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Louis C. Spiering

Louis Clemens Spiering was an American architect and architecture professor based in St. Louis who worked on building designs for the St. Louis World's Fair of 1904 and other local commissions, he died at the age of 38. Louis Clemens Spiering was born in St. Louis in 1874, the middle of three children of Theresa Spiering and Ernst Spiering, a violinist and orchestra conductor, his elder brother Theodore became a violinist, his maternal grandfather was Karl Ludwig Bernays, a German-born Marxist journalist who changed his name to Charles Louis Bernays when he emigrated to St. Louis. Spiering attended Webster Public School and was sent to Berlin, for schooling at the Realgymnasium, from which he graduated in 1891. After two semesters studying architecture at the Berlin Royal School of Technology, he returned stateside to take up a position with Chicago architect William A. Otis. In 1895, Spiering returned to Europe to enter the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, from which he graduated in 1902. Along the way, he won a prize in sculpture at the École des Arts Décoratifs, he studied in the atelier of Noel-Marcel Lambert, the architect in charge of restoration at Versailles.

Although the Beaux-Arts style came to signify a type of neoclassicalism in architecture, a critic was to observe of Spiering that what he gained from his Paris training was a "freedom to design in whatever format he thought appropriate to the circumstances." In 1902, Spiering returned to St. Louis and took up a position as assistant to E. L. Masqueray, the chief of design for the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, better known as the St. Louis World's Fair. For the succeeding eighteen months, Spiering worked on a wide range of elements for the fair, including the general layout of the grounds and specific buildings such as the Palais du Costume, the wireless telegraph tower, the express office, the horticulture building, the restaurant pavilions and colonnades on Art Hill, he was Superintending Architect for the French and Austrian governments' buildings. Spiering opened his own practice in 1903. Among his local commissions were a new building for the Artists Guild, the Soulard Branch Library, the Sheldon Memorial Building for the St. Louis Ethical Society, now a concert hall.

He set up a design studio in the then-new architecture program at Washington University and ran evening classes for working draftspeople. He was a member of the American Institute of Architects. Spiering fell ill in 1910 and never recovered, dying two years later

Color terminology for race

Identifying human races in terms of skin color, at least as one among several physiological characteristics, has been common since antiquity. Via rabbinical literature, the division is received in early modern scholarship in four to five categories, it was long recognized that the number of categories is subjective. François Bernier doubted the validity of using skin color as a racial characteristic, Charles Darwin emphasized the gradual differences between categories; the modern categorization was coined at the Göttingen School of History in the late 18th century – in parallel with the Biblical terminology for race – dividing mankind into five colored races: "Aethiopian or Black","Caucasian or White","Mongolian or Yellow","American or Red" and "Malayan or Brown" subgroups. Categorization of racial groups by reference to skin color is common in classical antiquity, it is found in e.g. Physiognomica, a Greek treatise dated to c. 300 BC. The transmission of the "color terminology" for race from antiquity to early anthropology in 17th century Europe took place via rabbinical literature.

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer contains the division of mankind into three groups based on the three sons of Noah, viz. Shem and Japheth: "He blessed Shem and his sons, dark but comely, he gave them the habitable earth, he blessed Ham and his sons, dark like the raven, he gave them as an inheritance the coast of the sea. He blessed Japheth and his sons, them white, he gave them for an inheritance the desert and its fields" This division in Rabbi Eliezer and other rabbinical texts is received by Georgius Hornius. In Hornius' scheme, the Japhetites are "white", the Aethiopians and Chamae are "black", the Indians and Semites are "brownish-yellow", while the Jews, following Mishnah Sanhedrin, are exempt from the classification being neither black nor white but "light brown". François Bernier in a short article published anonymously in 1684 moves away from the "Noahide" classification, proposes to consider large subgroups of mankind based not on geographical distribution but on physiological differences.

Writing in French, Bernier uses the term race, or synonymously espece "kind, species", where Hornius had used tribus "tribe" or populus "people". Bernier explicitly rejects a categorization based on skin colour, arguing that the dark skin of Indians is due to exposure to the Sun only, that the yellowish colour of some Asians, while a genuine feature, is not sufficient to establish a separate category. Instead his first category comprises most of Europe, the Near East and North Africa, including populations in the Nile Valley and the Indian peninsula he describes as being of a near "black" skin tone due to the effect of the sun, his second category includes most of Sub-Saharan Africa, again not based on skin colour but on physiological features such as the shape of nose and lips. His third category includes Southeast Asia and Japan as well as part of Tatarstan. Members of this category are described as white, the categorization being based on facial features rather than skin colour, his fourth category are the Lapps, described as a savage race with faces reminiscent of bears.

