The Hatran alphabet is the script used to write Aramaic of Hatra, a dialect, spoken from 98/97 BC to 240 AD by early inhabitants of present-day northern Iraq. Many inscriptions of this alphabet could be found at Hatra, an ancient city in northern Iraq built by the Seleucid Empire and used by the Parthian Empire, but subsequently destroyed by the Sassanid Empire in 241 AD. Assur has several inscriptions which came to an end following its destruction by the Sasanian in 257 AD while the rest of the inscriptions are spread sparsely throughout Dura-Europos, Tur Abdin, Tikrit, Sa'adiya and Qabr Abu Naif. Many of the contemporary ruins were destroyed by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in early 2015, it was encoded in the Unicode Standard 8.0 with support from UC Berkeley's Script Encoding Initiative. The script is written from right to left of Aramaic scripts and of most abjads. Numerals are written from right to left, there are two known punctuation marks as well; some common ligatures exist, they don't appear to be necessary, are rather just a shorthand form of writing.
Some 600 texts are known to exist. Hatran script was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2015 with the release of version 8.0. The Unicode block for Hatran is U+108E0–U+108FF
Michael Everson is an American and Irish linguist, script encoder, font designer, publisher. He runs a publishing company called Evertype, through which he has published over a hundred books since 2006, his central area of expertise is with writing systems of the world in the representation of these systems in formats for computer and digital media. In 2003 Rick McGowan said he was "probably the world's leading expert in the computer encoding of scripts" for his work to add a wide variety of scripts and characters to the Universal Character Set. Since 1993, he has written over two hundred proposals which have added thousands of characters to ISO/IEC 10646 and the Unicode standard. Everson was born in Norristown and moved to Tucson, Arizona, at the age of 12, his interest in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien led him to study Old English and other Germanic languages, he read German and French for his B. A. at the University of Arizona, the History of Religions and Indo-European linguistics for his M.
A. at the University of California, Los Angeles. In 1989, a former professor, Dr. Marija Gimbutas, asked him to read a paper on Basque mythology at an Indo-Europeanist Conference held in Ireland, he became a naturalized Irish citizen in 2000. He lives in Dundee. Everson is active in supporting minority-language communities in the fields of character encoding standardization and internationalization. In addition to being one of the primary contributing editors of the Unicode Standard, he is a contributing editor to ISO/IEC 10646, registrar for ISO 15924, subtag reviewer for BCP 47, he has contributed to the encoding of many scripts and characters in those standards, receiving the Unicode Bulldog Award in 2000 for his technical contributions to the development and promotion of the Unicode Standard. In 2004, Everson was appointed convenor of ISO TC46/WG3, responsible for transliteration standards. Everson is one of the co-editors of the Unicode roadmaps that detail actual and proposed allocations for current and future Unicode scripts and blocks.
On July 1, 2012, Everson was appointed to the Volapük Academy by the Cifal, Brian R. Bishop, for his work in Volapük publishing. Everson has been involved in the encoding of many scripts in the Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 standards, including Avestan, Bamum, Bassa Vah, Braille, Brāhmī, Buhid, Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, Cham, Coptic, Cypriot, Duployan, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Ethiopic, Glagolitic, Hanunóo, Imperial Aramaic, Inscriptional Pahlavi, Inscriptional Parthian, Kayah Li, Lepcha, Linear A, Linear B, Lydian, Manichaean, Meitei Mayek, Myanmar, New Tai Lue, N'Ko, Ogham, Ol Chiki, Old Hungarian, Old Italic, Old North Arabian, Old Persian, Old South Arabian, Old Turkic, Palmyrene, Phaistos Disc, Rejang, Samaritan, Shavian, Sundanese, Tagbanwa, Tai Le, Tai Tham, Tibetan, Vai, Yi, as well as many characters belonging to the Latin, Greek and Arabic scripts. Everson authored or co-authored proposals for many symbol characters for encoding into Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646. Among those proposals submitted to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 2 that have been accepted and encoded: N2586R, N3727, N4783R2.
