, they fight and he is killed.
Daxus II Voiced by: Rikiya Koyama The eccentric director of the Central Government who sees himself highly and berates his subordinates for their incompetence. He at first, does not believe she could betray him. Soon after, enraged by her inconsideration of the care he had always administered to her, he ruthlessly tracks and pursues 044 throughout the galaxies, it is revealed by King, that he too is a clone, for his father had contracted the Hemophage Virus and thus could not have sired him. He is killed by King in the last episode. Garcia Voiced by: Kenyu Horiuchi A doctor working for the Central Government as well as the guardian of 044. Giving up his position as a doctor, he accompanies her in her escape from the Central Government suggesting that he cares for 044, he survives the entire way through the series. King Voiced by: Michio Hazama The towering, aging leader of the Phage whose head is sought by the Central Government, he preaches to his fellow Phages of a world where they too, are not burdened by their disease and are able to live freely.
He was one of the pioneers in establishing the Phage society along with Luka's father. He dies at the hands of Daxus II but not without taking his life as well. Luka Bloom Voiced by: Tomokazu Seki, he has the utmost respect for King. He fights with and is rescued by 044, he is shot in the final episode and is thought to be dead until it is revealed that he is alive and will recover from his wound. Matilda Voiced by: Kaori Yamagata A kind doctor and a friend of Garcia from medical school, she owns a clinic in Neo Tokyo, which takes care of both Phage kind. She helps 044 and Luka by allowing them shelter at her clinic knowing that they were both being pursued by the government, she is with Luka in the ending of the final episode on her private island. Police Inspector Burke Voiced by: Yoshito Yasuhara, he is someone, concerned with the pride of his division and thus dies at the hands of the Central Government's elite agents for not complying with their demands. Sakuza Voiced by: Akio Ohtsuka Sakuza later revealed as clone 6030 is an enigmatic mine foreman in one of many Magnadite mines on the planet named the Coffin of Despair.
Though appearing to be a outgoing man, in the past he was one of the Central Government's forces during Bermuda's war of independence in the year 2122. Outraged by the government's orders which resulted in the vain deaths of his fellow clone soldiers, he single-handedly killed his commanding officers and fled, he is the last of his comrades from this war. He is killed by Daxus the second as he was trying to avenge his fallen clone brethren. Opening theme "Guilty Pleasure" by BECCA Ending theme "Falling Down" by BECCA Also, most of the score that Klaus Badelt composed for the film were used as the score of the show. Ultraviolet: Code 044 at Anime
Cell is a multi-core microprocessor microarchitecture that combines a general-purpose PowerPC core of modest performance with streamlined coprocessing elements which accelerate multimedia and vector processing applications, as well as many other forms of dedicated computation. It was developed by Sony, IBM, an alliance known as "STI"; the architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center in Austin, Texas over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a budget reported by Sony as approaching US$400 million. Cell is shorthand for Cell Broadband Engine Architecture abbreviated CBEA in full or Cell BE in part; the first major commercial application of Cell was in Sony's PlayStation 3 game console. Mercury Computer Systems has a dual Cell server, a dual Cell blade configuration, a rugged computer, a PCI Express accelerator board available in different stages of production. Toshiba had announced plans to incorporate Cell in high definition television sets, but seems to have abandoned the idea.
Exotic features such as the XDR memory subsystem and coherent Element Interconnect Bus interconnect appear to position Cell for future applications in the supercomputing space to exploit the Cell processor's prowess in floating point kernels. The Cell architecture includes a memory coherence architecture that emphasizes power efficiency, prioritizes bandwidth over low latency, favors peak computational throughput over simplicity of program code. For these reasons, Cell is regarded as a challenging environment for software development. IBM provides a Linux-based development platform to help developers program for Cell chips; the architecture will not be used unless it is adopted by the software development community. However, Cell's strengths may make it useful for scientific computing regardless of its mainstream success. In mid-2000, Sony Computer Entertainment, Toshiba Corporation, IBM formed an alliance known as "STI" to design and manufacture the processor; the STI Design Center opened in March 2001.
