Sorbitol, less known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly. It can be obtained by reduction of glucose, which changes the converted aldehyde group to a primary alcohol group. Most sorbitol is made from potato starch, but it is found in nature, for example in apples, pears and prunes, it is converted to fructose by sorbitol-6-phosphate 2-dehydrogenase. Sorbitol is an isomer of another sugar alcohol. While similar, the two sugar alcohols have different sources in nature, melting points, uses, it has a pKa of 13.14 +/-.2 Sorbitol may be synthesised via a glucose reduction reaction in which the converted aldehyde group is converted into a hydroxyl group. The reaction is catalyzed by aldose reductase. Glucose reduction is the first step of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, is implicated in multiple diabetic complications; the mechanism involves a tyrosine residue in the active site of aldehyde reductase. The hydrogen atom on NADH is transferred to the electrophilic aldehyde carbon atom.
The role of aldehyde reductase tyrosine phenol group is to serve as a general acid to provide proton to the reduced aldehyde oxygen on glucose. Glucose reduction is not the major glucose metabolism pathway in a normal human body, where the glucose level is in the normal range. However, in diabetic patients whose blood glucose level is high, up to 1/3 of their glucose could go through the glucose reduction pathway; this will consume NADH and leads to cell damage. Sorbitol may be synthesized through a catalytic hydrogenation of d-glucose to form d-sorbitol; this reaction has a 100% yield of d-sorbitol when d-glucose is reacted with hydrogen in water at 120 degrees Celsius, under 150001.5 Torr, for 1 hour. Sorbitol is a sugar substitute, when used in food it has the INS number and E number 420. Sorbitol is about 60% as sweet as sucrose. Sorbitol is referred to as a nutritive sweetener because it provides dietary energy: 2.6 kilocalories per gram versus the average 4 kilocalories for carbohydrates.
It is used in diet foods, cough syrups, sugar-free chewing gum. Most bacteria cannot use sorbitol for energy, but it can be fermented in the mouth by Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium that causes tooth decay. In contrast, many other sugar alcohols such as isomalt and xylitol are considered non-acidogenic, it occurs in many stone fruits and berries from trees of the genus Sorbus. As is the case with other sugar alcohols, foods containing sorbitol can cause gastrointestinal distress. Sorbitol can be used as an enema. Sorbitol works as a laxative by drawing water into the large intestine. Sorbitol has been determined safe for use by the elderly, although it is not recommended without the advice of a doctor. Sorbitol may contribute to the laxative effects of prunes. Sorbitol was first discovered in the fresh juice of mountain ash berries in 1872, it is found in the fruits of apples, pears, dates and apricots. Sorbitol is used in bacterial culture media to distinguish the pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 from most other strains of E. coli, because it is unable to ferment sorbitol, unlike 93% of known E. coli strains.
A treatment for hyperkalaemia uses the ion-exchange resin sodium polystyrene sulfonate. The resin exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions in the bowel, while sorbitol helps to eliminate it. In 2010, the U. S. FDA issued a warning of increased risk for GI necrosis with this combination. Sorbitol is used in the manufacture of softgel capsules to store single doses of liquid medicines. Sorbitol is used in modern cosmetics as a humectant and thickener, it is used in mouthwash and toothpaste. Some transparent gels can be made only with sorbitol, because of its high refractive index. Sorbitol is used as a cryoprotectant additive in the manufacture of a processed fish paste, it is used as a humectant in some cigarettes. Beyond its use as a sugar substitute in reduced-sugar foods, Sorbitol is used as a humectant in cookies and low-moisture foods like peanut butter and fruit preserves. In baking, it is valuable because it acts as a plasticizer, slows down the staling process. A mixture of sorbitol and potassium nitrate has found some success as an amateur solid rocket fuel.