Among proposals that have not yet been approved for encoding: N1866 and N4784R. Everson, along with Doug Ewell, Rebecca Bettencourt, Ricardo Bánffy, Eduardo Marín Silva, Elias Mårtenson, Mark Shoulson, Shawn Steele, Rebecca Turner, is a contributor to the Terminals Working Group researching obscure characters found in legacy character sets used by home computers and other legacy devices made from the mid-1970’s until the mid-1980’s. In 1995 he designed the Unicode font, Everson Mono, a monospaced typeface with more than 4,800 characters; this font was the third Unicode-encoded font to contain a large number of characters from many character blocks, after Lucida Sans Unicode and Unihan font. In 2007 he was commissioned by the International Association of Coptic Studies to create a standard free Unicode 5.1 font for Coptic, using the Sahidic style. Together with John Cowan, he is responsible for the ConScript Unicode Registry, a project to coordinate the mapping of artificial scripts into the Unicode Private Use Area.
Among the scripts "encoded" in the CSUR, Shavian and Deseret were formally adopted into Unicode. Everson has created locale and language information for many languages, from support for the Irish language and the other Cel
Pegon is an Arabic script used to write the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as an alternative to the Latin script or the Javanese script and the old Sundanese script. In particular, it was used for religious writing and poetry from the fifteenth century in writing commentaries of the Qur'an. Pegon includes symbols for sounds. Pegon has been studied far less than its Jawi counterpart for Malay and Minangkabau; the word Pegon originated from a Javanese word pégo, which means "deviate", due to the practice of writing the Javanese language with Arabic script, considered unconventional by Javanese people. One of the earliest dated examples of the usage of Pegon may be Masa'il al-ta'lim, a work on Islamic law written in Arabic with interlinear translation and marginal commentary in Javanese; the manuscript is dated 1623 and written on dluwang, a paper made from the bark of the mulberry tree. The main difference between Jawi and Pegon is that the latter is always written with vocal signs. Since the Javanese language contains more aksara swara than their Malay counterpart, vocal signs must be written to avoid confusion.
Aside from Malay, Cia-Cia use a similar writing system called Gundhul. The United States Library of Congress published a Romanisation standard of Jawi and Pegon in 2012. Gallop, A. T.. A Jawi sourcebook for the study of Malay orthography. Indonesia and the Malay World, 43, 13-171
Proto-Sinaitic referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew and South Arabian scripts. The earliest "Proto-Sinaitic" inscriptions are dated to between the mid-19th and the mid-16th century BC. "The principal debate is between an early date, around 1850 BC, a late date, around 1550 BC. The choice of one or the other date decides whether it is proto-Sinaitic or proto-Canaanite, by extension locates the invention of the alphabet in Egypt or Canaan respectively." However the discovery of the Wadi El-Hol inscriptions near the Nile River shows that the script originated in Egypt. The evolution of "Proto-Sinaitic" and the various "Proto-Canaanite" scripts during the Bronze Age is based on rather scant epigraphic evidence; the "Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions" were discovered in the winter of 1904–1905 in Sinai by Hilda and Flinders Petrie.
To this may be added a number of short "Proto-Canaanite" inscriptions found in Canaan and dated to between the 17th and 15th centuries BC, more the discovery in 1999 of the "Wadi El-Hol inscriptions", found in Middle Egypt by John and Deborah Darnell. The Wadi El-Hol inscriptions suggest a date of development of Proto-Sinaitic writing from the mid-19th to 18th centuries BC; the Sinai inscriptions are best known from carved graffiti and votive texts from a mountain in the Sinai called Serabit el-Khadim and its temple to the Egyptian goddess Hathor. The mountain contained turquoise mines. Many of the workers and officials were from the Nile Delta, included large numbers of Canaanites, allowed to settle the eastern Delta. Most of the forty or so inscriptions have been found among much more numerous hieratic and hieroglyphic inscriptions, scratched on rocks near and in the turquoise mines and along the roads leading to the temple; the date of the inscriptions is placed in the 17th or 16th century BC.
