90482 Orcus, provisional designation 2004 DW, is a trans-Neptunian object with a large moon, Vanth. With a diameter of 917 km, it is a possible dwarf planet, it was discovered on 17 February 2004, by American astronomers Michael Brown of Caltech, Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory, David Rabinowitz of Yale University. Precovery images taken by the Palomar Observatory as early as 8 November 1951 were obtained from the Digitized Sky Survey. Orcus is a plutino, a trans-Neptunian object, locked in a 2:3 resonance with the ice giant Neptune, making two revolutions around the Sun to every three of Neptune's; this is much like Pluto, except that it is constrained to always be in the opposite phase of its orbit from Pluto: Orcus is at aphelion when Pluto is at perihelion and vice versa. Moreover, the aphelion of Orcus's orbit points in nearly the opposite direction from Pluto's, although the eccentricities and inclinations are similar; because of these similarities and contrasts, along with its large moon Vanth that recalls Pluto's large moon Charon, Orcus has been regarded as the anti-Pluto.
This was a major consideration in selecting its name, as the deity Orcus was the Etruscan equivalent of the Roman Pluto, became an alternate name for Pluto. The surface of Orcus is bright with albedo reaching 23 percent, neutral in color and water-rich; the ice is predominantly in crystalline form. Other compounds like methane or ammonia may be present; the existence of a satellite allowed astronomers to determine the mass of the system, equal to that of the Saturnian moon Tethys. The ratio of masses of Orcus and Vanth is uncertain anywhere from 1:33 to 1:12; the diameter of Orcus is estimated to be about 920 km and the diameter of Vanth about 276 km assuming similar albedo values for the primary and the satellite. A spatially resolved submillimeter imaging of Orcus–Vanth system in 2016 showed that Vanth has a large size of 920 km, with an uncertainty of 75 km; the size of the primary becomes smaller at 910 km. That estimate for Vanth is in good agreement with the size of about 442.5 km derived from a stellar occultation in 2017.
The minor planet Orcus was named after one of the Roman gods of Orcus. While Pluto was the ruler of the underworld, Orcus was a punisher of the condemned; the approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 26 November 2004. Under the guidelines of the International Astronomical Union's naming conventions, objects with a similar size and orbit to that of Pluto are named after underworld deities. Accordingly, the discoverers suggested naming the object after Orcus, the Etruscan god of the underworld and punisher of broken oaths, he was portrayed in paintings in Etruscan tombs as a bearded giant. The name was a private reference to the homonymous Orcas Island, where Brown's wife Diane had lived as a child and that they visit frequently. On 30 March 2005, Orcus's moon, was named after a winged female demon of the Etruscan underworld, she could be present at the moment of death, acted as a guide of the deceased to the underworld. The absolute magnitude of Orcus is 2.3. The detection of Orcus by the Spitzer Space Telescope in the far infrared and by Herschel Space Telescope in submillimeter constrains its diameter to 958.4 kilometres, with an uncertainty of 22.9 kilometres.
Orcus appears to have an albedo of about 21 percent to 25 percent, which may be typical of trans-Neptunian objects approaching the 1,000 km diameter range. The magnitude and size estimates were made under the assumption; the presence of a large satellite, may change them considerably. The absolute magnitude of Vanth is estimated at 4.88, which means that it is about 11 times fainter than Orcus itself. If the albedos of both bodies are the same at 23 percent, the estimated size of Orcus is about 917 km, the size of Vanth is about 276 km; the ALMA submillimeter measurements taken in 2016 showed that Vanth has a large size of 475 km with albedo of about 8 percent while Orcus's has a smaller size of 910 km. Using a stellar occultation by Vanth in 2017, Vanth's diameter has been determined to be 442.5 km, with an uncertainty of 10.2 km. Mike Brown's website lists Orcus as a dwarf planet with "near certainty", Tancredi concludes that it is one, is massive enough to be considered one under the 2006 draft proposal of the IAU, but the IAU has not formally recognized it as such.