The Cell was designed over a period of four years, using enhanced versions of the design tools for the POWER4 processor. Over 400 engineers from the three companies worked together in Austin, with critical support from eleven of IBM's design centers. During this period, IBM filed many patents pertaining to the Cell architecture, manufacturing process, software environment. An early patent version of the Broadband Engine was shown to be a chip package comprising four "Processing Elements", the patent's description for what is now known as the Power Processing Element; each Processing Element contained 8 APUs, which are now referred to as SPEs on the current Broadband Engine chip. This chip package was regarded to run at a clock speed of 4 GHz and with 32 APUs providing 32 gigaFLOPS each, the Broadband Engine was shown to have 1 teraFLOPS of raw computing power; this design was fabricated using a 90 nm SOI process. In March 2007, IBM announced that the 65 nm version of Cell BE is in production at its plant in East Fishkill, New York.
Bandai Namco Entertainment used the cell processor for their 357 arcade board as well as the subsequent 369. In February 2008, IBM announced that it will begin to fabricate Cell processors with the 45 nm process. In May 2008, IBM introduced the high-performance double-precision floating-point version of the Cell processor, the PowerXCell 8i, at the 65 nm feature size. In May 2008, an Opteron- and PowerXCell 8i-based supercomputer, the IBM Roadrunner system, became the world's first system to achieve one petaFLOPS, was the fastest computer in the world until third quarter 2009; the world's three most energy efficient supercomputers, as represented by the Green500 list, are based on the PowerXCell 8i. The 45 nm Cell processor was introduced in concert with Sony's PlayStation 3 Slim in August 2009. By November 2009, IBM had discontinued the development of a Cell processor with 32 APUs but was still developing other Cell products. On May 17, 2005, Sony Computer Entertainment confirmed some specifications of the Cell processor that would be shipping in the then-forthcoming PlayStation 3 console.
This Cell configuration has one PPE on the core, with eight physical SPEs in silicon. In the PlayStation 3, one SPE is locked-out during the test process, a practice which helps to improve manufacturing yields, another one is reserved for the OS, leaving 6 free SPEs to be used by games' code; the target clock-frequency at introduction is 3.2 GHz. The introductory design is fabricated using a 90 nm SOI process, with initial volume production slated for IBM's facility in East Fishkill, New York; the relationship between cores and threads is a common source of confusion. The PPE core is dual threaded and manifests in software as two independent threads of execution while each active SPE manifests as a single thread. In the PlayStation 3 configuration as described by Sony, the Cell processor provides nine independent threads of execution. On June 28, 2005, IBM and Mercury Computer Systems announced a partnership agreement to build Cell-based computer systems for embedded applications such as medical imaging, industrial inspection and defense, seismic processing, telecommunications.
Mercury has since released blades, conventional rack servers and PCI Express accelerator boards with Cell processors. In the fall of 2006, IBM released the QS20 blade module using double Cell BE processors for tremendous performance in certain applications, reaching a peak of 410 gigaFLOPS in FP8 quarter precision per module; the QS22 based on the PowerXCell 8i processor was used for the IBM Roadrunner supercomputer. Mercury and IBM uses the utilized Cell processor with eight active SPEs. On April
Tokyo Godfathers is a 2003 Japanese anime film directed by Satoshi Kon loosely based on Peter B. Kyne's novel Three Godfathers. Tokyo Godfathers was the third animated film directed by Kon and the second which he both wrote and directed. Keiko Nobumoto, noted for being the creator of the Wolf's Rain series and a head scriptwriter for Cowboy Bebop, co-wrote the script with Kon. Tokyo Godfathers received an Excellence Prize at the 2003 Japan Media Arts Festival, it won Best Animation Film at the 58th Mainichi Film Awards. One Christmas Eve, three homeless people – a middle-aged alcoholic named Gin, a trans woman and former drag queen Hana, a dependent runaway girl Miyuki – discover an abandoned newborn while searching through the garbage. Deposited with the unnamed baby is a note asking the finder to take good care of her and a bag containing clues to the parents' identity; the trio sets out to find the baby's parents. The baby is named Kiyoko, based on the Japanese translation of Silent Night meaning "pure child", as she is found on Christmas Eve.
Outside a cemetery, the group encounters a high-ranking yakuza trapped under his car. The man happens to know the owner of the club. At the wedding, the groom tells them, he gives them Sachiko's address, but the party is interrupted when a maid, revealed to be a Latin American hitman in disguise, attempts to shoot the bride's father. The hitman takes them back to his home. There, Miyuki shows her some pictures of her family. Hana searches for Miyuki and Kiyoko while Gin takes care of an old homeless man, dying in the street. After giving Gin a little red bag, the old man peacefully passes away; some teenagers beat Gin and the dead old man. Meanwhile, Hana finds the girls and they go off to find a place to stay, they go to Hana's former club. Gin, rescued by another member of the club, is there; the trio sets out to find Sachiko's house. They are informed of the unhappy relationship between her husband; the group rests at a store. Hana collapses, Gin and Miyuki take her to the hospital. At the hospital, Gin finds his daughter, named Kiyoko, working as a nurse.
