Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Tertullian was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa. Of Berber origin, he was the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature, he was an early Christian apologist and a polemicist against heresy, including contemporary Christian Gnosticism. Tertullian has been called "the father of Latin Christianity" and "the founder of Western theology."Though conservative in his worldview, Tertullian originated new theological concepts and advanced the development of early Church doctrine. He is most famous for being the first writer in Latin known to use the term trinity. According to The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Tertullian's trinity not a triune God, but rather a triad or group of three, with God as the founding member". A similar word had been used earlier in Greek, though Tertullian gives the oldest extant use of the terminology as incorporated into the Nicene Creed at the Second Ecumenical Council, the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD, or as the Athanasian Creed, or both.
Other Latin formulations that first appear in his work are "three persons, one substance" as the Latin "tres personae, una substantia", itself from the Koine Greek "treis hypostases, homoousioi"). Influenced by Stoic philosophy, the "substance" of Tertullian, was a material substance that did not refer to a single God, but to the sharing of a portion of the substance of the Father with the Son and, through the Son, with the Holy Spirit, he wrote his understanding of the three members of the trinity after becoming a Montanist. Unlike many Church fathers, Tertullian was never recognized as a saint by the Eastern or Western catholic tradition churches. Several of his teachings on issues such as the clear subordination of the Son and Spirit to the Father, his condemnation of remarriage for widows and of fleeing from persecution, contradicted the doctrines of these traditions. Scant reliable evidence exists to inform us about Tertullian's life. Roman Africa was famous as the home of orators and this influence can be seen in his writing style with its archaisms or provincialisms, its glowing imagery and its passionate temper.
He was a scholar with an excellent education. He wrote at least three books in Greek. In them he refers to himself. According to church tradition, Tertullian was raised in Carthage and was thought to be the son of a Roman centurion; these assertions rely on the accounts of Church History, II, ii. 4, Jerome's De viris illustribus chapter 53. Jerome claimed that Tertullian's father held the position of centurio proconsularis in the Roman army in Africa. However, it is unclear whether any such position in the Roman military existed. Further, Tertullian has been thought to be a lawyer based on his use of legal analogies and an identification of him with the jurist Tertullianus, quoted in the Pandects. Although Tertullian used a knowledge of Roman law in his writings, his legal knowledge does not demonstrably exceed that of what could be expected from a sufficient Roman education; the writings of Tertullianus, a lawyer of the same cognomen, exist only in fragments and do not denote a Christian authorship.
Any notion of Tertullian being a priest is questionable. In his extant writings, he never describes himself as ordained in the church and seems to place himself among the laity, his conversion to Christianity took place about 197–198, but its immediate antecedents are unknown except as they are conjectured from his writings. The event must have been decisive, transforming at once his own personality, he said of himself that he could not imagine a Christian life without such a conscious breach, a radical act of conversion: "Christians are made, not born". Two books addressed to his wife confirm. In middle life, he was attracted to the "New Prophecy" of Montanism, though today most scholars reject Saint Jerome's assertion that Tertullian left the mainstream Church or was excommunicated. "e are left to ask whether Cyprian could have regarded Tertullian as his master if Tertullian had been a notorious schismatic. Since no ancient writer was more definite on this subject of schism than Cyprian, the question must be answered in the negative."In the time of Augustine, a group of "Tertullianists" still had a basilica in Carthage which, within that same period, passed to the orthodox Church.
It is unclear whether the name was another for the Montanists or that this means Tertullian split with the Montanists and founded his own group. Jerome says that Tertullian lived to a great age, but there is no reliable source attesting to his survival beyond the estimated year 225 AD. By the doctrinal works he published, Tertullian became the teacher of Cyprian and the predecessor of Augustine, who, in turn, became the chief founder of Latin theology. Thirty-one works are extant, together with fragments of more; some fifteen works in Latin or Greek are lost, some as as the 9th century. Tertullian's writings cover the whole theological field of the time—a
Ancient Greek medicine
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were expanding through new ideologies and trials. Many components were considered in ancient Greek medicine, intertwining the spiritual with the physical; the ancient Greeks believed health was affected by the humors, geographic location, social class, trauma and mindset. Early on the ancient Greeks believed that illnesses were "divine punishments" and that healing was a "gift from the Gods"; as trials continued wherein theories were tested against symptoms and results, the pure spiritual beliefs regarding "punishments" and "gifts" were replaced with a foundation based in the physical, i.e. cause and effect. Humorism refers to blood, yellow bile and black bile, it was theorized that sex played a role in medicine because some diseases and treatments were different for females than for males. Moreover, geographic location and social class affected the living conditions of the people and might subject them to different environmental issues such as mosquitoes and availability of clean drinking water.