Since Orcus is known to be a binary system, the mass of the system has been estimated to be ×1020 kg, or about 3.8 percent the mass of the most massive known dwarf planet, Eris. How this mass is partitioned between Orcus and Vanth depends of their relative sizes. If Vanth's diameter is about one third that of Orcus, its mass is only 3 percent of the system mass. On the other hand, if the size of Vanth is about half that of Orcus its mass could be as high as 1/12 of the system mass, or about 8 percent of the mass of Orcus; the density of the Orcus is about 1.53 g/cm3. The first spectroscopic observations in 2004 showed that the visible spectrum of Orcus is flat and featureless, whereas in the near-infrared there were moderately strong water absorption bands at 1.5 and 2.0 μm. The neutral visible spectrum and strong water absorption bands of Orcus showed that Orcus appeared different from other trans-Neptunian objects, which have a red visible spectrum and featureless
Angela Olive Carter, who published under the pen name Angela Carter, was an English novelist, short story writer and journalist, known for her feminist, magical realism, picaresque works. She is best known for her book The Bloody Chamber, published in 1979. In 2008, The Times ranked Carter tenth in their list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". In 2012, Nights at the Circus was selected as the best winner of the James Tait Black Memorial Prize. Born Angela Olive Stalker in Eastbourne, in 1940, to Sophia Olive and Hugh Alexander Stalker, Carter was evacuated as a child to live in Yorkshire with her maternal grandmother. After attending Streatham and Clapham High School, in south London, she began work as a journalist on The Croydon Advertiser, following in the footsteps of her father. Carter attended the University of Bristol where she studied English literature.. She married twice, first in 1960 to Paul Carter, divorcing in 1972. In 1969, she used the proceeds of her Somerset Maugham Award to leave her husband and relocate for two years to Tokyo, where she claims in Nothing Sacred that she "learnt what it is to be a woman and became radicalised".
She wrote about her experiences there in articles for New Society and a collection of short stories, Fireworks: Nine Profane Pieces, evidence of her experiences in Japan can be seen in The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffman. She explored the United States and Europe, helped by her fluency in French and German, she spent much of the late 1970s and 1980s as a writer in residence at universities, including the University of Sheffield, Brown University, the University of Adelaide, the University of East Anglia. In 1977, Carter met Mark Pearce, with whom she had one son and whom she married shortly before her death. In 1979, both The Bloody Chamber, her feminist essay, The Sadeian Woman and the Ideology of Pornography, appeared. In the essay, according to the writer Marina Warner, Carter "deconstructs the arguments that underlie The Bloody Chamber. It's about desire and its destruction, the self-immolation of women, how women collude and connive with their condition of enslavement, she was much more independent-minded than the traditional feminist of her time."As well as being a prolific writer of fiction, Carter contributed many articles to The Guardian, The Independent and New Statesman, collected in Shaking a Leg.
She adapted a number of her short stories for radio and wrote two original radio dramas on Richard Dadd and Ronald Firbank. Two of her fictions have been adapted for film: The Company of The Magic Toyshop, she was involved in both adaptations. These neglected works, as well as her controversial television documentary, The Holy Family Album, are discussed in Charlotte Crofts' book, Anagrams of Desire, her novel Nights at the Circus won the 1984 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for literature. Her last novel, Wise Children, is a surreal wild ride through British theatre and music hall traditions. At the time of her death, Carter had started work on a sequel to Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre based on the life of Jane's stepdaughter, Adèle Varens. Angela Carter died aged 51 in 1992 at her home in London after developing lung cancer. Shadow Dance The Magic Toyshop Several Perceptions Heroes and Villains Love The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffman The Passion of New Eve Nights at the Circus Wise Children Fireworks: Nine Profane Pieces The Bloody Chamber The Bridegroom Black Venus American Ghosts and Old World Wonders Burning Your Boats Five Quiet Shouters Unicorn Unicorn: The Poetry of Angela Carter Come Unto These Yellow Sands: Four Radio Plays The Curious Room: Plays, Film Scripts and an Opera The Donkey Prince Miss Z, the Dark Young Lady Comic and Curious Cats Moonshadow illustrated by Justin Todd Sea-Cat and Dragon King The Sadeian Woman and the Ideology of Pornography Nothing Sacred: Selected Writings Expletives Deleted: Selected Writings Shaking a Leg: Collected Journalism and Writing She wrote two entries in "A Hundred Things Japanese" published in 1975 by the Japan Culture Institute.