Four inscriptions have been found in the temple, on two small human statues and on either side of a small stone sphinx. They are crudely done, suggesting that the workers who made them were illiterate apart from this script. In 1916, Alan Gardiner, using sound values derived from the alphabet hypothesis, translated a collection of signs as לבעלת lbʿlt Only a few inscriptions have been found in Canaan itself, dated to between the 17th and 15th centuries BC, they are all short, most consisting of only a couple of letters, may have been written by Canaanite caravaners, soldiers from Egypt or early Israelites. They sometimes go by the name Proto-Canaanite, although the term "Proto-Canaanite" is applied to early Phoenician or Hebrew inscriptions, respectively; the Wadi el-Hol inscriptions were carved on the stone sides of an ancient high-desert military and trade road linking Thebes and Abydos, in the heart of literate Egypt. They are at approx. 25°57′N 32°25′E, among dozens of hieratic and hieroglyphic inscriptions.
The inscriptions are graphically similar to the Serabit inscriptions, but show a greater hieroglyphic influence, such as a glyph for a man, not read alphabetically: The first of these is a figure of celebration, whereas the second is either that of a child or of dancing. If the latter, h1 and h2 may be graphic variants rather than different consonants; some scholars think that the רב rb at the beginning of Inscription 1 is rebbe. Brian Colless has published a translation of the text, in which some of the signs are treated as logograms or rebuses "Excellent banquet of the celebration of ʿAnat. ʾEl will provide plenty of wine and victuals for the celebration. We will sacrifice to her an ox and a prime fatling." This interpretation fits into the pattern in some of the surrounding Egyptian inscriptions, with celebrations for the goddess Hathor involving inebriation. Proto-Canaanite referred to as Proto-Canaan, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is the name given to the Proto-Sinaitic script, when found in Canaan.
The term Proto-Canaanite is used when referring to the ancestor of the Phoenician or Paleo-Hebrew script before some cut-off date 1050 BC, with an undefined affinity to Proto-Sinaitic. While no extant inscription in the Phoenician alphabet is older than c. 1050 BC, "Proto-Canaanite" is a term used for the early alphabets as used during the 13th and 12th centuries BC in Phoenicia. However, the Phoenician and other Canaanite dialects were indistinguishable before the 11th century BC. A possible example of "Proto-Canaanite" was found in 2012, the Ophel inscription, when during the excavations of the south w
Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular written form of various Middle Iranian languages. The essential characteristics of Pahlavi are the use of a specific Aramaic-derived script. Pahlavi compositions have been found for the dialects/ethnolects of Parthia, Sogdiana and Khotan. Independent of the variant for which the Pahlavi system was used, the written form of that language only qualifies as Pahlavi when it has the characteristics noted above. Pahlavi is an admixture of written Imperial Aramaic, from which Pahlavi derives its script and some of its vocabulary. Spoken Middle Iranian, from which Pahlavi derives its terminations, symbol rules, most of its vocabulary. Pahlavi may thus be defined as a system of writing applied to a specific language group, but with critical features alien to that language group, it is not one. It is an written system, but much Pahlavi literature remains an oral literature committed to writing and so retains many of the characteristics of oral composition; the term Pahlavi is said to be derived from the Parthian language word parthav or parthau, meaning Parthia, a region just east of the Caspian Sea, with the -i suffix denoting the language and people of that region.
