Memory Stick is a removable flash memory card format launched by Sony in late 1998. In addition to the original Memory Stick, this family includes the Memory Stick PRO, a revision that allows greater maximum storage capacity and faster file transfer speeds; as a proprietary format, Sony used Memory Stick on its products in the 2000s such as Cyber-shot digital cameras, Handycam digital camcorders, WEGA and Bravia TV sets, VAIO PCs and the PlayStation Portable handheld game console, with the format being licensed to a few other companies early in its lifetime. With increasing popularity of SD card, in 2010 Sony started to support the SD card format, seen as a Sony loss in the format war. Despite this, Sony continued to support Memory Stick on certain devices; the original Memory Stick, launched in October 1998, was available in sizes up to 128 MB. In October 1999 Sony licensed the technology to Fujitsu, Sanyo, Sharp and Kenwood, in a bid to avoid a repetition of the Betamax failure. Other companies were licensees to the format.
Some early examples of Memory Stick usage by third-party companies include Sharp's MP3 players, Alpine's in-dash players, Epson's printers. The format had a lukewarm reception, but it soon increased in popularity after the licensing deal. In spring 2001, Memory Stick attained 25% market share, up from 7% a year earlier. By May 2001, total shipment of Memory Stick units surpassed 10 million; however the SD card, jointly developed by Toshiba and SanDisk, became popular among companies and soon became the most popular flash format - by November 2003 it held 42% market share in the United States, ahead of CompactFlash's 26% and Memory Stick with 16%. Sony itself became the only company to support the format. Sony was criticized for the Memory Stick, as they were deemed to be expensive compared to other formats; as of January 2010, it appears that Sony is beginning to combine support for SD/SDHC and Memory Stick formats in their products. All digital cameras and camcorders announced by Sony at the 2010 Consumer Electronics Show can use SD and SDHC cards as well as Memory Sticks.
Furthermore, Sony is releasing its own line of SD cards. Many claim this development as the end of the format war between SD card. However, Sony did not abandon the format at this time, has indicated it will continue development of the format for the foreseeable future. A prime example is the development of WiFi transfers through a special Memory Stick Pro-Duo, still in development as of 2011. Memory Stick cards were entirely produced by Sony itself. SanDisk and Lexar were among few third-party Memory Stick producers. Memory Sticks are used as storage media for a portable device, in a form that can be removed for access by a personal computer. For example, Sony digital compact cameras use Memory Stick for storing image files. With a Memory Stick-capable Memory card reader a user can copy the pictures taken with the Sony digital camera to a computer. Sony included Memory Stick reader hardware in its first-party consumer electronics, such as digital cameras, digital music players, PDAs, cellular phones, the VAIO line of laptop computers, TV sets under the WEGA and Bravia names, Sony's handheld gaming device, the PlayStation Portable.
A special Memory Stick can be inserted in the hindquarters of Sony's AIBO robot pet, to enable the use of Aiboware—software intended for use on AIBOs. The Sticks include; these are referred to programming. Only 8 MB and 16 MB versions are available. Memory Sticks include a wide range including three different form factors; the original Memory Stick is the size and thickness of a stick of chewing gum. It was available in sizes from 4 MB to 128 MB, it was available both without MagicGate support. The MagicGate supporting memory sticks; the original Memory Stick is no longer manufactured. In response to the storage limitations of the original Memory Stick, Sony introduced the Memory Stick Select at CES 2003 on January 9; the Memory Stick Select was two separate 128 MB partitions which the user could switch between using a switch on the card. This solution was unpopular, but it did give users of older Memory Stick devices more capacity, its physical size was still the same as the original Memory Stick.
