Inns are establishments or buildings where travelers can seek lodging and food and drink. They are located in the country or along a highway. Inns in Europe were first established when the Romans built their system of Roman roads two millennia ago; some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travelers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. Inns in Europe provided not only food and lodging, but stabling and fodder for the travelers' horses. Famous London examples of inns include the Tabard. There is however no longer other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use the name "inn", either because they are long established and may have been coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image. Inns were like bed and breakfasts, with a community dining room, used for town meetings or rented for wedding parties; the front, facing the road was welcoming for travelers. The back usually had at least one livery barn for travelers to keep their horses.
There were not lobbies as in modern inns. Many inns were large estates that had extra rooms for renting. During the 19th century the inn played a major role in the growing transportation system of England. Industry was on the rise and people were traveling more in order to keep and maintain business; the English Inn was considered an important part of English infrastructure as it helped maintain a smooth flow of travel throughout the country. As modes of transport have evolved, tourist lodging has adapted to serve each generation of traveller. A stagecoach made frequent stops at roadside coaching inns for water and horses. A passenger train stops only at designated stations in the city centre, around which were built grand railway hotels. Motorcar traffic on old-style two-lane highways may pause at any camp, cabin court or motel along the way, while freeway traffic is restricted to access from designated off-ramps to side roads which become crowded with hotel chain operators; the original functions of an inn are now split among separate establishments, such as hotels and motels, all of which might provide the traditional functions of an inn but which focus more on lodging customers than on other services.
The lodging aspect of the word inn lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, in some laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers. The Inns of Court in London were once accommodations for members of the legal profession. Other forms of inn exist throughout the world. Among them are the honjin and ryokan of Japan, caravanserai of the Central Asia and Middle East, Jiuguan in ancient China. In Asia Minor, during the periods of rule by the Seljuq and Ottoman Turks, impressive structures functioning as inns were built because it was thought that inns were significant; these inns provided accommodation for people and their vehicles or animals and served as a resting place for people, whether travelling on foot or by other means. These inns were built between towns; these structures were called caravansarais which were inns with large courtyards with ample supplies of water for both drinking and other uses. They would routinely contain a café in addition to supplies of food and fodder. After the caravans traveled a while they would take a break at these caravansarais, spend the night there to rest both themselves and their animals.
The term "inn" characterized a rural hotel which provided lodging and refreshments, accommodations for travelers' horses. To capitalize on this nostalgic image many lower end and middling modern motor hotel operators seek to distance themselves from similar motels by styling themselves "inns", regardless of services and accommodations provided. Examples are Holiday Inn, Comfort Inn, Days Inn and Knights Inn; the term inn is retained in its historic use in many laws governing motels and hotels known as "innkeeper's acts", or refer to hôteliers and motel operators as "innkeepers" in the body of the legislation These laws define the innkeepers' liability for valuables entrusted to them by clients and determine whether an innkeeper holds any lien against such goods. In some jurisdictions, an offence named as "defrauding an innkeeper" prohibits fraudulently obtaining "food, lodging, or other accommodation at any hotel, boarding house, or eating house". Burke, Thomas The Book of the Inn: being two hundred pictures of the English inn from the earliest times to the coming of the railway hotel.
London: Constable Burke, Thomas The English Inn. London: Herbert Jenkins --do.-- --do.--Revised. London: Herbert Jenkins Everitt, Alan "The English Urban Inn", in his: Landscape and Community in England. London: Hambledon Press ISBN 0907628427 (The Oxford Companion to Local
Snus is a moist powder tobacco product originating from a variant of dry snuff in early 18th-century Sweden. It is placed in upper lip for extended periods. Snus is not fermented. Although used to American dipping tobacco, snus does not result in the need for spitting and, unlike naswar, snus is steam-pasteurized. Sale of snus is illegal in all the European Union countries except Sweden. Local varieties of snus, growing in popularity in the United States, have been seen as an alternative to smoking and dipping tobacco. However, US-manufactured snus does not have the same production standards or ingredients as Swedish snus, uses significant amounts of sweeteners. Snus contains nicotine, addictive; the chemical constituents of different types of snus vary, population-level studies suggest that the disease risks do, too. In the 16th century, the precursor of snus, was introduced to France by French diplomat Jean Nicot, who worked at the court of King Henry II of France, he recommended snuff to Catherine de' Medici as a migraine remedy.