If this etymology is correct, Parthav became pahlaw through a semivowel glide rt change to l, a common occurrence in language evolution. The term has been traced back further to Avestan pərəthu- "broad " evident in Sanskrit pŗthvi- "earth" and parthivi " of the earth". Common to all Indo-Iranian languages is a connotation of "mighty"; the earliest attested use of Pahlavi dates to the reign of Arsaces I of Parthia in early Parthian coins with Pahlavi scripts. There are several Pahlavi texts written during the reign of Mithridates I; the cellars of the treasury at Mithradatkird reveal thousands of pottery sherds with brief records. Such fragments, as the rock inscriptions of Sassanid kings, which are datable to the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, do not, qualify as a significant literary corpus. Although in theory Pahlavi could have been used to render any Middle Iranian language and hence may have been in use as early as 300 BC, no manuscripts that can be dated to before the 6th century AD have yet been found.
Thus, when used for the name of a literary genre, i.e. Pahlavi literature, the term refers to Middle Iranian texts dated near or after the fall of the Sassanid empire and extending to about AD 900, after which Iranian languages enter the "modern" stage; the oldest surviving example of the Pahlavi literature is from fragments of the so-called "Pahlavi Psalter", a 6th- or 7th-century-AD translation of a Syriac Psalter found at Bulayiq on the Silk Road, near Turpan in north-west China. It is in a more archaic script than Book Pahlavi. After the Muslim conquest of Persia, the Pahlavi script was replaced by the Arabic script, except in Zoroastrian sacred literature; the replacement of the Pahlavi script with the Arabic script in order to write the Persian language was done by the Tahirids in 9th century Khurasan. In the present day, "Pahlavi" is identified with the prestige dialect of south-west Iran and properly called Pārsi, after Pars; this practice can be dated to the period following the Islamic conquest.
The Pahlavi script is one of the two essential characteristics of the Pahlavi system. Its origin and development occurred independently of the various Middle Iranian languages for which it was used; the Pahlavi script is derived from the Aramaic script as it was used under the Achaemenids, with modifications to support the phonology of the Iranian languages. It is a typical abjad, where, in general, only long vowels are marked with matres lectionis, vowel-initial words are marked with an aleph. However, because of the high incidence of logograms derived from Aramaic words, the Pahlavi script is far from always phonetic. In addition to this, during much of its history, Pahlavi orthography was characterized by historical or archaizing spellings. Most notably, it continued to reflect the pronunciation that preceded the widespread Iranian lenition processes, whereby postvocalic voiceless stops and affricates had become voiced, voiced stops had become semivowels. Certain words continued to be spelt with postvocalic ⟨s⟩ and ⟨t⟩ after the consonants had been debuccalized to ⟨h⟩ in the living language.
The Pahlavi script consisted of two used forms: Inscriptional Pahlavi and Book Pahlavi. A third form, Psalter Pahlavi, is not attested. Although the Parthian Arsacids wrote in Greek, some of the coins and seals of the Arsacid period include inscriptions in the Parthian language; the script of these inscriptions is called inscriptional Parthian. Numerous clay fragments from Arsacid-era Parthia proper, in particular a large collection of fragments from Nisa that date to the reign of Mithridates I, are l
The Odia script is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language. The Odia script is developed from the Kalinga alphabet, one of the many descendants of the Brahmi script of ancient India; the earliest known inscription in the Odia language, in the Kalinga script, dates from 1051. The script in the Edicts of Ashoka at Dhauli and Jaugada and the Minor Inscriptions of Kharavela in the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves give the first glimpse of possible origin of the Odia language. From a linguistic perspective, the Hati Gumpha inscriptions are similar to modern Odia and different from the language of the Ashokan edicts; the question has been raised as to whether Pali was the prevalent language in Odisha during this period. The Hati Gumpha inscriptions, which are in Pali, are the only evidence of stone inscriptions in Pali; this may be the reason why the famous German linguist Professor Oldenburg mentioned that Pali was the original language of Odisha. There are noticeable similarities between the Odia and Thai alphabets, which provides clues about the Sadhabas, Kalinga traders who traveled to south Asian countries and ruled there, leaving evidence of the Odia script on the Thai script, along with a cultural impact.