The Memory Stick PRO, introduced on January 9, 2003 as a joint effort between Sony and SanDisk, would be the longer-lasting solution to the space problem. Most devices that use the original Memory Sticks support both the original and PRO sticks since both formats have identical form factors; some readers that were not compatible could be upgraded to Memory Stick PRO support via a firmware update. Memory Stick PROs have a marginally higher transfer speed and a maximum theoretical capacity of 32 GB, although it appears capacities higher than 4 GB are only available in the PRO Duo form factor. High Speed Memory Stick PROs are available, newer devices support this high speed mode, allowing for faster file transfers. All Memory Stick PROs larger than 1 GB support this High Speed mode, High Speed Memory Stick Pros are backwards-compatible with devices that don't support the High Speed mode. High capacity memory Sticks such as the 4 GB versions are expensive compared to other types
Akio Morita was a Japanese businessman and co-founder of Sony along with Masaru Ibuka. Akio Morita was born in Nagoya, Japan. Morita's family was involved in sake and soy sauce production in the village of Kosugaya on the western coast of Chita Peninsula in Aichi Prefecture since 1665, he was the oldest of four siblings and his father Kyuzaemon trained him as a child to take over the family business. Akio, found his true calling in mathematics and physics, in 1944 he graduated from Osaka Imperial University with a degree in physics, he was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the Imperial Japanese Navy, served in World War II. During his service, Morita met his future business partner Masaru Ibuka in the Navy's Wartime Research Committee. On May 7, 1946, Ibuka founded Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha with about 20 employees and initial capital of ¥190,000. Ibuka was 38 years old. Morita, 25 years old joined Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha shortly after its inception, with Morita's family investing in Sony during the early period and being the largest shareholder.
In 1949, the company developed magnetic recording tape and in 1950, sold the first tape recorder in Japan. In 1957, it produced a pocket-sized radio, in 1958, Morita and Ibuka decided to rename their company Sony. Morita was an advocate for all the products made by Sony. However, since the radio was too big to fit in a shirt pocket, Morita made his employees wear shirts with larger pockets to give the radio a "pocket sized" appearance. In 1960, it produced the first transistor television in the world. In 1973, Sony received an Emmy Award for its Trinitron television-set technology. In 1975, it released the first Betamax home video recorder, a year. In 1979, the Walkman was introduced. In 1984, Sony launched the Discman series which extended their Walkman brand to portable CD products. In 1960, the Sony Corporation of America was established in the United States. In 1961, Sony Corporation was the first Japanese company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange, in the form of American depositary receipts, which are traded over-the-counter.
Sony bought CBS Records Group which consisted of Columbia Records, Epic Records and other CBS labels in 1988 and Columbia Pictures Entertainment in 1989. On November 25, 1994, Morita stepped down as Sony chairman after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage while playing tennis, he was succeeded by Norio Ohga, who had joined the company in the 1950s after sending Morita a letter denouncing the poor quality of the company's tape recorders. Morita was vice chairman of the Japan Business Federation, was a member of the Japan-U. S. Economic Relations Group known as the "Wise Men's Group", he was the third Japanese chairman of the Trilateral Commission. His amateur radio call sign is JP1DPJ. In 1966, Morita wrote a book called Gakureki Muyō Ron, where he stresses that school records are not important to success or one's business skills. In 1986, Morita wrote an autobiography titled Made in Japan, he co-authored the 1991 book The Japan That Can Say No with politician Shintaro Ishihara, where they criticized American business practices and encouraged Japanese to take a more independent role in business and foreign affairs.
The book was translated into English and caused controversy in the United States, Morita had his chapters removed from the English version and distanced himself from the book. Morita was awarded the Albert Medal by the United Kingdom's Royal Society of Arts in 1982, the first Japanese to receive the honor. Two years he received the prestigious Legion of Honour, in 1991, was awarded the First Class Order of the Sacred Treasure from the Emperor of Japan. In 1993, he was awarded an honorary British knighthood. Morita received the International Distinguished Entrepreneur Award from the University of Manitoba in 1987, he was posthumously awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun in 1999. Morita suffered a stroke during a game of tennis. On November 25, 1994, he stepped down as Sony chairman. On October 3, 1999, Morita died of pneumonia at the age of 78. Morita, Akio. Made in Japan Morita, Akio. Never Mind School Records Morita and Shintaro Ishihara; the Japan That Can Say No List of books authored by Akio Morita at WorldCat Quotations related to Akio Morita at Wikiquote Media related to Sony at Wikimedia Commons Akio Morita Library Time magazine, AKIO MORITA: Guru Of Gadgets Time Asia, Time 100: Akio Morita Sony Biographical notes PBS notes Full Biography at World of Biography
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
S/PDIF is a type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances. The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fibre optic cable with TOSLINK connectors. S/PDIF interconnects components in other digital high-fidelity systems. S/PDIF is based on the AES3 interconnect standard. S/PDIF can carry compressed 5.1 / 7.1 surround sound. S/PDIF is a data link layer protocol as well as a set of physical layer specifications for carrying digital audio signals between devices and components over either optical or electrical cable; the name stands for Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format but is known as Sony/Philips Digital Interface. Sony and Philips were the primary designers of S/PDIF. S/PDIF is standardized in IEC 60958 as IEC 60958 type II. A common use for the S/PDIF interface is to carry compressed digital audio for surround sound as defined by the standard IEC 61937; this mode is used to connect the output of a DVD player or computer, via optical or coax, to a home theatre amplifying receiver that supports Dolby Digital or DTS.
