Samuel Goldwyn Films
Samuel Goldwyn Films is an American film company that licenses and distributes art-house and foreign films. It was founded by Samuel Goldwyn Jr. the son of the Hollywood business magnate/mogul, Samuel Goldwyn. The current incarnation is a successor to The Samuel Goldwyn Company. After The Samuel Goldwyn Company was acquired by Orion Pictures Corporation in 1996 and by MGM in 1997, Samuel Goldwyn Jr. founded Samuel Goldwyn Films as an independent production/distribution studio. Until his passing, the younger Goldwyn owned sole rights to the use of the name and signature logo as part of the settlement of his 1999 lawsuit against MGM, which changed its Goldwyn subsidiary's name to G2 Films; this is a list of films produced by Samuel Goldwyn Films. The Samuel Goldwyn Company, predecessor to Samuel Goldwyn Films Samuel Goldwyn Studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Samuel Goldwyn Television Samuel Goldwyn Productions Official website Samuel Goldwyn Films on IMDb The Samuel Goldwyn Company on IMDb
88 Minutes is a 2007 American thriller film directed by Jon Avnet and starring Al Pacino, Alicia Witt, Leelee Sobieski, William Forsythe, Deborah Kara Unger, Amy Brenneman, Neal McDonough and Benjamin McKenzie. Filming began in the Vancouver area on October 8, 2005, wrapped up in December 2005. In 2007 the film was released in various European countries. In May 2007, Sony Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions Group paid $6 million to acquire North American and select international distribution rights of 88 Minutes; the group released the film in the United States theatrically on April 18, 2008, through TriStar Pictures. In 1997, Forensic psychiatrist Dr. Jack Gramm testifies at the trial of suspected serial killer Jon Forster, dubbed "The Seattle Slayer" by police. Gramm's testimony and expert psychiatric opinion are crucial in the conviction of Forster for the attempted killing of Janie Cates and the murder of her sister Joanie, drugged, hanged upside down and killed after the killer invaded the sisters' apartment.
Upon receiving a guilty verdict from the jury, Forster taunts Gramm, saying "Tick-tock, Doc." Nine years as Forster's execution date approaches, several similar torture murders occur. Gramm, now teaching at the University of Washington, is questioned by a lawyer from the Attorney General's office as well as FBI Special Agent Frank Parks; the latest victim, Dale Morris, is revealed to be a former psychology student of Gramm's. On the way to his class, Gramm receives a phone call from someone using a voice changer, informing that he has 88 minutes to live, he reports the call to his secretary, asking for a risk assessment profile of suspects. Gramm receives another phone threat while teaching and becomes suspicious of his students Mike Stempt; the Dean of Students, Carol Johnson, interrupts the class to report a bomb threat. Evacuating, Gramm finds threats written both on the classroom's overhead projector and on his car, vandalized in the parking garage. Gramm is met by his teaching assistant, Kim Cummings, who offers to help find the perpetrator.
In the stairwell, Gramm encounters one of his students, Lauren Douglas, attacked by an unknown assailant and reports the assault to campus security. Gramm and Kim go to his condo; the package contains an audio tape of his kid sister, crying for help before being murdered. Gramm concludes that someone accessed his secure files to obtain the tape. Kim's ex-husband, Guy LaForge, appears with a gun at the apartment door, but is shot and killed from behind by an assailant masked by a motorcycle helmet. A fire alarm is triggered by the sudden onset of smoke and the shooter flees through the crowd outside. Shortly after, Gramm's car explodes. Renting a cab, Gramm explains to Kim that his sister was killed decades earlier, when he left her alone in his apartment. Next and Kim visit Sara Pollard, a woman Gramm slept with the night before, but find her murdered in her apartment with evidence incriminating Gramm. Carol calls Gramm and makes comments suggesting that she is the killer, demanding that Gramm meet her at his office.