ISBN 0-87040-364-8 It says "She has lived in Japan both from 1969 to 1971 and during 1974". Wayward Girls and Wicked Women: An Anthology of Subversive Stories The Virago Book of Fairy Tales a.k.a. The Old Wives' Fairy Tale Book The Second Virago Book of Fairy Tales a.k.a. Strange Things Still Sometimes Happen: Fairy Tales From Around the World Angela Carter's Book of Fairy Tales The Fairy Tales of Charles Perrault Sleeping Beauty and Other Favourite Fairy Tales illustrated by Michael F
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
Not One of Us (magazine)
Not One Of Us is a small press horror and science fiction magazine published in Massachusetts, USA, four times a year. The first issue appeared in October 1986; the theme is "people or things out of place in their surroundings": outsiders, social misfits, aliens in the science-fictional sense—anyone excluded from society for whatever the reason. The magazine publishes poems that explore otherness from every possible angle. Not One of Us has published work by authors who have gone on to make names for themselves in the science fiction and horror small press, including Jennifer Rachel Baumer, HE Fassl, Patricia Russo, Sonya Taaffe. John Benson, editor Sonya Taaffe, website contributing editor Not One Of Us official website review of NOoU 37 in The Future Fire 9
Paradox: The Magazine of Historical and Speculative Fiction was a literary magazine featuring original short historical fiction in all of its forms up to novella length. This includes mainstream historical fiction as well as other genre fiction with historical themes. For example, works of alternate history, historical whodunnits, historical fantasy, period horror, time travel, Arthurian legend and retold myth appear in its pages; the magazine features original historical poetry, reviews of historical novels and films, interviews with notable historical novelists. Paradox was published quarterly, from April 2003 through January 2004, it was switched to a semiannual release schedule. Although Paradox is a print magazine, the editor experimented with publishing a bonus online issue in January 2004. On May 12, 2009, with the release of the thirteenth issue, the editor announced that Paradox would be ceasing publication as a print magazine. One distinctive aesthetic feature of the magazine is its use of historical artwork.
In addition to using newly commissioned art for a story's accompanying illustration, stories are illustrated by being matched with appropriate paintings or photographs by artists past. Vintage photographic portraits and U. S. Civil War and World War I photographs have been so employed in Paradox as have paintings by such artists as Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, George Bellows, William Bouguereau, Chǒng Sǒn, Gustave Doré, Rudolf Ernst, M. C. Escher, Jean-Léon Gérôme, John William Godward, Francisco Goya, David Roberts, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, J. M. W. Turner, Vincent van Gogh, George Frederick Watts, Wu Guxiang, among many others. Two stories published in 2006 in Paradox were among the seven short-form finalists for the 2006 Sidewise Award for Alternate History—"O, Pioneer" by Maya Kaathryn Bohnhoff and "The Meteor of the War" by Andrew Tisbert. One story published in 2008 was recommended for a Nebula Award: "Tucker Teaches the Clockies to Copulate" by David Erik Nelson."The Wizard of Macatawa" by Tom Doyle, published in Paradox issue 11, was the winner of the 2008 WSFA Small Press Award.