Hana berates Gin in front of his daughter and storms out of the hospital, Miyuki following behind with baby Kiyoko. Hana and Miyuki find Sachiko about to jump off a bridge. Sachiko insists that her husband got rid of the baby without her knowledge, they return it to her. Meanwhile, Gin finds Sachiko's husband, who reveals that Kiyoko was stolen by Sachiko from the hospital, they chase after the baby. After an intense car chase, Miyuki chases Sachiko to the top of a building. Sachiko reveals; when her baby was stillborn, she decided to kidnap Kiyoko from the hospital, thinking, in her grief, the baby was hers. As Sachiko is about to jump off the building, her husband comes out of his apartment and begs her to start over with him. Sachiko jumps off nevertheless. Miyuki manages to catch her before she falls but Sachiko accidentally drops Kiyoko. Hana jumps off the building after Kiyoko, catches the baby, lands safely due to a miraculous gust of wind. Hana and Gin are taken to the hospital. Miyuki hands Gin his cigarettes and drops the old man's small red bag on the floor, revealing a winning lottery ticket.
Kiyoko's real parents want to ask the trio to become her godparents. When a police inspector introduces them to the trio, the inspector is revealed to be Miyuki's father. Tōru Emori and Darren Pleavin as Gin, a gambling addict and former bicycle shop owner who claims to have been a bicycle racer, he ran away from his family. His daughter, a nurse, shares the name of the newfound baby Kiyoko. Yoshiaki Umegaki and Russel Wait as Hana, a trans woman and former drag queen who became homeless following the death of her boyfriend. Hana was a foundling, is the most sympathetic to Kiyoko's plight and gives the baby her name. Aya Okamoto and Candice Moore as Miyuki, a runaway high school student who fled home following a violent argument with her father. Shōzō Iizuka as Ōta, a yakuza boss who the main characters save from being crushed by his car. In gratitude, he invites them to his daughter's wedding reception. Seizō Katō as Mother, the proprietor of the gay bar Hana was employed in. Hiroya Ishimaru as Yasuo, Sachiko's husband and the one who left Kiyoko at the garbage dump.
Ryūji Saikachi as an old homeless man, discovered by Gin. He entrusts Gin with the disposal of a small red bag before passing away. Yūsaku Yara as Miyuki's father, a policeman in charge of searching for the missing baby Kiyoko, separated from her family. Kyōko Terase as Sachiko, a woman who claims to be Kiyoko's mother. Mamiko Noto as Gin's daughter, a nurse, named Kiyoko. Satomi Kōrogi as the daughter of the yakuza boss Ōta, named Kiyoko. Akio Ōtsuka as a doctor engaged to Gin's daughter Kiyoko. Rikiya Koyama as Ōta's son-in-law, collecting debt from Gin. Inuko Inuyama as Kurumizawa, a resident of Sachiko's former neighborhood. Kanako Yahara as Yamanōchi Rie Shibata as Nekobaba Kōichi Yamadera as a taxi driverAdditional voices by Hidenari Umezu, Mitsuru Ogata, Eriko Kawasaki, Chiyako Shibahara, Akiko Takeguchi, Kazuaki Itō, Nobuyuki Furuta, Atsuko Yuya, Toshitaka Shimizu, Bin Horikawa, Yūto Kazama, Masao Harada, Tsuguo Mogami, Yoshinori Sonobe, Akiko Kawase The film pu
Sony/ATV Music Publishing
Sony/ATV Music Publishing is an American music publisher owned by Sony Entertainment. The company was formed in 1995 with the merger of Sony Music Publishing and ATV Music, owned by entertainer Michael Jackson. Jackson had purchased ATV Music, which included the Lennon–McCartney song catalog, in 1985. In 2012, an investor consortium led by Sony/ATV Music Publishing acquired EMI Music Publishing to become the largest music publishing administrator in the world, with a library of over three million songs. In 2016, Sony bought the Jackson estate's 50% stake in Sony/ATV. Associated Television was a British television broadcasting company founded in 1955 by Lew Grade. Over the next two decades, ATV expanded through acquisitions to become an entertainment conglomerate with business lines in the record industry, music publishing and film production. ATV entered the music industry in 1958 when it acquired 50% of Pye Records, a British record company. ATV expanded into music publishing in 1966 when it acquired 50% of New World Music and Jubilee Music, subsidiaries of Chappell & Co.