Shelly arrives at Sara's apartment and advises Gramm that she suspects Lauren was the one who stole the audio tape of Kate's death. Kim disappears from the apartment and calls Gramm with a threat similar to Carol's demanding he meet her at the office. Through prison visitation records, Gramm deduces that Forster's appeals attorney "Lydia Doherty" is a pseudonym for Lauren, surmising that she set up the frame on orders from Forster. Kim calls again, instructing Gramm to come to another nearby location on campus, where he finds Carol hanging over a seventh floor balcony. Lauren forces Gramm to "confess" on tape. Special Agent Parks arrives and shoots Lauren, causing both Carol and Lauren to fall from the balcony. Gramm saves Carol from completing the fall; when Forster calls asking to speak with Lauren, Gramm informs him of Lauren's death. He quips "Tick-tock, tick-tock, you got 12 hours to live" before throwing the phone into the void. Gramm flashes back to interactions with Kate and Janie Cates pockets the device that recorded his "confession".
He shares knowing glances with Kim before walking away. Al Pacino as Dr. Jack Gramm Alicia Witt as Kim Cummings Leelee Sobieski as Lauren Douglas/Lydia Doherty Amy Brenneman as Shelly Barnes William Forsythe as Special Agent Frank Parks Deborah Kara Unger as Carol Johnson Benjamin McKenzie as Mike Stempt Neal McDonough as Jon Forster Leah Cairns as Sara Pollard Stephen Moyer as Guy LaForge Christopher Redman as Jeremy Guber Brendan Fletcher as Johnny d'Franco Michael Eklund as J. T. Rycker Trilby Glover as Defense Attorney Miss Bennett Carrie Genzel as Stephanie Parkman Kristina Copeland as Dale Morris Tammy Hui as Janie Cates Vicky Huang as Joanie Cates Victoria Tennant II as Kate Michal Yannai as Leeza Pearson Paul Campbell as Albert Jackson In its opening weekend, the film grossed $6,957,216 in 2,168 theaters in the United States and Canada, ranking fourth at the box office and averaging $3,209 per theater. In its second weekend, the film fell to number eight at the box office; the film grossed $17,213,467 at the US and Canadian box office and $15,379,918 internationally, for a worldwide gross of $32,593,385.
88 Minutes has a "rotten" score of 5% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 122 revi
The Perfect Holiday
The Perfect Holiday is a 2007 comedy film directed by Lance Rivera, starring Gabrielle Union, Morris Chestnut and Terrence Howard, is produced by Academy Award-nominated actress Queen Latifah, who serves as narrator. The film was released on December 12, 2007, it was the first film by Destination Films to receive a wide release since Beautiful. Benjamin is an aspiring songwriter who attempts to break into the music business by giving a copy of his recording track of a Christmas album to a rap artist named J-Jizzy. Nancy is a divorced mother, too busy taking care of her three children to take care of herself, her daughter Emily overhears her mother say that she wished for a compliment from a man, the daughter tells the local mall's Santa Claus about her mother's wish. The Santa Claus turns out to be Benjamin. While sitting in a Starbucks after his shift as Santa and his friend Jamal see Nancy go into a dry cleaners. Benjamin borrows Jamal's jacket, pretends to drop it off at the cleaners, tells Nancy that she's a attractive woman, leaves.
The two start to date and end up falling in love—without Ben realizing that Nancy's ex-husband is J-Jizzy. Things take a turn for the worse, because Nancy's oldest son, John-John is jealous of Benjamin going out with his mother and plots to break up the relationship. What follows is a series of funny and touching scenes that show viewers what "family" is about. Queen Latifah and Terrence Howard play omniscient roles in the movie. Howard is a mischievous and sly angel named "Bah Humbug", while Latifah is the kind, thoughtful angel, called "Mrs. Christmas". Gabrielle Union - Nancy Taylor Morris Chestnut - Benjamin Armstrong Charlie Murphy - J-Jizzy Malik Hammond - John-John Taylor Jeremy Gumbs - Mikey Taylor Khail Bryant - Emily Taylor Faizon Love - Jamal Jill Marie Jones - Robin Katt Williams - Delicious Queen Latifah - Mrs. Christmas Rachel True - Brenda Terrence Howard - Bah Humbug The film was neither a critical nor commercial success. Rotten Tomatoes reported, it has a consensus stating The Perfect Holiday is the perfect example of Christmas movie clichés run amok.