Another common use is to carry two channels of uncompressed digital audio from a CD player to an amplifying receiver. S/PDIF was developed at the same time as the main standard, AES3, used to interconnect professional audio equipment in the professional audio field; this resulted from the desire of the various standards committees to have at least sufficient similarities between the two interfaces to allow the use of the same, or similar, designs for interfacing ICs. S/PDIF remained nearly identical at the protocol level, but changed the physical connectors from XLR to either electrical coaxial cable or optical fibre, both of which cost less than the XLR connection; the RCA connectors are colour-coded orange to differentiate from other RCA connector uses such as composite video. The cable was changed from 110 Ω balanced twisted pair to 75 Ω coaxial cable, using RCA jacks. Signals transmitted over consumer-grade TOSLINK connections are identical in content to those transmitted over coaxial connectors, though TOSLINK S/PDIF exhibits higher jitter.
S/PDIF is used to transmit digital signals of a number of formats, the most common being the 48 kHz sample rate format and the 44.1 kHz format, used in CD audio. In order to support both systems, as well as others that might be needed, the format has no defined data rate. Instead, the data is sent using biphase mark code, which has either one or two transitions for every bit, allowing the original word clock to be extracted from the signal itself. S/PDIF is meant to be used for transmitting 20-bit audio data streams plus other related information. To transmit sources with less than 20 bits of sample accuracy, the superfluous bits will be set to zero. S/PDIF can transport 24-bit samples by way of four extra bits. S/PDIF protocol is identical to AES3 with one exception: the channel status bit differs in S/PDIF. Both protocols group 192 samples into an audio block, transmit one channel status bit per sample, providing one 192-bit channel status word per channel per audio block; the meaning of the channel status word is different between AES3 and S/PDIF.
For S/PDIF, the 192-bit status word is identical between the two channels and is divided into 12 words of 16 bits each, with the first 16 bits being a control code. Bits 8–14 of the control code are a 7-bit category code indicating the type of source equipment, bit 15 is the "L-bit", which indicates whether copy-restricted audio is original or a copy; the L-bit is only used. The L-bit polarity depends on the category, with recording allowed if it is 1 for DVD-R and DVR-RW, but 0 for CD-R, CD-RW, DVD. For plain CD-DA, the L-bit is not defined, recording is prevented by alternating bit 2 at a rate of 4–10 Hz; the receiver does not control the data rate, so it must avoid bit slip by synchronizing its reception with the source clock. Many S/PDIF implementations cannot decouple the final signal from influence of the source or the interconnect; the process of clock recovery used to synchronize reception may produce jitter. If the DAC does not have a stable clock reference noise will be introduced into the resulting analog signal.
However, receivers can implement various strategies. TOSLINK optical fiber, unlike coaxial cables, are immune to RF interference; the fiber core of TOSLINK, may suffer permanent damage if bent. ADAT Lightpipe Dolby Digital Plus I²S McASP Manchester code S/PDIF at Epanorama.net More about channel data bits Interfacing AES3 and S/PDIF
HDCAM, introduced in 1997, is a high-definition video digital recording videocassette version of digital Betacam, using an 8-bit discrete cosine transform compressed 3:1:1 recording, in 1080i-compatible down-sampled resolution of 1440×1080, adding 24p and 23.976 progressive segmented frame modes to models. The HDCAM codec uses rectangular pixels and as such the recorded 1440×1080 content is upsampled to 1920×1080 on playback; the recorded video bit rate is 144 Mbit/s. Audio is similar, with four channels of AES3 20-bit, 48 kHz digital audio. Like Betacam, HDCAM tapes are produced in large cassette sizes; the main competitor to HDCAM is the DVCPRO HD format offered by Panasonic. It uses a similar compression scheme and bit rates ranging from 40 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s depending on frame rate. HDCAM is standardized as SMPTE 367M known as SMPTE D-11. SMPTE 367M known as SMPTE D-11, is the SMPTE standard for HDCAM; the standard specifies compression of high-definition digital video. D11 source picture rates can be 24, 24/1.001, 25 or 30/1.001 frames per second progressive scan, or 50 or 60/1.001 fields per second interlaced.
