The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions known as the Treaty of Moscow, was a strategic arms reduction treaty between the United States and Russia, in force from June 2003 until February 2011 when it was superseded by the New START treaty. At the time, SORT was positioned as "represent an important element of the new strategic relationship" between the two countries with both parties agreeing to limit their nuclear arsenal to between 1,700 and 2,200 operationally deployed warheads each, it was signed in Moscow on 24 May 2002. After ratification by the U. S. Senate and the State Duma, SORT came into force on 1 June 2003, it would have expired on 31 December 2012 if not superseded by New START. Either party could have withdrawn from the treaty upon giving three months written notice to the other. SORT was one in a long line of treaties and negotiations on mutual nuclear disarmament between Russia and the United States, which includes SALT I, the ABM Treaty, SALT II, the INF Treaty, START I, START II and New START.
The Moscow Treaty was different from START in that it limited operationally deployed warheads, whereas START I limited warheads through declared attribution to their means of delivery. Russian and U. S. delegations met twice a year to discuss the implementation of the Moscow Treaty at the Bilateral Implementation Commission. The treaty was submitted for ratification on December 2002. However, the passage of the agreement took about a year because the bill had to be resubmitted after its rejection in committee due to concerns about funding for nuclear forces and about cutting systems that had not yet reached the end of their service lives. Further, the deputies were concerned about the U. S. ability to upload reserve nuclear warheads for a first strike. The ratification was problematic because the chairman of the foreign affairs committee of the Duma, Dmitry Rogozin, disagreed with his Federation Council counterpart Margelov. Deputy Rogozin argued that the Moscow Treaty should be delayed because of the 2003 U.
S. invasion of Iraq. In the end, this delay never happened; the final vote was similar to START II with nearly a third of the deputies voting against. The ratification resolution mandated presidential reporting on nuclear force developments and noted that key legislators should be included in interagency planning. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory reported that President Bush directed the US military to cut its stockpile of both deployed and reserve nuclear weapons in half by 2012; the goal was achieved in 2007, a reduction of US nuclear warheads to just over 50 percent of the 2001 total. A further proposal by Bush would have brought the total down another 15 percent; the treaty was criticized for various reasons: There were no verification provisions to give confidence, to either the signatories or other parties, that the stated reductions have in fact taken place. The arsenal reductions were not required to be permanent; the arsenal reductions were required to be completed by 31 December 2012, the day on which the treaty loses all force, unless extended by both parties.
There was a clause in the treaty which provided that withdrawal can occur upon the giving of three months' notice and since no benchmarks are required in the treaty, either side could feasibly perform no actions in furtherance of the treaty, withdraw in September 2012. There have been several other treaties known as the Treaty of Moscow Russia and weapons of mass destruction United States and weapons of mass destruction New START Treaty Nuclear Files.org Text of the SORT
Sort is the capital of the comarca of Pallars Sobirà, in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, in the country of Spain. It is located at 692 metres by the river Noguera Pallaresa, a tributary to the Segre. Population 2,113, it was once capital of the County of Pallars. The word sort is Catalan for "luck"; the Sort-based lottery shop La Bruixa d'Or has taken advantage of the town's name to promote itself both within Spain and over the Internet. They claim to have a disproportionate number of lottery winners; the municipality includes the small village of Olp. Pallars Sobirà Official website Pallars Sobirà Tourism Government data pages
Sorting is any process of arranging items systematically, has two common, yet distinct meanings: ordering: arranging items in a sequence ordered by some criterion. In computer science, arranging in an ordered sequence is called "sorting". Sorting is a common operation in many applications, efficient algorithms to perform it have been developed; the most common uses of sorted sequences are: making search efficient. Enable processing of data in a defined order; the opposite of sorting, rearranging a sequence of items in a random or meaningless order, is called shuffling. For sorting, either a weak order, "should not come after", can be specified, or a strict weak order, "should come before". For the sorting to be unique, these two are restricted to a total order and a strict total order, respectively. Sorting n-tuples can be done based on one or more of its components. More objects can be sorted based on a property; such a component or property is called a sort key. For example, the items are books, the sort key is the title, subject or author, the order is alphabetical.
A new sort key can be created from two or more sort keys by lexicographical order. The first is called the primary sort key, the second the secondary sort key, etc. For example, addresses could be sorted using the city as primary sort key, the street as secondary sort key. If the sort key values are ordered, the sort key defines a weak order of the items: items with the same sort key are equivalent with respect to sorting. See stable sorting. If different items have different sort key values this defines a unique order of the items. A standard order is called ascending, the reverse order descending. For dates and times, ascending means that earlier values precede ones e.g. 1/1/2000 will sort ahead of 1/1/2001. Bubble/Shell sort: Exchange two adjacent elements if they are out of order. Repeat until array is sorted. Insertion sort: Scan successive elements for an out-of-order item insert the item in the proper place. Selection sort: Find the smallest element in the array, put it in the proper place.
Swap it with the value in the first position. Repeat until array is sorted. Quick sort: Partition the array into two segments. In the first segment, all elements are equal to the pivot value. In the second segment, all elements are equal to the pivot value. Sort the two segments recursively. Merge sort: Divide the list of elements in two parts, sort the two parts individually and merge it. Various sorting tasks are essential in industrial processes. For example, during the extraction of gold from ore, a device called a shaker table uses gravity and flow to separate gold from lighter materials in the ore. Sorting is a occurring process that results in the concentration of ore or sediment. Sorting results from the application of some criterion or differential stressor to a mass to separate it into its components based on some variable quality. Materials that are different, but only so, such as the isotopes of uranium, are difficult to separate. Optical sorting is an automated process of sorting solid products using cameras and/or lasers and has widespread use in the food industry.
Help:Sorting in Wikipedia tables. For sorting of categories, see Wikipedia:Categorization#Sort keys and for sorting of article sections, see WP:ORDER Collation IBM mainframe sort/merge Unicode collation algorithm Demonstration of Sorting Algorithms Animated video explaining bubble sort and quick sort and compares their performance
In typesetting by hand compositing, a sort or type is a piece of type representing a particular letter or symbol, cast from a matrix mold and assembled with other sorts bearing additional letters into lines of type to make up a form from which a page is printed. From the invention of movable type up to the invention of hot metal typesetting all printed text was created by selecting sorts from a type case and assembling them line by line into a form used to print a page; when the form was no longer needed all of the type had to be sorted back into the correct slots in the type case in a time-consuming process called "distributing". This sorting process led to the individual pieces being called sorts, it is claimed to be the root of expressions such as "out of sorts" and "wrong sort", although this connection is disputed. During the hot metal typesetting era, printing equipment used matrices to cast type as needed during the typesetting process; the popular Linotype cast entire lines of text at once rather than individual sorts, while the less popular competitor Monotype still cast the sorts individually.
When phototypesetting replaced hot metal typesetting, sorts disappeared from the mainstream printing process. History of western typography Matrix Typeface Typography Typeface anatomy Nesbitt, Alexander The History and Technique of Lettering 1957, Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-20427-8, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 57-13116; the Dover edition is an abridged and corrected republication of the work published in 1950 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. under the title Lettering: The History and Technique of Lettering as Design. Typowiki, a type wiki at typophile.com Metal Type - For Those who Remember Hot Metal Typesetting