A state forest is a forest that is administered or protected by some agency of a sovereign or federated state, or territory. The precise application of the term varies by jurisdiction, for example, In Australia, it is forest that is protected by state laws, rather than by the Government of Australia. In Poland, state-owned forests are managed by the State Forests agency In the United Kingdom, in the United States, it is a forest owned by one of the individual states. The purpose of a state forest varies between countries and the quality of the landscape it covers, in most places, state forests are divided into land for logging plantations, area for conservation, area for livestock grazing and area for visitor recreation. List of types of formally designated forests
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Sequoioideae is subfamily of coniferous trees within the family Cupressaceae. It is most common in the forests of Northern California. The three redwood subfamily genera are Sequoia and Sequoiadendron of California and Oregon, United States, the redwood species contains the largest and tallest trees in the world. These trees can live thousands of years and this is an endangered subfamily due to habitat losses from fire ecology suppression and air pollution. Only two of the genera and Sequoiadendron, are known for massive trees, with the living species Metasequoia glyptostroboides, are much smaller. The tallest tree in the world is a Sequoia sempervirens, the Hyperion Tree, the largest tree in the world, by volume, is a Sequoiadendron giganteum, the General Sherman Tree. Multiple studies of both morphological and molecular characters have strongly supported the assertion that the Sequoioideae are monophyletic, most modern phylogenies place Sequoia as sister to Sequoiadendron and Metasequoia as the out-group.
Polyploidy has come to be understood as quite common in plants—with estimates ranging from 47% to 100% of flowering plants, within the gymnosperms however it is quite rare. To investigate the origins of this polyploidy Yang et al. used two single copy nuclear genes, LFY and NLY, to generate phylogenetic trees, other researchers have had success with these genes in similar studies on different taxa. Yang et al. found that Sequoia was clustered with Metasequoia in the tree generated using the LFY gene, further analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that Sequoia was the result of a hybridization event involving Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron. Thus, Yang et al. hypothesize that the inconsistent relationships among Metasequoia, the native habitat of Sequoiadendron giganteum trees is only on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada range of California. The native habitat of Sequoia sempervirens trees is only in the Northern California coastal forests ecoregion, on the Northern California coast, Metasequoia glyptostroboides trees are so rare they were thought to be extinct, until rediscovered by a Chinese forester in 1943.
They were found on slopes in remote parts of the Hubei region of China. The first Sequoioideae, Sequoia jeholensis, was discovered in Jurassic deposits, the fossil record shows a massive expansion of range in the Cretaceous and dominance of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, especially in northern latitudes. Genera of Sequoioideae were found in the Arctic Circle, North America, a general cooling trend beginning in the late Eocene and Oligocene reduced the northern ranges of the Sequoioideae, as did subsequent ice ages. Evolutionary adaptations to ancient environments persist in all three species despite changing climate and associated flora, especially the specific demands of their reproduction ecology ultimately forced each of the species into refugial ranges where they could survive, but still only in a vulnerable state. The IUCN Red List Category & Criteria assesses Sequoia Sempervirens as Endangered, Sequoiadendron giganteum as Endangered, the two California redwood species, since the early 19th century, and the Chinese redwood species since 1948, have been cultivated horticulturally far beyond their native habitats.
They are found in gardens, public parks, and private landscapes in many similar climates worldwide
Santa Cruz Mountains
The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central and northern California, United States. The range passes through San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, the highest point in the range is Loma Prieta Peak 3,786 feet, near which is the epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Other major peaks include Mount Umunhum 3,486 feet, Mount Bielawski 3,231 feet, El Sombroso 2,999 feet, Eagle Rock 2,488 feet, Black Mountain 2,800 feet, and Sierra Morena 2,417 feet. The San Andreas Fault runs along or near the line throughout the range. The east side of the mountains drops abruptly towards this fault line especially near Woodside, for much of the length of the range on the San Francisco Peninsula, State Route 35 runs along its ridge, and is known as Skyline Boulevard. The Santa Cruz Mountains have been a legally defined American Viticultural Area since 1981, wine has been produced here since at least the 1840s. The Santa Cruz Mountain AVA has emerged as premier producer of top wines, there are over 30 wineries located in this area.