ATV acquired the other 50% of Pye Records, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of ATV, including Pye Record's publishing subsidiary Welbeck Music. ATV acquired Northern Songs, publisher of the Lennon–McCartney song catalogue, in 1969; the catalog featured every song written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney. Northern Songs was co-owned by Lennon, McCartney, Brian Epstein and Dick James, who owned a controlling interest. In 1969, James offered to sell his shares to ATV. Lennon and McCartney attempted to gain a controlling interest in the company, their bid to gain control, part of a long and acrimonious fight, failed. The financial clout of Grade, their adversary in the bidding war, ensured that the songs written by the two Beatles passed into the control of ATV. In 1970, ATV formed a joint publishing venture with Kirshner Entertainment, called ATV-Kirshner Music; the partnership agreement expired at the end of 1972 at which time ATV Music was formed to manage all of ATV's publishing interests, including Northern Songs.
ATV Music remained a successful organization in the music industry throughout the 1970s due to the performance of Northern Songs. ATV Music entered into co-publishing agreements with Lennon and McCartney, whose contract with Northern Songs expired in 1973. While ATV Music was successful, its parent company, now known as Associated Communications Corporation began experiencing financial difficulties. From 1978 to 1981, ACC's profits declined due to losses in its film division, share prices dropped dramatically; the main television arm of ATV lost its government-granted license in its then-current form and was restructured into Central Independent Television. In 1981, Grade entertained offers for Northern Songs. McCartney, with Lennon's widow Yoko Ono, offered £21 million but the offer was declined by Grade who decided not to sell Northern Songs separately after other suitors, including CBS Songs, EMI Music Publishing, Warner Communications, Paramount Pictures and the Entertainment Co. showed interest in buying ATV Music as a whole.
Meanwhile, Australian businessman Robert Holmes à Court had been acquiring shares of ACC and launched a takeover bid in earnest in January 1982. Grade resigned as chairman and was replaced by Holmes à Court who acquired a controlling interest in the company. After Holmes à Court assumed control of ACC, ATV Music was no longer for sale. In 1981, American singer Michael Jackson collaborated with Paul McCartney and recording several songs together. Jackson stayed at the home of McCartney and his wife Linda during the recording sessions, becoming friendly with both. One evening while at the dining table, McCartney brought out a thick, bound notebook displaying all the songs to which he owned the publishing rights. Jackson grew more excited, he inquired about how the songs were used. McCartney explained. Jackson replied by telling McCartney. McCartney laughed. Good joke."Jackson was first informed that the ATV catalog was up for sale in September 1984 by his attorney, John Branca, who had put together Jackson's earlier catalogue acquisitions.
Warned of the competition he would face in buying such popular songs, Jackson remained resolute in his decision to purchase them. Branca approached McCartney's attorney to query; the attorney stated. According to Bert Reuter, who negotiated the sale of ATV Music for Holmes à Court, "We had given Paul McCartney first right of refusal but Paul didn't want it at that time." Lennon's widow, Yoko Ono had been contacted as well but did not enter bidding. The competitors in the 1984 sale of ATV Music included Charles Koppelman and Marty Bandier's New York-based the Entertainment Co. Virgin Records, New York real estate tycoon Samuel J. LeFrak, financier Charles Knapp. On November 20, 1984, Jackson sent a bid of $46 million to Holmes à Court. Branca suggested the amount of the bid after having spent time evaluating the earnings of the catalogue and learning of another bid for $39 million. Jackson was only interested in the music copyrights, but the package included buildings, a recording studio and studio equipment.