Christopher M. Cevasco, editor/publisher, 2003 to present Paradox has published fiction and poetry by both new authors and established professionals. Noted contributors have included: Cherith Baldry Maya Kaathryn Bohnhoff Marie Brennan Brenda Clough Jeff Crook Paul Finch Charles Coleman Finlay Eugie Foster Sarah Hoyt Sarah Monette Richard Mueller Darrell Schweitzer Brian Stableford Adam Stemple Sonya Taaffe Steve Rasnic Tem James Van Pelt Carrie Vaughn Jack Whyte Jane Yolen Interviews with historical novelists and writers, conducted by the editor of Paradox, are featured in the magazine. Noted authors interviewed have included: Piers Anthony Kevin Baker Bernard Cornwell Karen Essex Lois Tilton Connie Willis Registered as ISSN 1548-0593 with the United States Library of Congress
International Astronomical Union
The International Astronomical Union is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. Among other activities, it acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations and names to celestial bodies and any surface features on them; the IAU is a member of the International Council for Science. Its main objective is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation; the IAU maintains friendly relations with organizations that include amateur astronomers in their membership. The IAU has its head office on the second floor of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris in the 14th arrondissement of Paris. Working groups include the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, which maintains the astronomical naming conventions and planetary nomenclature for planetary bodies, the Working Group on Star Names, which catalogs and standardizes proper names for stars.
The IAU is responsible for the system of astronomical telegrams which are produced and distributed on its behalf by the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. The Minor Planet Center operates under the IAU, is a "clearinghouse" for all non-planetary or non-moon bodies in the Solar System; the Working Group for Meteor Shower Nomenclature and the Meteor Data Center coordinate the nomenclature of meteor showers. The IAU was founded on 28 July 1919, at the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council held in Brussels, Belgium. Two subsidiaries of the IAU were created at this assembly: the International Time Commission seated at the International Time Bureau in Paris and the International Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams seated in Copenhagen, Denmark; the 7 initial member states were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece and the United States, soon to be followed by Italy and Mexico. The first executive committee consisted of Benjamin Baillaud, Alfred Fowler, four vice presidents: William Campbell, Frank Dyson, Georges Lecointe, Annibale Riccò.
Thirty-two Commissions were appointed at the Brussels meeting and focused on topics ranging from relativity to minor planets. The reports of these 32 Commissions formed the main substance of the first General Assembly, which took place in Rome, Italy, 2–10 May 1922. By the end of the first General Assembly, ten additional nations had joined the Union, bringing the total membership to 19 countries. Although the Union was formed eight months after the end of World War I, international collaboration in astronomy had been strong in the pre-war era; the first 50 years of the Union's history are well documented. Subsequent history is recorded in the form of reminiscences of past IAU Presidents and General Secretaries. Twelve of the fourteen past General Secretaries in the period 1964-2006 contributed their recollections of the Union's history in IAU Information Bulletin No. 100. Six past IAU Presidents in the period 1976–2003 contributed their recollections in IAU Information Bulletin No. 104. The IAU includes a total of 12,664 individual members who are professional astronomers from 96 countries worldwide.
83% of all individual members are male, while 17% are female, among them the union's former president, Mexican astronomer Silvia Torres-Peimbert. Membership includes 79 national members, professional astronomical communities representing their country's affiliation with the IAU. National members include the Australian Academy of Science, the Chinese Astronomical Society, the French Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, the National Academies, the National Research Foundation of South Africa, the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, KACST, the Council of German Observatories, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Science Council of Japan, among many others; the sovereign body of the IAU is its General Assembly. The Assembly determines IAU policy, approves the Statutes and By-Laws of the Union and elects various committees; the right to vote on matters brought before the Assembly varies according to the type of business under discussion.
The Statutes consider such business to be divided into two categories: issues of a "primarily scientific nature", upon which voting is restricted to individual members, all other matters, upon which voting is restricted to the representatives of national members. On budget matters, votes are weighted according to the relative subscription levels of the national members. A second category vote requires a turnout of at least two-thirds of national members in order to be valid. An absolute majority is sufficient for approval in any vote, except for Statute revision which requires a two-thirds majority. An equality of votes is resolved by the vote of the President of the Union. Since 1922, the IAU General Assembly meets every three years, with the ex
Michael E. Brown
Michael E. Brown is an American astronomer, professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology since 2003, his team has discovered many trans-Neptunian objects, notably the dwarf planet Eris, thought to be bigger than Pluto. He has been referred to by himself and by others as the man who "killed Pluto", because he furthered Pluto being downgraded to a dwarf planet in the aftermath of his discovery of Eris and several other probable trans-Neptunian dwarf planets, he is the author of How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming, published in 2010. He was awarded the Kavli Prize in 2012 “for discovering and characterizing the Kuiper Belt and its largest members, work that led to a major advance in the understanding of the history of our planetary system.” Brown is a Huntsville, Alabama native and graduated from Virgil I. Grissom High School in 1983, he earned his A. B. in physics from Princeton University in 1987, where he was a member of the Princeton Tower Club. He did his graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley where he earned an M.
A. degree in astronomy in 1990 and a Ph. D. degree in astronomy in 1994. Michael Brown is credited by the Minor Planet Center with the discovery or co-discovery of 27 minor planets, he is best known in the scientific community for his surveys for distant objects orbiting the Sun. His team has discovered many trans-Neptunian objects. Notable are Eris, a dwarf planet and the only TNO known to be more massive than Pluto, leading directly to Pluto's demotion from planet status. Brown's team famously named Eris and its moon Dysnomia with the informal names Xena and Gabrielle after the two main characters of Xena: Warrior Princess. Together with Jean-Luc Margot in 2001, he discovered Romulus and Linus, two minor-planet moons in the asteroid belt. Brown and his team had been observing the dwarf planet Haumea for six months before its announced discovery by José Luis Ortiz Moreno and colleagues from the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain. Brown indicated his support for Ortiz's team being given credit for the discovery of Haumea.
However, further investigation showed that a website containing archives of where the telescopes of Brown's team had been pointed while tracking Haumea had been accessed eight times in the three days preceding Ortiz's announcement, by computers with IP addresses that were traced back to the website of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, where Ortiz works, to e-mail messages sent by Ortiz and his student. These website accesses came a week after Brown had published an abstract for an upcoming conference talk at which he had planned to announce the discovery of Haumea; when asked about this online activity, Ortiz responded with an email to Brown that suggested Brown was at fault for "hiding objects", said that "the only reason why we are now exchanging e-mail is because you did not report your object." Brown says that this statement by Ortiz contradicts the accepted scientific practice of analyzing one's research until one is satisfied that it is accurate submitting it to peer review prior to any public announcement.
However, the Minor Planet Center only needs precise enough orbit determination on the object in order to provide discovery credit, which Ortiz provided. The director of the IAA, José Carlos del Toro, distanced himself from Ortiz, insisting that its researchers have "sole responsibility" for themselves. Brown petitioned the International Astronomical Union to credit his team rather than Ortiz as the discoverers of Haumea; the IAU has deliberately not acknowledged a discoverer of Haumea. The discovery date and location are listed as March 2003 at Ortiz's Sierra Nevada Observatory. However, the IAU accepted Brown's suggested name of Haumea, which fit the names of Haumea's two moons, rather than Ortiz's Ataecina. In January 2016, Brown and fellow Caltech astronomer, Konstantin Batygin, proposed the existence of Planet Nine, a major planet between the size of Earth and Neptune; the two astronomers gave a recorded interview in which they described their method and reasoning for proposing Planet 9 on January 20, 2016.
In 2010 Brown published a memoir of his discoveries and surrounding family life, How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming. Brown was named one of Time's 100 most influential people of 2006. In 2007 he received Caltech's most prestigious teaching honor. Asteroid 11714 Mikebrown, discovered on 28 April 1998, was named in his honor. In 2012, Brown was awarded the Kavli Prize in Astrophysics. Brown's former graduate students and postdocs include astrophysicists Adam Burgasser, Jean-Luc Margot, Chad Trujillo, Marc Kuchner, Antonin Bouchez, Emily Schaller, Darin Ragozzine, Megan Schwamb. Brown married Diane Binney on March 1, 2003, they have Lilah Binney Brown. Konstantin Batygin Planet Nine Brown's homepage Michael E. Brown on IMDb Michael E. Brown on Twitter Mike Brown's planets Brown's blog The Search for Planet Nine Konstantin Batygin's and Brown's blog Brown's Talk on How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming Part