Sorbitol is identified as a potential key chemical intermediate for production of fuels from biomass resources. Carbohydrate fractions in biomass such as cellulose undergo sequential hydrolysis and hydrogenation in the presence of metal catalysts to produce sorbitol. Complete reduction of sorbitol opens the way to alkanes, such as hexane, which can be used as a biofuel. Hydrogen required for this reaction can be produced by aqueous phase catalytic reforming of sorbitol. 19 C6H14O6 → 13 C6H14 + 36 CO2 + 42 H2OThe above chemical reaction is exothermic, 1.5 moles of sorbitol generate 1 mole of hexane. When hydrogen is co-fed, no carbon dioxide is produced. Sorbitol based polyols are used in the production of polyurethane foam for the construction industry, it is added after electroporation of yeasts in transformation protocols, allowing the cells to recover by raising the osmolarity of the medium. Aldose reduct
The copperband butterflyfish known as the beaked coral fish, is found in reefs in both the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This butterflyfish is one of the three species that make up the genus Chelmon and all have long beaks; these fish are identified by the yellow banding and long snout. The young fish are similar in appearance to adult fish. Butterflyfish grow up to 20 cm in length; the fish appears taller than its length because of its compressed, deep-bodied form with a long dorsal and posterior fins as well as its vertical yellow stripes on a white background. The snout is long and slender, the dark eye of the fish is less conspicuous than the dark eye-spot on the dorsal fin; the base of the tail features a dark band. Butterflyfish may be distinguished from the similar C. marginalis by their color pattern and number of dorsal fin rays. Copperband butterflyfish are found at depths of 1−25 metres either alone or in pairs; these fish form monogamous pairs during breeding. They are found on coral reefs or rocky shorelines, in estuaries and silty inner reefs.
This species is oviparous. Copperband butterflyfish can grow to 8 inches but in a home aquarium are half that size, they do well at a normal reef temperature range of 75 to 84 °F, with a tank size of at least 75 gallons and plenty of live rock to graze on. This species can be considered reef safe, it will eat many invertebrates, including parasitic forms such as tubeworms, Calliactis parasitica and common glass anemone. Many aquarists introduce the Copperband Butterfly just to get rid of these pests without giving consideration to their long term needs for survival. Given a choice, Aiptasia is the least favored food; the butterflyfish preys on all tube and substrate worms and mollusks. This is not a recommended fish for inexperienced aquarists, as it requires excellent tank conditions to thrive or survive. Information on Copperband butterflyfish as aquarium fish at ReefCorner.com Fishes of Australia: Chelmon rostratus Photos of Copperband butterflyfish on Sealife Collection
Get It – Get It is an album by R&B duo Ike & Tina Turner released on Cenco Records circa 1966. The album contains two released singles. "Strange," written by Billy Preston was released from Ike Turner's own label Sonja Records in 1964, "I Can't Believe What You Say" was released from Kent Records in 1964. The latter single reached number 95 on the Billboard Hot 100; the title track "Get It – Get It" was released as a single from Cenco in 1967. After Ike and Tina's contract with Sue Records ended in 1964, the duo signed with many different labels for the rest of the 1960s. Between 1964 and 1969, they were signed to Kent, Warner Bros./Loma, Cenco, Tangerine, Blue Thumb, Minit and A&M. They released material on the various labels Ike created. Get It – Get It was reissued by Capitol Records as Her Man... His Woman in 1971. Get It – Get It was reissued by Pickwick/33 Records under the same title in 1972, her Man... His Woman was reissued on CD by Universal Music in 2018. Once Ike and Tina had a resurgence in the late 1960s, labels they were signed to released a multitude of old recordings.
Her Man... His Woman is a reissue of Get It – Get It released by Capitol Records in 1971; the songs are remixed in stereo. The album reached number 201 on Billboard's Bubbling Under The Top LP's. Billboard: After years of paying dues and appealing to a concerned minority and Tina are beginning to break through; this album, which captures the dynamic duo in typical urgent style, lacks their soul treatment on contemporary progressions rockers, but is down home soul. Examine what Tina does with the blues/gospel warhorse, "My Baby." Reviewing the album in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, Robert Christgau wrote:Elevated by the Rolling Stones into mythic status among white people, the Turners are now haunted by their profligate recording habits — Capitol is the tenth label to release an I&TT LP in the past two years. Granted and maybe all of them are better than this, a humdrum blues runthrough on which Ike claims authorship of such works as "Dust My Broom" and "Ten Long Years".
It was cut some years ago for Cenco Records. The Turners are contracted to Liberty, have authorized product out on A&M and Blue Thumb, caveat emptor. Length from Her Man... His Woman reissue, her Man... His Woman credits Engineer – Ed Flaherty, Hugh Davies Executive-Producer – Mauri Lathower Horns – Phil Wright Producer – David Michaels, Ike Turner Strings – Kirby Johnson
Live and Raw 70/71 is a live album by British rock band Atomic Rooster. It consists of two short concerts, specially-staged at the BBC's Paris Theatre in 1970 and 1971; the original BBC master tapes of these concerts are now lost, the source was an old tape, belonging to John Du Cann, of a poor quality off-air recording. Nonetheless, the album is important to Atomic Rooster fans, as there are few surviving live recordings of the first two lineups of the band. 1970: "Friday the 13th" 6:38 "Gershatzer" 8:16 "Winter" 6:34 "Before Tomorrow" aka "Shabooloo" 6:551971: "Sleeping for Years" 6:16 "VUG" 3:50 "Tomorrow Night" 6:37 "I Can't Take No More" 12:07 Vincent Crane: Hammond organ John Du Cann: guitars, vocals Carl Palmer: drums, percussion Paul Hammond: drums, percussion
The 2019–20 season is the 123rd season of competitive football by Heart of Midlothian with the team participating in the Scottish Premiership. Hearts are playing their fifth consecutive season in the top tier of Scottish football, having been promoted from the Scottish Championship at the end of the 2014–15 season, they will compete in the Scottish League Cup and the Scottish Cup. Win Draw Loss Postponed Christophe Berra continued as captain for season 2019–20, having been re-appointed as captain two seasons earlier. In January 2020, following Daniel Stendel's appointment as manager Berra was advised he was free to find a new club and was dropped from the team. Steven Naismith was appointed as club captain, with John Souttar named as vice-captain. Last updated: 11 MarchSource: Competitive match reports. Competitive matches only Matches started as captain onlyCountry: FIFA nationality. Games: Number of games started as captain. During the 2019–20 season, Hearts have used thirty-six players in competitive games.
The table below shows the number of goals scored by each player. Last Updated 11 March 2020 Appearances and goals include those in Scottish Premiership, League Cup and the Scottish Cup. During the 2019–20 season, Hearts players have been issued with seventy-six yellow cards and five reds; the table below shows the number of cards and type shown to each player. Last updated 11 March 2020 Last updated 11 March 2020 Last updated on 11 March 2020
The Last Five Minutes is a 1955 French-Italian comedy film directed by Giuseppe Amato and starring Linda Darnell, Vittorio De Sica and Peppino De Filippo. It is known by the alternative title of It Happens in Roma; the film's art direction was by Guido Fiorini. In the post-World War II Vittorio De Sica as Carlo Reani is looking for an apartment and finds the perfect one, but Linda Darnell as Renata Adorni is being shown the apartment at the same time, they both decide to get it but bump into each other with their realtors and a dispute begans as to who has a right to get the apartment as Renata says it is hers as she has sent in a contract. They send their realtors racing to get it and bring their luggage back first, but they return at the same time; however Carlo proposes marriage to Renata and she accepts and they end up getting it together. Linda Darnell as Renata Adorni Vittorio De Sica as Carlo Reani Peppino De Filippo as Filippo Roberti Rossano Brazzi as Dino Moriani Nadia Gray as Valeria Roberti, moglie di Filippo Sophie Desmarets as La duchessa Isabella Camporese Pierre Cressoy as Dagoberto Elsa Merlini as Amica del pianista Gianrico Tedeschi as Il pianista Georges Bréhat as L'attore francese Memmo Carotenuto as Operaio dell'ascensore Henri Vidon as Un cardinale Nando Bruno as Il portiere Enrico Viarisio as Francesco, il maggiordomo Silvana Jachino as La cameriera Luigi Almirante as Segretario del cardinale Lise Bourdin Davis, Ronald L. Hollywood Beauty: Linda Darnell and the American Dream.
University of Oklahoma Press, 2014. The Last Five Minutes on IMDb