When she became a regular user of snuff, it became a fashion among the court and upper-class citizens of France among females, as it was deemed more acceptable than other forms of tobacco. This trend of using snuff in the nose spread to Sweden at the beginning of the 17th century. In the 18th century, Swedish producers began to manufacture moist snuff, placed in the lower lip and did not require spitting, it became known as snus. Ettan, registered since 1822, is the oldest brand of snus still sold, it is a popular myth that snus or any other forms of smokeless tobacco contains fiberglass, or glass particles, as an aid to the absorption of nicotine by the user's blood. This is not true. Mucous membranes absorb free nicotine; the burning sensation is caused by the nicotine itself and some food additives such as sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate is a food additive used to increase the pH of the tobacco; this increases the bioavailability of the nicotine, meaning more is available for absorption. Some flavorings may increase the tingling or burning sensation.
Snus, dry snuff, dipping tobacco are distinct products that English speaking people call snuff but are processed and used in different ways, each with their own sets of risks. The English word "snuff" is translated to snus in Swedish; the word "snuff" is used to refer to the nasal form of tobacco. The same is true of American dipping tobacco, known in America as snuff. In Sweden, nasal snuff is referred to as luktsnus. Outside of the US, cured moist snuff, applied to the lower lip, that requires spitting, is called American dipping tobacco; some forms of tobacco consumed in the mouth may be categorized as: Scandinavian snus is a moist form of smokeless tobacco, placed under the upper lip, which does not result in the need for spitting. It is sold either as a moist powder known as loose snus, or prepackaged into pouches known as portion snus. Snus is mildly flavored with food-grade smoke aroma, citrus, juniper berry, herbs and/or floral flavors. Most Scandinavian snus is regulated as food under the Swedish Food Act.
American snus, available since the late 1990s, is similar to the Scandinavian form, but has a lower moisture content and lower pH, resulting in lower bioavailability of nicotine than Scandinavian varieties, meaning less is available for absorption. American snus is flavored, e.g. with spearmint, vanilla or fruit, may contain sugar. Nasal snuff, referred to as luktsnus in Swedish and luktesnus in Norwegian, as "Scotch snuff" in the US, is a dry, powdered form of snuff, it is insufflated – "sniffed" but not "snorted" – through the nose. It is mentholated or otherwise scented. Chewing tobacco known as chew, is tobacco in the form of short or long, loose leaf and stem strands, or less of chopped leaves and stems compressed into blocks called plugs, or finely ground pieces compressed into pellets. A few brands are cut like cigarette rolling tobacco. Chew is placed between the cheek and the gums, or chewed, it causes copious salivation when chewed, due to its irritant effect on the esophagus, this "juice" requires spitting.
Chewing tobacco is a long-established North American form of tobacco, is legal in the European Union. Chewing tobacco is sometimes e.g. with wintergreen, apple, or cherry. Dipping tobacco known as dip, spit tobacco or, ambiguously, as moist snuff, is a common American form of tobacco, it is moist, somewhat finely ground, but less so than snus. Dipping tobacco is placed between cheek and the gums; as with chewing tobacco, salivation is copious, spat out. Dipping tobacco is flavored, traditionally with wintergreen or mint, though many other flavorings are now available, while some unflavored brands remain popular. Beginning in the mid 1980s, several brands hav
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but both are a part of the City of Copenhagen, it occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015. Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two; some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, being one of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen. However, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or "posh", area, and is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens, Søndermarken, Hostrups Have. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as several stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg.
The Copenhagen S-train system has several stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station and Flintholm station. Frederiksberg's original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the reciter of eldritch times; the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title. In Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as "the old thul". Thula translates like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda. By 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy, it was regarded as Copenhagen's border to the west. People lived here since the Bronze Age; the history of Frederiksberg goes back to 2 June 1651 when King Frederik III gave 20 Danish—Dutch peasants the rights to settle at Allégade, founded the town named "Ny Amager" or "Ny Hollænderby". Farming was not successful, in 1697 most of the town burned down; this meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, the land reverted to the crown by Frederik III's son Christian V. In 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke.