Each D11 source frame is composed of a luminance channel at 1920 x 1080 pixels and a chrominance channel at 960 x 1080 pixels. During compression, each frame's luminance channel is subsampled at 1440 x 1080, while the chrominance channel is subsampled at 480 x 1080. HDCAM SR was introduced in 2003 and standardised in SMPTE 409M-2005, it uses a higher particle density tape and is capable of recording in 10 bits 4:2:2 or 4:4:4 RGB with a video bit rate of 440 Mbit/s, a total data rate of 600 Mbit/s. The increased bit rate allows HDCAM SR to capture much more of the full bandwidth of the HD-SDI signal; some HDCAM SR VTRs can use a 2× mode with an higher video bit rate of 880 Mbit/s, allowing for a single 4:4:4 stream at a lower compression or two 4:2:2 video streams simultaneously. HDCAM SR uses MPEG-4 Part 2 Simple Studio Profile for compression, expands the number of audio channels up to 12 at 48 kHz/24-bit. There are 12 channels of audio recorded uncompressed at 24 bit 48 kHz sampling; each channel is capable of recording AES3 non-audio data.
HDCAM SR is used for HDTV television production. As of 2007, many prime-time network television shows use HDCAM SR as a master recording medium; some HDCAM VTRs play back older Betacam variants, for example the Sony SRW-5500 HDCAM SR recorder plays back and records HDCAM and HDCAM SR tapes, with optional hardware plays and upconverts Digital Betacam tapes to HD format. Tape lengths are the same as for Digital Betacam, up to 40 minutes for S and 124 minutes for L tapes. In 24p mode the runtime increases to 155 minutes, respectively. HDCAM tapes are black with an orange lid, HDCAM SR tapes black with a cyan lid. 440 Mbit/s mode is known as SQ, 880 Mbit/s mode is known as HQ, this mode has become available in studio models as well as portable models available. In 2008 the SRW-5800 will give the "HQ" 4:4:4 option. Sony has announced a higher compression mode called "SR Lite"; as with the 440 and 880 mode, SR Lite utilizes the MPEG-4 Part 2 Simple Studio Profile but decreases the bit rate down to 220 Mbit/s for 60i and 183 Mbit/s for 50i.
SR Lite still maintains at 10 bit pixel depth. It allows for 50 and 60p at the cost of a doubled data rate; the Sony SRW-5800 HDCAM SR VTR has the ability to record both the left eye and right eye of 3D content to a single tape. It takes up twice as much space on the tape as a normal recording. Other HDSR decks support 3D such as the SRW-1 HDCAM SR Portable VTR and the SRW-5500/5000 which can play back either channel A or channel B of the Dual Stream 4:2:2 recording. XDCAM XAVC Guide To DTV Standards: Video Recording Overview of Digital Video Standards -- PowerPoint presentation
Exmor is the name of a technology Sony implemented on some of their CMOS image sensors. It performs on-chip analog/digital signal conversion and two-step noise reduction in parallel on each column of the CMOS sensor. Exmor R is a back-illuminated version of Sony's CMOS image sensor. Exmor R was announced by Sony on 11 June 2008 and was the world's first mass-produced implementation of the back-illuminated sensor technology Sony claims that Exmor R is twice as sensitive as a normal front illuminated sensor; this active pixel sensor is found in several Sony mobile phones and cameras as well as Apple's iPhone 2G and 5. The Exmor R sensor allows the camera of the smartphone to capture high definition movies and stills in low light areas. Exmor R was limited to smaller sensors for camcorders, compact cameras and mobile phones, but the Sony ILCE-7RM2 full-frame camera introduced on the 10 June 2015 features an Exmor R sensor as well. Exmor RS is a stacked CMOS image sensor announced by Sony on 20 August 2012.
