Euphronios was an ancient Greek vase painter and potter, active in Athens in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC. As part of the so-called Pioneer Group, Euphronios was one of the most important artists of the red-figure technique. His works place him at the transition from Late Archaic to Early Classical art, in contrast to other artists, such as sculptors, no Ancient Greek literature sources refer specifically to vase painters. The copious literary tradition on the arts hardly mention pottery, thus reconstruction of Euphronioss life and artistic development—like that of all Greek vase painters—can only be derived from his works. Modern scientific study of Greek pottery began near the end of the 18th century, the discovery of the first signature of Euphronios in 1838 revealed that individual painters could be identified and named, so that their works might be ascribed to them. This led to a study of painters signatures, and by the late 19th century. The archaeologist John D. Beazley used these compendia as a point for his own work.
He systematically described and catalogued thousands of Attic black-figure and red-figure vases and sherds, in three key volumes on Attic painters, Beazley achieved a taxonomy that remains mostly valid to this day. He listed all known painters who produced works of art which can always be unmistakably ascribed. Today, most painters are identified, though their names remain unknown Euphronios must have been born around 535 BC. Most Attic pottery was painted in the black-figure style. Much of the Athenian pottery production of time was exported to Etruria. Most of the extant Attic pottery has been recovered as grave goods from Etruscan tombs, at the time, vase painting received major new impulses from potters such as Nikosthenes and Andokides. The Andokides workshop began the production of red-figure pottery around 530 BC, the new red-figure technique began to replace the older black-figure style. Euphronios was to one of the most important representatives of early red-figure vase painting in Athens.
Together with a few other young painters, modern scholarship counts him as part of the Pioneer Group of red-figure painting. Euphronios appears to have started painting vases around 520 BC, probably under the tutelage of Psiax, Euphronios himself was to have a major influence on the work of his erstwhile master, as well as on that of several other older painters. Later he worked in the workshop of the potter Kachrylion, under supervision of the painter Oltos, the latter aspects particularly indicate a close link with Psiax, who painted in a similar style
Corpus vasorum antiquorum
Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum is an international research project for ceramic documentation of the classical area. CVA is the first and oldest research project of the Union Académique Internationale, the first project meeting was organized by Edmond Pottier in Paris in 1919. The final decision was to publish a catalogue of ancient Greek vases. He was the publisher of the first fascicle for the Louvre in 1922, at that time six countries were part of the project. Today the project covers a compendium of more than 100,000 vases located in collections of 26 participating countries, at present day only public collections located in museums are added to the catalogue. Every participating country is responsible for its own scope, while the Union Académique Internationale in Brussels has the patronage traditionally led by a French scientist. Currently in charge is Juliette de La Genière, the CVA publishes Greek and Italian ceramics of the classical period between the seventh millennium B. C. and the late Antiquity.
The publications are divided into fascicles by country and museum, by the end of 2007 a total of 350 volumes consisting of 40,000 fascicles were published. One of the largest amounts of publications was done in Germany,84 volumes and 3 supplements, since 2004 all textual descriptions and images are freely accessible as a web-based database. Languages allowed for publication are English, French and Italian, further publication rules have to be fulfilled. This often requires a restoration of the actual objects, for example, fragments have to be distinctively different from restored parts. For older restorations this is not the case. The documentation of a vessel is done in several steps, first the vessel is described in its overall condition followed by an iconographic interpretation. If possible an artist or a workshop will be determined, integral parts of the documentation are photographs and hand-drawings depending on the condition of the vessel and the projects budget. The Austrian commission used for the first-time of the CVA a 3D-Scanner for documentation of vessel shapes, a follow-up project using 3D-Acquisition has been granted.