Diet was thought to be an issue as well and might be affected by a lack of access to adequate nourishment. Trauma, such as that suffered by gladiators, from dog bites or other injuries, played a role in theories relating to understanding anatomy and infections. Additionally, there was significant focus on the beliefs and mindset of the patient in the diagnosis and treatment theories, it was recognized that the mind played a role in healing, or that it might be the sole basis for the illness. Ancient Greek medicine began to revolve around the theory of humors; the humoral theory states that good health comes from a perfect balance of the four humors: blood, yellow bile, black bile. Poor health resulted from improper balance of the four humors. Hippocrates, known as the "Father of Modern Medicine", established a medical school at Cos and is the most important figure in ancient Greek medicine. Hippocrates and his students documented numerous illnesses in the Hippocratic Corpus, developed the Hippocratic Oath for physicians, still in use today.
The contributions to ancient Greek medicine of Hippocrates and others had a lasting influence on Islamic medicine and medieval European medicine until many of their findings became obsolete in the 14th century. The earliest known Greek medical school opened in Cnidus in 700 BC. Alcmaeon, author of the first anatomical compilation, worked at this school, it was here that the practice of observing patients was established. Despite their known respect for Egyptian medicine, attempts to discern any particular influence on Greek practice at this early time have not been successful because of the lack of sources and the challenge of understanding ancient medical terminology, it is clear, that the Greeks imported Egyptian substances into their pharmacopoeia, the influence became more pronounced after the establishment of a school of Greek medicine in Alexandria. Asclepius was espoused as the first physician, myth placed him as the son of Apollo. Temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius, known as Asclepieia, functioned as centers of medical advice and healing.
At these shrines, patients would enter a dream-like state of induced sleep known as "enkoimesis" not unlike anesthesia, in which they either received guidance from the deity in a dream or were cured by surgery. Asclepeia provided controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing; the Temple of Asclepius in Pergamum had a spring that flowed down into an underground room in the Temple. People would come to drink the waters and to bathe in them because they were believed to have medicinal properties. Mud baths and hot teas such as chamomile were used to calm them or peppermint tea to soothe their headaches, still a home remedy used by many today; the patients were encouraged to sleep in the facilities too. Their dreams were interpreted by the doctors and their symptoms were reviewed. Dogs would be brought in to lick open wounds for assistance in their healing. In the Asclepieion of Epidaurus, three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names, case histories and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there.
Some of the surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, but with the patient in a state of enkoimesis induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium. The Rod of Asclepius is a universal symbol for medicine to this day. However, it is confused with Caduceus, a staff wielded by the god Hermes; the Rod of Asclepius embodies one snake with no wings whereas Caduceus is represented by two snakes and a pair of wings depicting the swiftness of Hermes. Ancient Greek physicians regarded disease as being of supernatural origin, brought about from the dissatisfaction of the gods or from demonic possession; the fault of the ailment was placed on the patient and the role of the physician was to conciliate with the gods or exorcise the demon with prayers and sacrifices. The Hippocratic Corpus opposes ancient beliefs, offering biologically based approaches to disease instead of magical intervention.
The Hippocratic Corpus is a collection of about seventy early medical works from ancient Greece that are associated with Hippocrates and his students. Although once thought to have been written by Hippocrates himself, many scholars today believe that these texts were writ
The Suda or Souda is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world attributed to an author called Soudas or Souidas. It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, derived from medieval Christian compilers; the derivation is from the Byzantine Greek word souda, meaning "fortress" or "stronghold", with the alternate name, stemming from an error made by Eustathius, who mistook the title for the author's name. The Suda is somewhere between an encyclopedia in the modern sense, it explains the source and meaning of words according to the philology of its period, using such earlier authorities as Harpocration and Helladios. It is a rich source of ancient and Byzantine history and life, although not every article is of equal quality, it is an "uncritical" compilation. Much of the work is interpolated, passages that refer to Michael Psellos are deemed interpolations which were added in copies.