The two sides signed a non-binding memorandum of mutual interest in December 1984 and Jackson's team began a four-month process of verifying ATV Music's legal documents, financial reports, every significant composition in the nearly 4000-song catalog. The two sides began drafting contracts in January 1985 and follow-through meetings began on March 16. Jackson's team describ
Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. is an American entertainment company that produces and distributes filmed entertainment through multiple platforms. Through an intermediate holding company called Sony Film Holding Inc. it is operated as a subsidiary of Sony Entertainment Inc., itself a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, a wholly owned subsidiary and the US headquarters of the Tokyo-based multinational technology and media conglomerate Sony Corporation. Based in Culver City, California, it encompasses Sony's motion picture, television production and distribution units, its group sales in the fiscal year 2017 has been reported to be $9.133 billion. SPE is the Motion Picture Association of America. Sony Pictures' film franchises include The Karate Kid, Spider-Man, Stuart Little, Men in Black, Robert Langdon, The Smurfs, Hotel Transylvania, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, many more. On September 1, 1987, The Coca-Cola Company announced plans to spin off its assets of Columbia Pictures, which it had owned since 1982.
Under this arrangement, Coca-Cola would sell its entertainment assets to TriStar Pictures, of which it owned 39.6%. Tri-Star would be renamed to Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. with Coca-Cola owning 49%, its shareholders owning 31%, Tri-Star's shareholders owning 20%. A new company was formed in early 1988 with the Tri-Star name to take over the studio's operations. On September 28, 1989, Sony obtained an option to purchase all of The Coca-Cola Company's stock in CPE for $27 per share; the next day, Sony announced that it reached an agreement with Guber-Peters Entertainment Company, Inc. to acquire CPE for $200 million when Sony hired Peter Guber and Jon Peters to be its co-chairmen. This was all led by Norio Ohga, the president and CEO of Sony during that time; the hiring of Guber and Peters by Sony to run Columbia was conflicted by a previous contract the producers had signed at Warner Bros. Time Warner's chairman, Steve Ross, threatened Sony with a lawsuit for breach of contract; the lawsuit would be subsequently dropped when Sony sold half-interest in Columbia House and cable distribution rights to Columbia's feature films, TV movies, miniseries to Warner Bros.
That same agreement saw Columbia sell its 35% interest in the Burbank Studios and acquired Lorimar Studios the MGM lot, from Warner Bros. On October 31, 1989, Sony completed a friendly takeover bid for the rest of shares of CPE, a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, acquired 99.3% of the common stock of the company. On November 8, 1989, Sony completed the acquisition by a "short-form" merger of its wholly owned subsidiary Sony Columbia Acquisition Corporation into CPE under Delaware law. Sony completed a tender offer for shares of common stock of the Guber-Peters Entertainment Company on November 6, 1989 and acquired the company 3 days later; the acquisition cost Sony $4.9 billion and was backed by five major Japanese banks Mitsui, Fuji and Industrial Bank of Japan. The company was renamed Sony Pictures Entertainment on August 7, 1991. Sony has since created numerous other film production and distribution units, such as creating Sony Pictures Classics for art-house fare, by forming Columbia TriStar Pictures by merging Columbia Pictures and TriStar Pictures in 1998, revitalizing Columbia's former television division Screen Gems.
It expanded its operations on April 8, 2005, when a Sony-led consortium acquired the legendary Hollywood studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, in a US$4.8 billion leveraged buyout, through the holding company MGM Holdings Inc. This in effect re-united the MGM studio name, with the MGM main studio lot, although somewhat confusingly, the bulk of the pre-1986 original MGM library ended up at Warner Bros. via the Ted Turner-Kirk Kerkovian "Turner Entertainment Company" transactions. The post-1986 MGM library consists of acquisitions of various third-party libraries, such as the Orion Pictures catalogue, leading to the MGM version of "Robocop". On June 4, 2008, SPE's wholly owned group 2JS Productions B. V. acquired Dutch production company 2waytraffic N. V. famous for Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, acquired from the original production company Celador, You Are What You Eat for £114.3 million. In 2011, the Sony Pictures computer network was breached and one million user accounts associated with the SonyPictures.com website were leaked.
On November 18, 2012, Sony Pictures announced it has passed $4 billion with the success of releases: Skyfall, The Amazing Spider-Man, 21 Jump Street, Men in Black 3, Hotel Transylvania, Underworld: Awakening, The Vow, Resident Evil: Retribution. On November 21, 2013, SPE and Sony Entertainment's CEO Michael Lynton announced that SPE will shift emphasis from movies to television by cutting its 2014 film slate, it was announced on the same day, that there will be more Spider-Man sequels and spin-offs, though in February 10, 2015, Sony Pictures signed a deal with Disney's Marvel Studios to allow Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, beginning with Captain America: Civil War, before appearing in Spider-Man: Homecoming, released on July 7, 2017. The deal allowed Sony to distribute and have creative control on any MCU film where Spider-Man is the main chara