He named the palace Frederichs Berg, the rebuilt town at the foot of the hill changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the local houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land, but rather used the properties as country houses; the town changed from a farming community to a merchant town, with craftsmen and merchants. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the cramped city for the open land, to be near the royals; the town grew with population growing from 1,000 in 1770, to 1,200 in 1800, to 3,000 in 1850. In 1852 Parliament removed restrictions which prohibited permanent construction outside Copenhagen's city walls. Numerous residential areas were constructed, starting in the eastern part near Copenhagen, ending in the western part farthest away from Copenhagen in 1950; this led to rapid population growth. Today Frederiksberg consists entirely of 3- to 5-story residential houses, large single-family homes, large parks.
On aerial pictures Frederiksberg stands out from the surrounding city of Copenhagen as a green area with few large roads. It is considered to be one of Copenhagen's more prestigious areas to live in. Frederiksberg, which lies west of central Copenhagen, is surrounded by boroughs forming part of the city of Copenhagen – the result of an expansion of the Copenhagen Municipality's boundary in 1901, which did not include Frederiksberg in the list of municipalities to be incorporated in the enlarged area. Frederiksberg is thus a municipal island within the country's capital – a unique phenomenon in present-day Europe. Other than administratively, however, it is indistinguishable in character from the districts of Copenhagen city which surround it. Frederiksberg has several stations on the Copenhagen Metro system, is home to the tallest residential structure in Denmark and the second tallest residential building in Scandinavia: the 102-metre high Domus Vista; the Danmark Rundt cycling race traditionally finishes on Frederiksberg Alle in a sprint finish.
Frederiksberg houses the University of Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Campus, Copenhagen Business School, 9 public schools, 3 private schools, 1 technical college, more. The Lycée Français Prins Henrik, a French international school, is in Frederiksberg; the 3 streets Gammel Kongevej, Godthåbsvej, Falkoner Alle are the busiest shopping streets. The town houses the Frederiksberg Centret shopping mall. Frederiksberg Campus Frederiksberg Gardens Frederiksberg Hospital Frederiksberg Palace Frederiksberg Town Hall Copenhagen Business School Copenhagen Zoo Royal Danish Military Academy Population of Frederiksberg
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus. An apricot tree is from the species P. armeniaca, but the species P. brigantina, P. mandshurica, P. mume, P. zhengheensis and P. sibirica are related, have similar fruit, are called apricots. The scientific name armeniaca was first used by Gaspard Bauhin in his Pinax Theatri Botanici, referring to the species as Mala armeniaca "Armenian apple". Linnaeus took up Bauhin's epithet in the first edition of his Species Plantarum in 1753, Prunus armeniaca. Apricot first appeared in English in the 16th century as abrecock from the Middle French aubercot or abricot, from Spanish albaricoque and Catalan abercoc, in turn from Arabic الْبَرْقُوق, from Byzantine Greek βερικοκκίᾱ, derived from late Greek πραικόκιον from Latin praecocia; the apricot is a small tree, 8–12 m tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm in diameter and a dense, spreading canopy. The leaves are ovate, 5–9 cm long and 4–8 cm wide, with a rounded base, a pointed tip and a finely serrated margin.
The flowers are 2–4.5 cm in diameter, with five white to pinkish petals. The fruit is a drupe similar to a small peach, 1.5–2.5 cm diameter, from yellow to orange tinged red on the side most exposed to the sun. The flesh is firm and not juicy, its taste can range from sweet to tart. The single seed is enclosed in a hard, stony shell called a "stone" or "kernel", with a grainy, smooth texture except for three ridges running down one side; the origin of the apricot is unsettled. It was known in Armenia during ancient times, has been cultivated there for so long that it is thought to have originated there, its scientific name Prunus armeniaca derives from that assumption. For example, the Belgian arborist baron de Poerderlé, writing in the 1770s, asserted, "Cet arbre tire son nom de l'Arménie, province d'Asie, d'où il est originaire et d'où il fut porté en Europe...". An archaeological excavation at Garni in Armenia found apricot seeds in a Chalcolithic-era site. Despite the great number of varieties of apricots that are grown in Armenia today, according to the Soviet botanist Nikolai Vavilov, its center of origin would be the Chinese region, where the domestication of the apricot would have taken place.