The last step of the documentation is a chronologic classification, art in Ancient Greece Pottery of ancient Greece Colloque International sur le Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, compte rendu réd. par Charles Dugas. Summary guide to Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, compiled by Thomas H. Carpenter, kurtz, A corpus of ancient vases
Pottery of ancient Greece
The shards of pots discarded or buried in the 1st millennium BC are still the best guide available to understand the customary life and mind of the ancient Greeks. There were various specific regional varieties, such as the South Italian ancient Greek pottery, throughout these places, various types and shapes of vases were used. Some were highly decorative and meant for consumption and domestic beautification as much as serving a storage or other function. As the culture recovered Sub-Mycenaean pottery finally blended into the Protogeometric style, the rise of vase painting saw increasing decoration. Geometric art in Greek pottery was contiguous with the late Dark Age and early Archaic Greece, the pottery produced in Archaic and Classical Greece included at first black-figure pottery, yet other styles emerged such as red-figure pottery and the white ground technique. Styles such as West Slope Ware were characteristic of the subsequent Hellenistic period, interest in Greek art lagged behind the revival of classical scholarship during the Renaissance and revived in the academic circle round Nicholas Poussin in Rome in the 1630s.
Though modest collections of vases recovered from ancient tombs in Italy were made in the 15th and 16th centuries these were regarded as Etruscan. It is possible that Lorenzo de Medici bought several Attic vases directly from Greece and it was Gerhard who first outlined the chronology we now use, Orientalizing, Black Figure, Red Figure, Polychromatic. Where the 19th century was a period of discovery and the out of first principles the 20th century has been one of consolidation. Efforts to record and publish the totality of public collections of vases began with the creation of the Corpus vasorum antiquorum under Edmond Pottier and others following him have studied fragments of Greek pottery in institutional collections, and have attributed many painted pieces to individual artists. Scholars have called these fragments disjecta membra and in a number of instances have been able to identify fragments now in different collections that belong to the same vase, some vase shapes were especially associated with rituals, others with athletics and the gymnasium.
Within each category the forms are roughly the same in scale and whether open or closed, some have a purely ritual function, for example white ground lekythoi contained the oil used as funerary offerings and appear to have been made solely with that object in mind. Many examples have a second cup inside them to give the impression of being full of oil. There was a market for Greek pottery since the 8th century BC. An idea of the extent of trade can be gleaned from plotting the find maps of these vases outside of Greece. Only the existence of a second hand market could account for the number of found in Etruscan tombs. South Italian wares came to dominate the trade in the Western Mediterranean as Athens declined in political importance during the Hellenistic period. The process of making a pot and firing it is fairly simple, the first thing a potter needs is clay
The ancient Cycladic culture flourished in the islands of the Aegean Sea from 3300 –1100 BCE. Along with the Minoan civilization and Mycenaean Greece, the Cycladic people are counted among the three major Aegean cultures, Cycladic art therefore comprises one of the three main branches of Aegean art. Almost all information known regarding Neolithic art of the Cyclades comes from the site of Saliagos off Antiparos. Pottery of this period is similar to that of Crete and the Greek mainland, sinclair Hood writes, A distinctive shape is a bowl on a high foot comparable with a type which occurs in the mainland Late Neolithic. These marble figures are scattered around the Aegean, suggesting that these figures were popular amongst the people of Crete. Perhaps the most famous of these figures are musicians, one a harp-player the other a pipe-player, dating to approximately 2500 BCE, these musicians are sometimes considered “the earliest extant musicians from the Aegean. However, this may be a misconception as there is evidence that the idols were originally brightly painted. A majority of the figurines are female, depicted nude, and with arms folded across the stomach, although some archeologists would agree, this interpretation is not generally agreed on by archeologists, among whom there is no consensus on their significance.
They have been interpreted as idols of the gods, images of death, childrens dolls. One authority feels they were more than dolls and probably less than sacrosanct idols, suggestions that these images were idols in the strict sense—cult objects which were the focus of ritual worship—are unsupported by any archeological evidence. What the archeological evidence does suggest is that images were regularly used in funerary practice. Yet at least some of them show signs of having been repaired. Furthermore, larger figures were broken up so that only part of them was buried. The figures apparently were buried equally with men and women. Such figures were not found in every grave, while the idols are most frequently found laid on their backs in graves, larger examples may have been set up in shrines or dwelling places. Early Cycladic art is divided into three periods, the art is by no means confined to one of these periods. The art of EC I is best represented on the islands of Paros and Amorgos, while EC II is primarily seen on Syros, the most important earliest groups are Pelos and Louros.