The Santa Cruz Mountains are largely the result of uplift caused by a leftward bend of the San Andreas Fault. The Salinian Block basement rocks are overlain by Miocene rock strata of the Lompico Sandstone, the Vaqueros Sandstone, the Santa Cruz Mountains are a region of large biological diversity, encompassing cool, moist coastal ecosystems as well as warm, dry chaparral. Much of the area in the Santa Cruz mountains is considered temperate rainforest, there do exist several small and isolated stands of old-growth forest, most notably at Henry Cowell Redwoods and Portola Redwoods State Parks and one sizeable old-growth redwood forest at Big Basin. At higher elevations and on sunny south slopes a more drought-resistant chaparral vegetation dominates, California scrub oak, spring wildflowers are widespread throughout the range. The area welcomes a number of species of birds. Black-tailed deer, a subspecies of deer are common, as are western gray squirrels, chipmunks. Periodic sightings of black bears indicate they frequent the mountains or wander north from Big Sur, coyotes, bobcats and human-introduced Virginia opossums inhabit the region but are rarely seen.
Rattlesnakes are inhabitants, mostly in the high, dry chaparral, the Santa Cruz Mountains have a Mediterranean type climate typical of most of California, with the majority of the annual precipitation falling between November and April. According to the National Weather Service, this more than 50 inches annually. Due to a shadow effect, precipitation on the eastern side of the range is significantly less. Snow falls a few times a year on the highest ridges, no temperature records were kept at these stations
San Andreas Fault
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 800 miles through California. It forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and its motion is right-lateral strike-slip. The fault was first identified in 1895 by Professor Andrew Lawson of UC Berkeley and it is often described as having been named after San Andreas Lake, a small body of water that was formed in a valley between the two plates. However, according to some of his reports from 1895 and 1908, following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Lawson concluded that the fault extended all the way into southern California. In 1953, geologist Thomas Dibblee astounded the scientific establishment with his conclusion that hundreds of miles of lateral movement could occur along the fault. A project called the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth near Parkfield, Monterey County, is drilling into the fault to improve prediction and this is the approximate location of the epicenter of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
The fault returns onshore at Bolinas Lagoon just north of Stinson Beach in Marin County, from Fort Ross the northern segment continues overland, forming in part a linear valley through which the Gualala River flows. It goes back offshore at Point Arena, after that, it runs underwater along the coast until it nears Cape Mendocino, where it begins to bend to the west, terminating at the Mendocino Triple Junction. The central segment of the San Andreas fault runs in a direction from Parkfield to Hollister. The southern segment begins near Bombay Beach, box Canyon, near the Salton Sea, contains upturned strata associated with that section of the fault. The fault runs along the base of the San Bernardino Mountains, crosses through the Cajon Pass. These mountains are a result of movement along the San Andreas Fault and are called the Transverse Range. In Palmdale, a portion of the fault is easily examined at a roadcut for the Antelope Valley Freeway, the fault continues northwest alongside the Elizabeth Lake Road to the town of Elizabeth Lake.
As it passes the towns of Gorman, Tejon Pass and Frazier Park and this restraining bend is thought to be where the fault locks up in Southern California, with an earthquake-recurrence interval of roughly 140–160 years. Northwest of Frazier Park, the runs through the Carrizo Plain. The Elkhorn Scarp defines the fault trace along much of its length within the plain, the southern segment, which stretches from Parkfield in Monterey County all the way to the Salton Sea, is capable of an 8. 1-magnitude earthquake. At its closest, this fault passes about 35 miles to the northeast of Los Angeles. Such a large earthquake on this segment would kill thousands of people in Los Angeles, San Bernardino and surrounding areas
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Soquel /soʊˈkɛl/ is a census-designated place in Santa Cruz County, United States approximately 75 miles south of San Francisco, and forms part of the north coast of Monterey Bay. The population was 9,644 at the 2010 census, Soquel is located at 36°59′13″N 121°56′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 4.6 square miles. The 2010 United States Census reported that Soquel had a population of 9,644, the population density was 2,097.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Soquel was 7,898 White,85 African American,71 Native American,356 Asian,21 Pacific Islander,693 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,606 persons. The Census reported that 9,595 people lived in households,49 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 266 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 39 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,128 households were made up of individuals and 411 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.45.
There were 2,399 families, the family size was 3.00. The median age was 43.2 years, for every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.4 males, there were 4,107 housing units at an average density of 893.2 per square mile, of which 2,750 were owner-occupied, and 1,162 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1. 4%, the vacancy rate was 2. 4%. 6,654 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,941 people lived in housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,081 people,2,043 households, the population density was 4,710.3 people per square mile. There were 2,103 housing units at a density of 1,949.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 82. 94% White,1. 57% African American,0. 63% Native American,4. 00% Asian,0. 18% Pacific Islander,6. 18% from other races, and 4. 51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13. 99% of the population,27. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the family size was 3.02. In the CDP, the population was out with 24. 6% under the age of 18,8. 5% from 18 to 24,32. 3% from 25 to 44,24. 6% from 45 to 64