Not Backlit + Not Stacked. Backlit + Not Stacked. Backlit + Stacked. Bionz – image processor HAD CCD – Sony Expeed – Nikon image/video processors Toshiba CMOS Samsung CMOS OmniVision
Rain Man is a 1988 American comedy-drama road movie directed by Barry Levinson and written by Barry Morrow and Ronald Bass. It tells the story of an abrasive, selfish young wheeler-dealer Charlie Babbitt, who discovers that his estranged father has died and bequeathed all of his multimillion-dollar estate to his other son, Raymond, an autistic savant, of whose existence Charlie was unaware. Charlie is left with collection of rose bushes. In addition to the two leads, Valeria Golino stars as Susanna. Morrow created the character of Raymond after a real-life savant. Rain Man was the highest-grossing film of 1988; the film won four Oscars at the 61st Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Original Screenplay, Best Director, Best Actor in a Leading Role for Hoffman. Its crew received an additional four nominations; the film won the Golden Bear at the 39th Berlin International Film Festival. Charlie Babbitt is in the middle of importing four Lamborghinis to Los Angeles for resale, he needs to deliver the vehicles to impatient buyers who have made down payments in order to repay the loan he took out to buy the cars, but the EPA is holding the cars at the port due to the cars failing emissions regulations.
Charlie directs an employee to lie to the buyers. When Charlie learns that his estranged father has died, he and his girlfriend Susanna travel to Cincinnati, Ohio, in order to settle the estate, he learns he is receiving the classic 1949 Buick Roadmaster convertible which he and his father fought over, but the bulk of the $3 million estate is going to an unnamed trustee. Through social engineering, he learns the money is being directed to a mental institution, where he meets his elder brother, Raymond Babbitt, of whom he was unaware. Raymond has savant syndrome and adheres to strict routines, he has superb recall. Charlie spirits Raymond out into a hotel for the night. Susanna becomes upset with the way Charlie leaves. Charlie asks Raymond's doctor, Dr. Gerald R. Bruner, for half the estate in exchange for Raymond's return, but he refuses. Charlie decides to attempt to gain custody of his brother. After Raymond refuses to fly back to Los Angeles, they set out on a cross-country road trip together.
They make slow progress because Raymond insists on sticking to his routines, which include watching Judge Wapner on television every day and getting to bed by 11:00 PM. He objects to traveling on the interstate after they pass a bad accident. During the course of the journey, Charlie learns more about Raymond, including that he is a mental calculator with the ability to count hundreds of objects at once, far beyond the normal range of human subitizing abilities, he learns that Raymond lived with the family when Charlie was young and he realizes that the comforting figure from his childhood, whom he falsely remembered as an imaginary friend named "Rain Man", was Raymond. He figures that Raymond was sent away to the institution after he bathed a young Charlie in hot water. After the Lamborghinis are seized by his creditor, Charlie finds himself $80,000 in the hole and hatches a plan to return to Las Vegas, which they passed the night before, win money at blackjack by counting cards. Though the casino bosses are skeptical that anyone can count cards with a six deck shoe, after reviewing security footage they ask Charlie and Raymond to leave.
Charlie has made over $86,000 to cover his debts and has reconciled with Susanna who rejoined them in Las Vegas. Back in Los Angeles, Charlie meets with Dr. Bruner, who offers him $250,000 to walk away from Raymond. Charlie refuses and says that he is no longer upset about what his father left him, but he wants to have a relationship with his brother. At a meeting with a court-appointed psychiatrist, Raymond is shown to be unable to decide for himself what he wants. Charlie tells Raymond he is happy to have him as his brother. Charlie takes Raymond to the train station where he boards an Amtrak train with Dr. Bruner to return to the mental institution. Charlie promises Raymond. Roger Birnbaum was the first studio executive to give the film a green light. Birnbaum received "special thanks" in the film's credits. Agents at CAA sent the script to Dustin Hoffman and Bill Murray, envisioning Murray in the title role and Hoffman in the role portrayed by Cruise. Martin Brest, Steven Spielberg, Sydney Pollack were directors involved in the film.
Mickey Rourke was offered a role but he turned it down. Principal photography included nine weeks of filming on location. Other portions were shot in the desert near California. All of the principal photography occurred during the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike. Bass delivered his last rough cut of the script only hours before the strike started and spent no time on the set; the film has an approval rating of 89% on Rotten Tomatoes and an average rating of 8/10, based on 75 reviews. The website's critical consensus states: "This road-trip movie about an autistic savant and his callow brother is far from seamless, but Barry Levinson's direction is impressive, strong performances from Tom Cruise and Dustin Hoffman add to its appeal." Metacritic gave the film a s