Pelos figurines are of schematic type, both males and females, in standing position with a head and face, compose the Plastiras type, the rendering is naturalistic but strangely stylized
Bilingual vase painting
Bilingual vase painting is a special form of ancient Greek vase painting. The term, derived from linguistics, is essentially a metaphorical one and their appearance may be due to the initial uncertainty of the market for the new red-figure style, although that style subsequently became dominant rather fast. Bilingual vase painting was almost entirely restricted to belly amphorae of type B, in some cases, either side of an amphora bore a depiction of the same motif, one in black-figure, the other in red-figure. Eye-cups usually feature an image on the interior, and red-figure motifs on the external surface. An exception to this is a kylix by the Andokides Painter in Palermo, on which the exterior is painted half in black-figure, apart from the Andokides Painter, bilingual works were produced primarily by Psiax, as well as by Epiktetos and Oltos. Usually, both paintings on one vase are produced by the same artist, in some cases, this is controversial. Irma Wehgartner, Bilingue Vasen, in Der Neue Pauly Vol.2, black figure side of Bilingual vase and Herakles.
Black figure side of Bilingual vase, Herakles & sacrificial bull
Such pinakes feature in the classical collections of most comprehensive museums. To the ancient Greeks pinax seems to have been a term for a plate. In daily life pinax might equally denote a wax-covered writing tablet, in Christian contexts, painted icons are pinakes. The term pinacotheca for a picture gallery derives from such usages, when they are recovered by archaeologists, painted wooden pinakes have usually lost all but faint traces of their painted images - the Pitsa panels being the outstanding exception. Moulded terracotta pinakes were brightly painted, a few elaborate gold plaques have survived from the 7th century BC, many made in Rhodes, with deity figures, especially Artemis, shown in an orientalizing Daedalic style. They often have two holes for a cord, and are shown in vase-paintings both hanging on temple walls, and suspended from trees in the sanctuary area. The Roman architect Vitruvius mentions the pinakes in the cellas of temples, such a collection was a pinakothek, which is a modern German term for an art museum, such as the Alte Pinakothek of Munich.
At Locri in southern Italy, thousands of carefully buried pinakes have been recovered, another large group of over 1,000 pottery pinakes was found at the site of Penteskouphia, just outside Corinth. These are mostly in the Antikensammlung Berlin, with some in Corinth, as well as the usual religious scenes, some of these show depictions of potters at work. Berlin has a group of fragments from the Kerameikos cemetery in Athens. In Etruscan art, rather larger terracotta plaques than are typical in Greek art have found in tombs. Wealthy Etruscan families often had tombs with painted walls, which the Greeks did not, the Boccanera tomb at the Banditaccia necropolis at Cerveteri contained five panels almost a metre high set round the wall, which are now in the British Museum. Three of them form a scene, apparently the Judgement of Paris. They date to about 560 BC, fragments of similar panels have been found in city centre sites, presumably from temples, elite houses and other buildings, where the subjects include scenes of everyday life.
Corpus vasorum antiquorum Ex-voto Grave goods Votive site Boardman, John ed, the Oxford History of Classical Art,1993, OUP, ISBN0198143869 Ulrich Hausmann,1960. Masterpieces of Classical Art,2009, British Museum Press, ISBN9780714122540 Marilyn B, skinner and Women’s Cult at Locri
It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a collection of narratives. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a variety of gods, heroes, heroines. These accounts initially were disseminated in a tradition, today the Greek myths are known primarily from ancient Greek literature. The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homers epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on the Trojan War, archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles, in the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an influence on the culture, arts. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes, Greek mythology is known today primarily from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c.
Mythical narration plays an important role in every genre of Greek literature. Nevertheless, the only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus and this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens lived from c, 180–125 BC and wrote on many of these topics. His writings may have formed the basis for the collection, however the Library discusses events that occurred long after his death, among the earliest literary sources are Homers two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the cycle, but these and lesser poems now are lost almost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the Homeric Hymns have no connection with Homer. They are choral hymns from the part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiods Works and Days, a poem about farming life, includes the myths of Prometheus, Pandora. The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, lyrical poets often took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became gradually less narrative and more allusive.
Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, and bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, myth was central to classical Athenian drama
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object. A wide variety of styles and motifs have been developed for architecture. In textiles and other objects where the decoration may be the justification for its existence. The vast range of used in ornament draw from geometrical shapes and patterns, plants. In a 1941 essay, the architectural historian Sir John Summerson called it surface modulation, the earliest decoration and ornament often survives from prehistoric cultures in simple markings on pottery, where decoration in other materials has been lost. Ornament implies that the object has a function that an unornamented equivalent might fulfill. Where the object has no function, but exists only to be a work of art such as a sculpture or painting. In recent centuries a distinction between the arts and applied or decorative arts has been applied, with ornament mainly seen as a feature of the latter class. Ornament increased over the Romanesque and Gothic periods, but was reduced in Early Renaissance styles.
While the concept of the Kunstwollen has few followers today, his analysis of the development of forms has been confirmed and refined by the wider corpus of examples known today. Styles of ornamentation can be studied in reference to the culture which developed unique forms of decoration. The Ancient Egyptian culture is arguably the first civilization to add decoration to their buildings. Their ornament takes the forms of the world in that climate, decorating the capitals of columns and walls with images of papyrus. Assyrian culture produced ornament which shows influence from Egyptian sources and a number of themes, including figures of plants. Ancient Greek civilization created many new forms of ornament, with variations from Doric, Ionic. The Romans Latinized the pure forms of the Greek ornament and adapted the forms to every purpose, a few medieval notebooks survive, most famously that of Villard de Honnecourt showing how artists and craftsmen recorded designs they saw for future use. As printing became cheaper, the single ornament print turned into sets, from the 16th to the 19th century, pattern books were published in Europe which gave access to decorative elements, eventually including those recorded from cultures all over the world.
Napoleon had the great pyramids and temples of Egypt documented in the Description de lEgypte, owen Jones published The Grammar of Ornament in 1856 with colored illustrations of decoration from Egypt, Turkey and Spain
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Attica is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece. The historical region is centered on the Attic peninsula, which projects into the Aegean Sea, the modern administrative region of Attica is more extensive than the historical region and includes the Saronic Islands and the municipality of Troizinia on the Peloponnesian mainland. The history of Attica is tightly linked with that of Athens, Attica is a triangular peninsula jutting into the Aegean Sea. It is naturally divided to the north from Boeotia by the 10 mi long Cithaeron mountain range, to the west, it is bordered by the sea and the canal of Corinth. The Saronic Gulf lies to the south, and the island of Euboea lies off the north, mountains separate the peninsula into the plains of Pedias and Thriasion. The mountains of Attica are the Hymettus, the portion of the Geraneia, the Parnitha, the Aigaleo. Four mountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha and Hymettus —delineate the hilly plain on which the Athens-Piraeus metroplex now spreads, Athens water reservoir, Lake Marathon, is an artificial lake created by damming in 1920.
Pine and fir forests cover the area around Parnitha, Penteli and Laurium are forested with pine trees, whereas the rest are covered by shrubbery. The Kifisos is the longest river of Attica, according to Plato, Atticas ancient boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, toward the continent, they extended as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes. The boundary line came down toward the sea, bounded by the district of Oropus on the right, during antiquity, the Athenians boasted about being autochthonic, which is to say that they were the original inhabitants of the area and had not moved to Attica from another place. The traditions current in the classical period recounted that, during the Greek Dark Ages, Attica had become the refuge of the Ionians, who belonged to a tribe from the northern Peloponnese. Supposedly, the Ionians had been forced out of their homeland by the Achaeans, the Ionians integrated with the ancient Atticans, afterward, considered themselves part of the Ionian tribe and spoke the Ionian dialect.
Many Ionians left Attica to colonize the Aegean coast of Asia Minor, during the Mycenaean period, the Atticans lived in autonomous agricultural societies. The main places where prehistoric remains were found are Marathon, Nea Makri, Thorikos, Agios Kosmas, Menidi, Spata, all of these settlements flourished during the Mycenaean period. According to tradition, Attica comprised twelve small communities during the reign of Cecrops, strabo assigns these the names of Cecropia, Epacria, Eleusis, Thoricus, Cytherus, Sphettus and possibly Phaleron. These were said to have been incorporated in an Athenian state during the reign of Theseus. Modern historians consider it likely that the communities were progressively incorporated into an Athenian state during the 8th. Until the 6th century BC, aristocratic families lived independent lives in the suburbs, only after Peisistratoss tyranny and the reforms implemented by Cleisthenes did the local communities lose their independence and succumb to the central government in Athens