The curved appearance of the Odia script is a result of the practice of writing on palm leaves, which has a tendency to tear the leaves when many straight lines are written. Odia is a syllabic alphabet or an abugida wherein all consonants have an inherent vowel embedded within. Diacritics are used to change the form of the inherent vowel; when vowels appear at the beginning of a syllable, they are written as independent letters. When certain consonants occur together, special conjunct symbols are used to combine the essential parts of each consonant symbol. Oṛiyā is encumbered with the drawback of an excessively awkward and cumbrous written character.... At first glance, an Oṛiyā book seems to be all curves, it takes a second look to notice that there is something inside each. Overwhelmingly, the Odia script was used to write the Odia language. However, it has been used as a regional writing-system for Sanskrit. Furthermore, Grierson in his famed Linguistic Survey of India mentioned that the Odia script was sometimes employed for Chhattisgarhi, an Eastern Hindi language, in the eastern border regions of Chhattisgarh.
However it appears to have been replaced with the Devanagari script. ଼ ଽ ା ି ୀ ୁ ୂ ୃ ୄ େ ୈ ୋ ୌ ୍ ଁ ଂ ଃ ୦୧୨୩୪୫୬୭୮୯ ଅ ଆ ଇ ଈ ଉ ଊ ଋ ୠ ଌ ୡ ଏ ଐ ଓ ଔ କ ଖ ଗ ଘ ଙ ଚ ଛ ଜ ଝ ଞ ଟ ଠ ଡ ଢ ଣ ତ ଥ ଦ ଧ ନ ପ ଫ ବ ଵ ଭ ମ ଯ ର ଳ ୱ ଶ ଷ ସ ହ କ୍ଷ ୟ ଲ The vowels "ଇ", "ଈ", "ଉ" and "ଊ" are pronounced same as most long sounds are pronounced in the same way as short vowel sounds. When a vowel follows a consonant, it is written with a diacritic rather than as a separate letter. Two categories of consonant letters are defined in Odia: the structured consonants and the unstructured consonants; the structured consonants are classified according to where the tongue touches the palate of the mouth and are classified accordingly into five structured groups. These consonants are shown here with their IAST transcriptions; the unstructured consonants are consonants that do not fall into any of the above structures: ଯ, ର, ଳ, ୱ, ଶ, ଷ, ସ, ହ, କ୍ଷ. ୟ. ଲ, As in other abugida scripts, Odia consonant letters have an inherent vowel. It is transliterated as ⟨ a phonetic value.
Its absence is marked by a halanta: For the other vowels diacritics are used: Vowel diacritics may be more or less fused with the consonants, though in modern printing such ligatures have become less common. Clusters of two or more consonants form a ligature. Odia has two types of such consonant ligatures; the "northern" type is formed by fusion of two or more consonants as in northern scripts like Devanāgarī. In some instances the components can be identified, but sometimes new glyphs are formed. With the "southern" type the second component is reduced in size and put under the first as in the southern scripts used for Kannaḍa and Telugu; the following table lists all conjunct forms. ⟨ẏ⟩ and ⟨r⟩ as components of a ligature are given a special treatment. As last member they become and respectively: ⟨r⟩ as first member of a ligature becomes and is shifted to the end of the ligature: The Odia alphabet exhibits quite a few ambiguities which add to the difficulties beginners encounter in learning it.
Some of the letters of the script may be confounded. In order to reduce ambiguities a small oblique stroke is added at the lower right end as a diacritic, it resembles Halanta but it is joined to the letter, whereas Halanta is not joined. When the consonant forms a vowel ligature by which the lower right end is affected, this stroke is shifted to another position; this applies to consonant ligatures bearing the stroke. Some of the subjoined consonants, some other ligature components, variants of vowel diacritics have changing functions: Open top consonants get a subjoined variant of the vowel diacritic for ⟨i⟩ as in This same little hook is used in some consonant ligatures to denote ⟨t⟩ as first component: The subjoined form of ⟨ch⟩ is used for subjoined ⟨th⟩: The subjoined form of ⟨bh⟩ serves as a diacriti
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte