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Sorbonne

The Sorbonne is a building in the Latin Quarter of Paris which from 1253 on housed the College of Sorbonne, part of one of the first universities in the world renamed University of Paris and known as "the Sorbonne". Today, it continues to house the successor universities of the University of Paris, such as Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Nouvelle University and University of Paris, as well as the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris. Sorbonne Université is now the university resulting from the merger on January 1, 2018 of Paris 6 UPMC and Paris 4 Sorbonne; the name is derived from the Collège de Sorbonne, founded in 1257 by the eponymous Robert de Sorbon as one of the first significant colleges of the medieval University of Paris. The library was among the first to arrange items alphabetically according to title; the university predates the college by about a century, minor colleges had been founded during the late 12th century. During the 16th century, the Sorbonne became involved with the intellectual struggle between Catholics and Protestants.

The University served as a major stronghold of Catholic conservative attitudes and, as such, conducted a struggle against King Francis I's policy of relative tolerance towards the French Protestants, except for a brief period during 1533 when the University was placed under Protestant control. The Collège de Sorbonne was suppressed during the French Revolution, reopened by Napoleon in 1808 and closed in 1882; this was only one of the many colleges of the University of Paris that existed until the French revolution. Hastings Rashdall, in The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, still a standard reference on the topic, lists some 70 colleges of the university from the Middle Ages alone. With time, the college came to be the main French institution for theological studies and "Sorbonne" was used as a synonym for the Paris Faculty of Theology despite being only one of many colleges of the university. After months of conflicts between students and authorities at the University of Paris at Nanterre, the administration closed that university on May 2, 1968.

Students at the Sorbonne campus in Paris met on May 3 to protest against the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre. On May 6, the national student union, the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France — still the largest student union in France today — and the union of university teachers called a march to protest against the police invasion of Sorbonne. More than 20,000 students and other supporters marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to make barricades out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones, forcing the police to retreat for a time; the police responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again. Hundreds of students were arrested. May 10 marked the "Night of Barricades", where students used cars and cobblestones to barricade the streets of the Latin Quarter. Brutal street fighting ensued between students and riot police, most notably on Rue Gay-Lussac.

Early the next morning, as the fighting disbanded, Daniel Cohn-Bendit sent out a radio broadcast calling for a general strike. On Monday, 13 May, more than one million workers went on strike and the students declared that the Sorbonne was "open to the public". Negotiations ended, students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover police still occupying the schools; when the Sorbonne reopened, students occupied it and declared it an autonomous "People's University". During the weeks that followed 401 popular action committees were established in Paris and elsewhere to document grievances against the government and French society, including the Occupation Committee of the Sorbonne. In 1970, the University of Paris was divided into thirteen universities, managed by a common rectorate, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, with offices in the Sorbonne. Three of those universities maintain facilities in the historical building of the Sorbonne, thus have the word in their name: Sorbonne University, Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Nouvelle University.

Paris Descartes University uses the Sorbonne building. The building houses the École Nationale des Chartes, the École pratique des hautes études, the Cours de Civilisation Française de la Sorbonne and the Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne; the Sorbonne Chapel was classified as a French historic monument in 1887. The amphitheatre and the entire building complex became monuments in 1975. Despite being a valued brand, the Sorbonne universities did not register their names as trademarks until the 1990s. Over the following years, they established partnerships, merging projects and associated institutions with the name Sorbonne, sometimes triggering conflicts over the usage and ownership of the name. Following the May 1968 events, French higher education was reorganized in the Faure law of November 12, 1968; some of the 13 autonomous universities created after the breakup of the University of Paris maintained operations in the Sorbonne building and decided to keep the word Sorbonne in their names: The University of Paris 1, the University of Paris 3 and the University of Paris 4.

Two other universities maintained operations in the building but opted to abandon the

Radhya Al-Mutawakel

Radhya Al-Mutawakel is a human rights defender and the Yemeni co-founder and chairperson of Mwatana Organisation For Human Rights, an independent organisation working to defend and protect human rights in Yemen. Al-Mutawakel and Mwatana's recent recent work has focused on documenting alleged human rights abuses by all parties to the current conflict in Yemen, including by the United States, the Saudi-led coalition and the Houthi forces, she has briefed the UN Security Council on the humanitarian crisis in Yemen, becoming the first person to do so, has written and appeared in a range of media outlets, including Vice News, the Guardian, The New Internationalist, talking about human rights violations during the conflict. Between 2000-2004 Al-Mutawakel worked for the National Commission for Women in Yemen, where she was responsible for public relations and women's participation in political processes. In 2004 she began working on Yemeni human rights with the Organisation for the Defence of Rights and Freedoms.

During this period her work was focused on human rights violations in the context of the Sa'adah conflict in northern Yemen, with a focus on the enforced disappearances and arbitrary arrests that took place during the war. Al-Mutawakel and her husband Abdulrasheed Al-Faqih founded Mwatana in 2007, its stated aim is "defending and protecting human rights...through field investigations and research to produce accurate and objective accounts of the facts regarding its mission in order to detect and stop human rights violations." Mwatana has teams of field researchers in 18 Yemeni governorates and employs more than 60 people, half of whom are women. Between 2007 - 2010, Al-Mutawakel continued to focus on human rights violations in the context of the ongoing Sa'adah conflict, including violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law. In 2013, Al-Mutawakel and Mwatana collaborated with Open Society Foundations to produce a joint report entitled "Death by Drones" which included research and monitoring of the damage and civilian deaths caused by nine US drone strikes in five Yemeni governorates - Sana'a, Dhamar, al-Baidha - between May 2012 and April 2014.

In 2017, Al-Mutawakel undertook an advocacy tour which included visits to the US, UK, other European countries, to speak about the conflict in Yemen and the human rights violations committed by all parties to the conflict, to seek to engage different nations to bring an end to the conflict. During the tour, on 30 May 2017, she briefed the UN Security Council on the conflict in Yemen, becoming the first Yemeni women to brief the Security Council. In mid-2017 Al-Mutawakel and Al-Faqih participated in Columbia Law School Human Rights Institute's'Practitioner-in-Residence' program. During their residency the pair led workshops on subjects including on fact-finding strategies during conflict, they held numerous meetings with US-based NGOs, diplomatic and UN actors, Al-Mutawakel briefed the UN Security Council. The pair were given the "Global Advocate Award" 2017. On May 30,2017 Al-Mutawakel briefed the UN Security Council on the conflict in Yemen, she made a series of calls which echoed those being made by Mwatana and others in a variety of forums.

The calls included: To establish an international independent commission of inquiry to investigate violations by all parties to the conflict. Gulf Centre for Human Rights and Freedom of Speech defender for October 2017 - won. Columbia Law School, Human Rights Institute Global Advocate Award - won jointly with Abdulrasheed Al-Faqih. Radhya Al-Mutawakel on Twitter Official website

1977 National Provincial Championship

The National Provincial Championship, or NPC, was the predecessor to the current Air New Zealand Cup and Heartland Championship in New Zealand rugby. 1977 was the second year of the National Provincial Championship, Canterbury were the winners of Division 1, thus claiming the title of National Champions. These were the NPC Division 1 standings for the 1977 season. Pld = Played W = Win D = Draw L = Loss PF = For PA = Against PD = Points difference TF = Tries for Pts = Championship points Bay of Plenty and Marlborough finished in the bottom two of Division 1; the winners of Division 2 North, North Auckland, were automatically promoted to Division 1. Bay of Plenty were relegated, just one season; the winners of Division 2 South, South Canterbury, played Marlborough and won 13-9 to earn promotion to Division 1. Marlborough were relegated to Division 2. Thesilverfern.co.nz