Metacritic gave the film a 32 out of 100 approval rating based on 22 reviews, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". On its opening weekend, it opened poorly at #6 with $2.2 million. The film grossed $5.8 million domestically. The Perfect Holiday at AllMovie The Perfect Holiday on IMDb A Father and Son’s Perfect Holiday - Dad and 7 year old son discuss performing stunts in Queen Latifah's film at Mosaec.com
Revolver (2005 film)
Revolver is a 2005 British-French crime thriller film co-written and directed by Guy Ritchie and starring Jason Statham, Ray Liotta, Vincent Pastore and André Benjamin. The film centres on a revenge-seeking confidence trickster whose weapon is a universal formula that guarantees victory to its user, when applied to any game or confidence trick; this is the fourth feature film by Ritchie and his third to centre on crime and professional criminals. It was released in UK theatres on 22 September 2005, it performed poorly at the box office and received negative reviews but has gained a small cult following among fans of Ritchie's previous crime films. A reworked version was released to a limited number of US theatres on 7 December 2007. Dorothy Macha is a gang boss involved in illegal gambling all over the city. With the help of three goons, known as "the three Eddies", he controls several games that take place in the criminal underground. On one occasion, just before a big game, Macha loses his card man.
Having no other options, Macha asks for help from Jake Green, a card man with a good reputation underground. When Jake refuses, they harass Billy's family to convince Jake to play, he plays the game, which he ends up winning. The loser, a high roller named George, insults Jake's mother and Jake responds by shooting him in the foot, igniting a gunfight in which the game's money vanishes; the police investigation is leading nowhere until Jake's name is mentioned and he is brought in for questioning. Taking precautionary measures, Macha sends the three Eddies to Billy's house where they threaten his niece. Billy's wife is accidentally shot. Jake does not give Macha's name to the police, in order to protect Billy and his family, is sentenced to prison, he is given a choice to either spend 14 years in the general prison population or 7 years in solitary confinement. He chooses the latter. During his seven-year stint imprisoned in solitary confinement, Jake learns of a specific strategy, supposed to let its user win every game.
The Formula itself was discovered by two unnamed men who inhabited adjacent cells on either side of Jake's own. They are referred to a con man. During the first five years of his seven-year sentence, the three men communicate their thoughts on confidence tricks and chess moves via messages hidden inside library books, such as The Mathematics of Quantum Mechanics; the chess expert and the con man plan to leave their cells and promise to take Jake with them. But when they disappear from their cells, they leave Jake behind to serve the remaining two years of his sentence; when Jake is released, he finds that all of his possessions and money have been taken by the two men with whom he had shared everything. Still, he has The Formula, he goes about making a lot of money at various casinos. Two years Jake has garnered a reputation that leads many casinos to fear his freakishly good'luck', he is blacklisted by many casinos; the Formula applies to any game, is exemplified by Jake's apparent mastery of chess.
Two years after his prison release, Jake and their other brother Joe walk into one of Macha's casinos. He is recognised and "all the tables are closed" to Jake and his company, but Macha promptly calls them up to a private area of his casino where a high rollers' game is taking place. Jake bets Macha a fortune on a chip toss, wins; this hurts Macha. As Jake says "nothing hurts more than humiliation and a little money loss". Macha suspects; as Jake and his brothers leave the casino, a man hands Jake a card and tells him that he can help him. Jake, who has a fear of enclosed spaces, decides to take the stairs. In the stairwell he looks at the card and collapses, falling down the stairs; the card is revealed to read "Take the Elevator". Jake is rushed to the hospital; the doctors report he is ill but do not disclose why he had the blackout. Macha puts out an order for a hit on Jake. Jake arrives home, without Billy. However, on his doorstep there is another card, which says "Pick This Up"; as Jake bends to retrieve the card bullets fly over his back.