This lexicon contains numerous biographical notices on political and literary figures of the Byzantine Empire to the tenth century, those biographical entries being condensations from the works of Hesychius of Miletus, as the author himself avers. Other sources were the encyclopedia of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus for the figures in ancient history, excerpts of John of Antioch for Roman history, the chronicle of Hamartolus for the Byzantine age; the biographies of Diogenes Laërtius, the works of Athenaeus and Philostratus. Other principal sources include a lexicon by "Eudemus," derived from the work On Rhetorical Language by Eudemus of Argos; the lexicon copiously draws from scholia to the classics, for writers, Josephus, the Chronicon Paschale, George Syncellus, George Hamartolus, so on. The Suda paraphrases these sources at length. Since many of the originals are lost, The Suda serves an invaluable repository of literary history, this preservation of the "literary history" is more vital than the lexicographical compilation itself, by some estimation.
The lexicon is arranged alphabetically with some slight deviations from common vowel order and place in the Greek alphabet according to a system called antistoichia. The order is: α, β, γ, δ, αι, ε, ζ, ει, η, ι, θ, κ, λ, μ, ν, ξ, ο, ω, π, ρ, σ, τ, οι, υ, φ, χ, ψIn addition, double letters are treated as single for the purposes of collation; the system is not difficult to learn and remember, but some editors—for example, Immanuel Bekker – rearranged the Suda alphabetically. Little is known about the author, named "Suidas" in its prefatory note, he lived in the second half of the 10th century, because the death of emperor John I Tzimiskes and his succession by Basil II and Constantine VIII are mentioned in the entry under "Adam", appended with a brief chronology of the world. At any rate, the work must have appeared by before the 12th century, since it is quoted from and alluded to by Eustathius who lived from about 1115 AD to about 1195 or 1196; the work deals with biblical as well as pagan subjects, from which it is inferred that the writer was a Christian.
The standard printed edition was compiled by Danish classical scholar Ada Adler in the first half of the twentieth century. A modern translation, the Suda On Line, was completed on 21 July 2014; the Suda has the Kitab al-Fehrest of Ibn al-Nadim. Compare the Latin Speculum Maius, authored in the 13th century by Vincent of Beauvais. Suidas. Gaisford, Thomas. Lexicon: post Ludolphum Kusterum ad codices manuscriptos. A - Theta. 1. Typographeo Academico. Volume 2, volume 3 Adler, Ada Suidae Lexicon. Reprinted 1967-71, Stuttgart. Citations Bibliography Index of the Suda on lineSuda On Line. An on-line edition of the Ada Adler edition with ongoing translations and commentary by registered editors. Suda lexicon at the Online Books Page Suda Lexicon in three volumes, Cambridge, 1705.
Valentin Rose (classicist)
Valentin Rose was a German classicist and textual critic. Valentin Rose was the son of mineralogist Gustav Rose, a nephew to famed mineralogist Heinrich Rose and to the pharmacist Wilhelm Rose, of whom he published a brief remembrance, his great-grandfather was pharmacologist Valentin Rose the Elder, his grandfather was Valentin Rose the Younger, a noted pharmacologist. His younger brother was the surgeon Edmund Rose. In August 1872 he married the daughter of Johann Christian Poggendorff. Rose received his doctorate from the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin in 1854. In 1855, he took a post at the Royal Library at Berlin, where he remained until his retirement in 1905. Under his leadership, the library's Manuscript Department, gained a leading international reputation, he published catalogs of the collection between 1893 and 1905, among the important discoveries made were texts in the history of medicine and in horticulture. Rose's first edition of the fragments of Aristotle was Aristoteles Pseudepigraphus.
As the title suggests, Rose considered these all to be spurious. The third revised edition was published at Leipzig in 1886 with the title Aristotelis Qui Ferebantur Librorum Fragmenta; the engagement of Friedrich Nietzsche with this work has been described in the first chapter of James I. Porter and the Philology of the Future, Stanford, 2000, his other works include: De Aristotelis librorum ordine et auctoritate, inaugural dissertation, 1854 Anecdota graeca et graecolatina: Mitteilungen aus Handschriften zur Geschichte der griechischen Wissenschaft, 2 vols. 1864-1870 Teubner editions of Vitruvius, Anacreon Medicina Plinii and Quintus Gargilius Martialis, Cassius Felix and Muscio, Theodorus Priscianus, Gilles de Corbeil
The Collection Budé, or the Collection des Universités de France, is an editorial collection comprising the Greek and Latin classics up to the middle of the 6th century. It is published by Les Belles Lettres, is sponsored by the Association Guillaume Budé; each title of the series includes an introduction, notes and a critical apparatus, as well as a facing-page French translation, comparable to the Loeb Classical Library in the English-speaking world, but with more detailed introductions and critical or explanatory annotations. Some titles comprise full-scale commentaries; the Greek authors in the series can be recognized by a yellow cover on which Athena's little owl can be seen, the Latin ones by a red one where one finds a she-wolf reminiscent of the Capitoline Wolf. A new series, called "Classiques en poche" and aimed at students, has been added: it reproduces the text and translation of the standard editions, but without the critical apparatus; the first Budé volume, Plato's Hippias Mineur, was published in 1920.