The natives of the Americas are considered as a fifth category, described as of "olive" skin tone. The author furthermore considers the possible addition of more categories the "blacks of the Cape of Good Hope", which seemed to him to be of different build from most other populations below the Sahara. In the 1730s, Carl Linnaeus in his introduction of systematic taxonomy recognized four main human subspecies, termed Americanus, Europaeus and Afer; the physical appearance of each type is described, including colour adjectives referring to skin and hair colour: rufus "red" and pilis nigris "black hair" for Americans, albus "white" and pilis flavescentibus "yellowish hair" for Europeans, luridus "yellowish, sallow", pilis nigricantibus "swarthy hair" for Asians, niger "black", pilis atris "coal-black hair" for Africans. The views of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach on the categorization of the major races of mankind developed over the course of the 1770s to 1820s, he introduced a four-fold division in 1775, extended to five in 1779 borne out in his work on craniology.

He used color not as the name or main label of the races but as part of the description of their physiology. Blumenbach gives their geographic distribution; the color adjectives used in 1779 are weiss "white", gelbbraun "yellow-brown", schwarz "black", kupferroth "copper-red" and schwarzbraun "black-brown". According to D'Souza, it was "Blumenbach's classification" which had a lasting influence, being memorable because it "neatly broke down into familiar tones and colors". However, according to Barkhaus it was the adoption of both the colour terminology and the French term race by Immanuel Kant in 1775 which proved influential. Kant published an essay Von den verschiedenen Racen der Menschen "On the diverse races of mankind" in 1775, based on the system proposed by Buffon, Histoire Naturelle, in which he recognized f

Remora

The remoras, sometimes called suckerfish, are a family of ray-finned fish in the order Carangiformes. Depending on species, they grow to 30–110 cm long, their distinctive first dorsal fins take the form of a modified oval, sucker-like organ with slat-like structures that open and close to create suction and take a firm hold against the skin of larger marine animals. The disk is made up of flexible membranes that can be raised and lowered to generate suction. By sliding backward, the remora can increase the suction, or it can release itself by swimming forward. Remoras sometimes attach to small boats, have been observed attaching to divers as well, they swim well with a sinuous, or curved, motion. Remora front dorsal fins have evolved to enable them to adhere by suction to smooth surfaces and they spend their lives clinging to a host animal such as a whale, shark or ray, it is a mutualistic arrangement as the remora can move around on the host, removing ectoparasites and loose flakes of skin, while benefiting from the protection provided by the host and the constant flow of water across its gills.

Although it was believed that remoras fed off particulate matter from the host's meals, this has been shown to be false. Remoras are tropical open-ocean dwellers, but are found in temperate or coastal waters if they have attached to large fish that have wandered into these areas. In the mid-Atlantic Ocean, spawning takes place in June and July; the sucking disc begins to show. When the remora reaches about 3 cm, the disc is formed and the remora can attach to other animals; the remora's lower jaw projects beyond the upper, the animal lacks a swim bladder. Some remoras associate with specific host species, they are found attached to sharks, manta rays, whales and dugongs, hence the common names "sharksucker" and "whalesucker". Smaller remoras fasten onto fish such as tuna and swordfish, some small remoras travel in the mouths or gills of large manta rays, ocean sunfish and sailfish; the relationship between a remora and its host is most taken to be one of commensalism phoresy. Research into the physiology of the remora has been of significant benefit to the understanding of ventilation costs in fish.

Remoras, like many other fishes, have two different modes of ventilation. Ram ventilation is the process in which at higher speeds, the remora uses the force of the water moving past it to create movement of fluid in the gills. Alternatively, at lower speeds the remora will use a form of active ventilation, in which the fish moves fluid through its gills. In order to use active ventilation, a fish must use energy to move the fluid; as a result, the remora has proved invaluable in finding this cost difference. Experimental data from studies on remora found that the associated cost for active ventilation created a 3.7–5.1% increased energy consumption in order to maintain the same quantity of fluid flow the fish obtained by using ram ventilation. Other research into the remora's physiology came about as a result of studies across multiple taxa, or using the remora as an out-group for certain evolutionary studies. Concerning the latter case, remoras were used as an outgroup when investigating tetrodotoxin resistance in remoras and related species, finding remoras had a resistance of 6.1–5.5×10−8 M.