As the shooting continues, the same mysterious individual called Zach arrives and rescues Jake, the only person to survive the hit. Zach introduces Jake to Avi, they offer him a deal: they will take all of his money and he will do what they say, no questions asked. In exchange, they will protect Jake from Macha. In the course of their proposal, they show Jake his medical file, which they have mysteriously obtained, it indicates that the blackout occurred due to a rare blood disease which will cause his death within three days. Jake suspects a con; the mysterious men reveal that his money will be used to fund their loan shark enterprise. Sam Gold is seen to be the'king' in this chess game of gang warfare, he is the ultimate figure that all men are aspiring to be. Sam Gold is revealed to be an powerless cipher, whose power is granted only by those who invest in him, he represents self-investment. He is the personification of greed. Three days after he found out about his disease and working with Avi and Zach, Jake goes to a physician again, it is revealed that the original diagnosis was wrong and that he has more time to live.
Meanwhile, Macha is attacked by 2 assassins from one disguised as a waitress. Macha loses a finger but manages to kill the fake waitress, while Macha's hitman Sorter kills the other assassin. Afterward, Sorter kills a
We Own the Night (film)
We Own the Night is a 2007 American crime drama film written and directed by James Gray and starring Joaquin Phoenix, Mark Wahlberg, Eva Mendes and Robert Duvall. It is the third film directed by Gray, the second to feature Phoenix and Wahlberg together, the first being The Yards; the title comes from the motto of the NYPD's Street Crimes Unit, which disbanded in 2002. The film premiered May 25, at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival, it was released October 2007 in the United States and Canada. It was released in the United Kingdom on December 14, 2007 and in Australia on February 28, 2008. Brooklyn, New York, 1988. Bobby Green is the manager of the El Caribe nightclub in Brighton Beach, frequented by Russian mobster and drug lord Vadim Nezhinski and owned by Vadim's uncle Marat Buzhayev. Bobby has distanced himself from his father, NYPD Deputy Chief Burt Grusinsky, his brother, Captain Joseph Grusinsky. Bobby uses his mother's maiden name, Green, as his last name and stays on the sidelines enjoying a hedonistic life with his girlfriend Amada Juarez and best friend Louis "Jumbo" Falsetti.
When brother Joseph leads a police raid on El Caribe in hope of arresting Vadim, Bobby refuses to cooperate. The incident strains Bobby's relationship with his father and brother more and Bobby and Joseph come to blows; the police are unsuccessful in making a case against Vadim. The next evening, Joseph is shot by a masked assailant and his unmarked police cruiser is firebombed. Joseph is hospitalized for four months. Vadim, unaware of Bobby's family ties, confides. Bobby resolves to help the police and without his father's knowledge goes undercover inside Vadim's cocaine-smuggling operation with a police listening device hidden in a cigarette lighter; the device is discovered and Bobby narrowly escapes being murdered as the police raid the operation and arrest Vadim. Bobby and Amada are placed in protective police custody and their relationship begins to deteriorate. Vadim escapes custody while being transported to a hospital. Burt and the police prepare to move Amada to a new location. During a torrential rainstorm the police convoy is intercepted by Vadim's men and during a chaotic car chase Burt is fatally shot.
When he sees his father's body, Bobby blacks out in the rain. The police take Amada back to their motel near Kennedy Airport. Bobby wakes up a few hours and finds Joseph in the motel room. Joseph tells him that their father has been killed. At the funeral, a colleague of Joseph's, Captain Jack Shapiro, gives him Burt's Korean War medal. Bobby is told. To avenge his father, Bobby decides to join the police force without the consent of Amada, who leaves him. After he is sworn into the NYPD, Bobby learns the true involvement of Jumbo, his friend, Marat, Vadim's uncle, he and Joseph organize a final sting operation, set for April 4, 1989. During the raid, Joseph is incapacitated by the memory of his shooting and cannot continue. Vadim flees into the reed beds, the police toss in flares to smoke him out; as the beds are engulfed in flame and smoke, Bobby runs in to find Vadim himself, ignoring the other officers' pleas that he wait. Bobby shoots Vadim in the chest. Nearly a year after the raid on El Caribe, now in uniform, graduates from the NYPD Police Academy to become a full-time police officer.