Soon afterwards appeared the first Latin work of the series, namely Lucretius' De rerum natura, edited by Alfred Ernout. More than 800 volumes of the series have been published, with the Greek authors outnumbering the Latin ones. Both pagan authors and Church Fathers are included although, for the latter, the Sources Chrétiennes series, comprising both Greek and Latin authors, are much more complete. Bibliotheca Teubneriana Oxford Classical Texts Listing of titles: Greek series, Latin series) Ancient Greek OCR of public domain titles in the Collection Budé at the Lace repository of Mount Allison University: Eschyle par Paul Mazon vol. 1, vol. 2, Platon Oeuvres complètes vol. 13, Ptie.3, Sophocle par Paul Masqueray vol. 2
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, pathology and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic; the son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher. Born in Pergamon, Galen travelled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and was given the position of personal physician to several emperors. Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates, his theories influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years.
His anatomical reports, based on dissection of monkeys the Barbary macaque, pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations. Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system remained unchallenged. 1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina, in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation. Galen saw himself as both a physician and a philosopher, as he wrote in his treatise entitled That the Best Physician Is Also a Philosopher. Galen was interested in the debate between the rationalist and empiricist medical sects, his use of direct observation and vivisection represents a complex middle ground between the extremes of those two viewpoints. Many of his works have been preserved and/or translated from the original Greek, although many were destroyed and some credited to him are believed to be spurious.
Although there is some debate over the date of his death, he was no younger than seventy when he died. In medieval Europe, Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum, but because of the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West they suffered from stasis and intellectual stagnation. However, in the Eastern Roman Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate they continued to be studied and followed; some of Galen's ideas were incorrect. Greek and Roman taboos had meant that dissection was banned in ancient times, but in Middle Ages it changed: medical teachers and students at Bologna began to open human bodies, Mondino de Luzzi produced the ﬁrst known anatomy textbook based on human dissection. Galen's original Greek texts gained renewed prominence during the early modern period. In the 1530s, Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to translate many of Galen's Greek texts into Latin. Vesalius's most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica, was influenced by Galenic writing and form.
Galen's name Γαληνός, Galēnos comes from the adjective "γαληνός", "calm". Galen describes his early life in On the affections of the mind, he was born in September AD 129. His father, Aelius Nicon, was a wealthy patrician, an architect and builder, with eclectic interests including philosophy, logic, astronomy and literature. Galen describes his father as a "highly amiable, just and benevolent man". At that time Pergamon was a major cultural and intellectual centre, noted for its library, second only to that in Alexandria, attracted both Stoic and Platonic philosophers, to whom Galen was exposed at age 14, his studies took in each of the principal philosophical systems of the time, including Aristotelian and Epicurean. His father had planned a traditional career for Galen in philosophy or politics and took care to expose him to literary and philosophical influences. However, Galen states that in around AD 145 his father had a dream in which the god Asclepius appeared and commanded Nicon to send his son to study medicine.
Again, no expense was spared, following his earlier liberal education, at 16 he began studies at the prestigious local sanctuary or Asclepieum dedicated to Asclepius, god of medicine, as a θεραπευτής for four years. There he came under the influence of men like Aeschrion of Pergamon and Satyrus. Asclepiea functioned as spas or sanitoria to which the sick would come to seek the ministrations of the priesthood. Romans frequented the temple at Pergamon in search of medical relief from disease, it was the haunt of notable people such as Claudius Charax the historian, Aelius Aristides the orator, Polemo the sophist, Cuspius Rufinus the Consul. Galen's father died in 148, leaving Galen independently wealthy at the age of 19, he followed the advice he found in Hippocrates' teaching and travelled and studied including such destinations as Smyrna, Crete, Cilicia and the great medical school of Alexandria, exposing himself to the various schools of thought in medicine. In 157, aged 28, he returned to Pergamon as physician to the gladiators of the High Priest of Asia, one of the most influential and wealt