Some cultures use remoras to catch turtles. A cord or rope is fastened to the remora's tail, when a turtle is sighted, the fish is released from the boat. Smaller turtles can be pulled into the boat by this method, while larger ones are hauled within harpooning range; this practice has been reported throughout the Indian Ocean from eastern Africa near Zanzibar and Mozambique, from northern Australia near Cape York and Torres Strait. Similar reports come from the Americas; some of the first records of the "fishing fish" in the Western literature come from the accounts of the second voyage of Christopher Columbus. However, Leo Wiener considers the Columbus accounts to be apocryphal: what was taken for accounts of the Americas may have been, in fact, notes Columbus derived from accounts of the East Indies, his desired destination. In ancient times, the remora was believed to stop a ship from sailing. In Latin, remora means "delay", while the genus name Echeneis comes from Greek εχειν, echein and ναυς, naus.

In a notable account by Pliny the Elder, the remora is blamed for the defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium and, for the death of Caligula. A modern version of the story is given by Jorge Luis Borges in Book of Imaginary Beings. List of fish families

Otávio Della

Otávio Della is a former professional tennis player from Brazil, now a tennis administrator. Della played on the Challenger circuit, but made some appearances on the Grand Prix tennis circuit and ATP Tour, he twice participated in the Guarujá Open and in 1988 made it into the second round, with a win over Swede Ronnie Båthman. The Brazilian played at the 1989 Citibank Open in Itaparica, where he was defeated in the opening round by Todd Witsken of the United States, he had more success as a doubles player, winning five Challenger titles and making quarter-finals at Umag in 1990 and Bogota in 1994

Arne Glimcher

Arnold "Arne" Glimcher is an American art dealer, film producer and director. He is the founder of The Pace Gallery. Glimcher has produced and directed several films, including The Mambo Kings and Just Cause. Glimcher was born in Minnesota, he was the youngest of four and spent a lot of his spare time alone and painting. He graduated from Massachusetts College of Art and Design and Boston University. In 1960, Glimcher founded the Pace Gallery in Boston. In 1963, he moved the gallery to New York City. In 1980, he sold Jasper Johns's Three Flags to the Whitney Museum of American Art for $1 million, the first time a work by a living artist had commanded seven figures. Today, the Pace Gallery represents contemporary artists including Chuck Close, Tara Donovan, David Hockney, Maya Lin and Kiki Smith, it represents the estates of several artists, including Pablo Picasso, Agnes Martin, Ad Reinhardt, Alexander Calder. Today, serves as Chairman of the Pace Gallery. During his career he has worked with important artists, including Jean Dubuffet, Robert Rauschenberg, Louise Nevelson, Lucas Samaras.

In 2007, Glimcher received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the Massachusetts College of Art and Design. Glimcher made his feature-film debut, appearing in a small role in Robert Benton's 1982 film Still of the Night, he served as an associate producer for Ivan Reitman's 1986 film Legal Eagles and went to produce Gorillas in the Mist, The Good Mother, both released in 1988. Glimcher made his directorial debut with the 1992 film The Mambo Kings; the film, based on Oscar Hijuelos' book The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love, received widespread critical acclaim. Glimcher received an Academy Award Best Original Song nomination for the film's original song, Beautiful Maria of My Soul, nominated for a Golden Globe Award in the same category. Glimcher directed the 1995 film Just Cause starring Sean Connery and Laurence Fishburne to a much more mixed reception. In 1999, Glimcher directed The White River Kid which featured an ensemble cast, including Antonio Banderas from The Mambo Kings. In 2008, he directed the documentary film Picasso and Braque Go to the Movies.

Glimcher is married to Molly Cooper. They maintain residencies in New York's Upper East Side and East Hampton, where their holiday home was designed by Ulrich Franzen in 1983. Arne Glimcher on IMDb Cubism as Film Adaptation, The Wall Street Journal, 27 May 2010