Before the ceremony, Joseph reveals to Bobby that he has decided to switch to a job in the administration sector, since the shooting led him to realize that he needs to spend more time with his children. As the chaplain announces that Bobby is to give the valedictorian address, Bobby thinks he sees Amada in the audience, but it turns out to be an illusion. Bobby and Joseph express their brotherly love. Joaquin Phoenix as Robert "Bobby" Green/Grusinsky Mark Wahlberg as Captain Joseph "Joe" Grusinsky Eva Mendes as Amada Juarez Robert Duvall as Deputy Chief Albert "Burt" Grusinsky Alex Veadov as Vadim Nezhinski Dominic Colon as Freddie Danny Hoch as Louis "Jumbo" Falsetti Oleg Taktarov as Pavel Lubyarski Moni Moshonov as Marat Buzhayev Antoni Corone as Lieutenant Michael Solo Craig Walker as Russell De Keifer Tony Musante as Captain Jack Shapiro Yelena Solovey as Kalina Buzhayev Coati Mundi as Himself Former New York City Mayor Ed Koch, Mayor during the time frame in which the film was set, makes a cameo appearance as himself.
The film received mixed reviews from critics. As of July 5, 2018 on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, 57% of critics gave the film positive reviews, based on 150 reviews with an average rating of 5.8/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Bland characters, clichéd dialogue and rickety plotting ensure We Own The Night never lives up to its potential." On Metacritic, the film had an average score of 59 based on 33 reviews. In its opening weekend in the United States and Canada, the film grossed $10.8 million in 2,362 theaters, ranking #3 at the box office. The film grossed a total of $54.5 million worldwide — $28.5 million in the United States and Canada and $26.0 million in other territories. The film was a commercial success in the United States, as Sony Pictures only paid $11 million for the rights to distribute this film. Sony Pictures released this film through its Columbia Pictures division; the film has been a hit in the United States DVD market, as it has brought in more than $22 million in DVD sales and more than $32 million in DVD rentals.
Official website We Own the Night on IMDb We Own the Night at Rotten Tomatoes We Own the Night at Metacritic
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming and financial services; the company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics, motion pictures and financial services; these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, others.
Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense. The company's current slogan is Be Moved, their former slogans were The One and Only, It's like.no.other and make.believe. Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo; the company started with a total of eight employees. In May 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; the company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to "Sony"; when Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK.
The company used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name, tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company using Teletech as a brand name; the name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word "sonus", the root of sonic and sound, the other was "sonny", a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a young boy. In 1950s Japan, "sonny boys" was a loan word in Japanese, which connoted smart and presentable young men, which Sony founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka considered themselves to be; the first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958. At the time of the change, it was unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji; the move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, had strong feelings about the name.
They pushed for a name such as Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however. Both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. According to Schiffer, Sony's TR-63 radio "cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid-1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5 million units by the end of 1968. Sony co-founder Akio Morita founded Sony Corporation of America in 1960. In the process, he was struck by the mobility of employees between American companies, unheard of in Japan at that time; when he returned to Japan, he encouraged experienced, middle-aged employees of other companies to reevaluate their careers and consider joining Sony. The company filled many positions in this manner, inspired other Japanese companies to do the same. Moreover, Sony played a major role in the development of Japan as a powerful exporter during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
It helped to improve American perceptions of "made in Japan" products. Known for its production quality, Sony was able to charge above-market prices for its consumer electronics and resisted lowering prices. In 1971, Masaru Ibuka handed the position of president over to his co-founder Akio Morita. Sony began a life insurance company in one of its many peripheral businesses. Amid a global recession in the early 1980s, electronics sales dropped and the company was forced to cut prices. Sony's profits fell sharply. "It's over for Sony," one analyst concluded. "The company's best days are behind it." Around that time, Norio Ohga took up the role of president. He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, of the PlayStation in the early 1990s. Ohga went on to purchase CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989 expanding Sony's media presence. Ohga would succeed Morita as chief executive officer in 1989. Under the vision of co-founder Akio Morita and his successors, the company had aggressively expanded in