Other sources say that the apricot was first cultivated in India in about 3000 BC. Its introduction to Greece is attributed to Alexander the Great. Subsequent sources were confused about the origin of the species. John Claudius Loudon believed it had a wide native range including Armenia, the Caucasus, the Himalayas and Japan. Apricots have been cultivated in Persia since antiquity, dried ones were an important commodity on Persian trade routes. Apricots remain an important fruit in modern-day Iran. Egyptians dry apricots, add sweetener, use them to make a drink called amar al-dīn. In England during the 17th century, apricot oil was used in herbalism treatments intended to act against tumors and ulcers. In the 17th century, English settlers brought the apricot to the English colonies in the New World. Most of modern American production of apricots comes from the seedlings carried to the west coast by Spanish missionaries. All U. S. commercial production is with some in Washington and Utah. Apricots have a chilling requirement of 300 to 900 chilling units.
A dry climate is good for fruit maturation. The tree is more cold-hardy than the peach, tolerating winter temperatures as cold as −30 °C or lower if healthy, they are hardy in USDA zones 5 through 8. A limiting factor in apricot culture is spring frosts: They tend to flower early, meaning spring frost can kill the flowers. Furthermore, the trees are sensitive to temperature changes during the winter season. In China, winters can be cold, but temperatures tend to be more stable than in Europe and North America, where large temperature swings can occur in winter. Hybridisation with the related Prunus sibirica offers options for breeding more cold-tolerant plants, they prefer well-drained soils with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. Apricot cultivars are grafted onto plum or peach rootstocks; the cultivar scion provides the fruit characteristics, such as flavour and size, but the rootstock provides the growth characteristics of the plant. Some of the more popular US apricot cultivars are'Blenheim','Wenatchee Moorpark','Tilton', and'Perfection'.
Some apricot cultivars do not require pollinizer trees. Hybridisors have created what is known as a "black apricot" or "purple apricot", a hybrid of an apricot and the cherry plum. Other apricot–plum hybrids are variously called plumcots, pluots, or apriums. Apricots are susceptible to various diseases whose relative importance is different in the major production regions as a consequence of their climatic differences. For example, hot weather as experienced in California's Central Valley
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 3.76 km², has a population of 51,466 and a population density of 13,688 per km². Neighboring city districts are: to the northeast, the Indre By known as "Copenhagen Center" or "Downtown Copenhagen" or "City" to the north, Frederiksberg municipality, not a part of Copenhagen municipality but rather an enclave surrounded by the municipality to the west, Valby to the south, Kongens Enghave. Vesterbro is located just outside Copenhagen’s city center—the Inner City or Indre By—making it a attractive place to live, as are the other areas outside the center: the Indre Nørrebro, Indre Østerbro and Christianshavn; the district is located west of the city center at the location of the old Western Gate, access way into the old city. The gate, along with the other three gates into the old city-- Østerport near the current Østerport station), Nørreport near the current Nørreport station, Amagerport between Christianshavn and the island of Amager-- were dismantled in 1856.
The name "Vesterbro" translates into English as "Western Bridge", refers to the paved road leading into the city through the Western Gate. Vesterbro is the area of the bridge into the city of Copenhagen, a much smaller city at the time when the name was created. At that time, the city was ringed by a moat which exist today as others; the area is under the process of being renovated to a great extent and the renovation ended in 2017. The environment and sustainability is one of the essential reasons for the renovation. Vesterbro has a central location, it has had a reputation as a center for prostitution and drug trafficking, where only the poorest would live, there is still a certain amount of these activities in the area on Istedgade and near Halmtorvet, but there has been police focus on clearing up troublesome areas. The area is known as the easy place to get drugs in Copenhagen. Vesterbro was the name of the paved country road that led into the city center from the west. Few country roads in those days were paved, but the amount of traffic into the capital necessitated it.
Until 1853 after the cholera epidemic that had hit Copenhagen, there had been a "no build" zone outside Copenhagen’s old part of town, the part now known as the Inner City or Indre By. This Demarcation Line indicated an area beyond the city’s centuries old defense wall system where Copenhagen’s defense forces could strike the enemy unhindered; until there was little development outside the center of the city, except with special permission. Though much of the area was used as grazing land, by the 1780s there were approx. 1,000 inhabitants of the area, as well as a number of commercial enterprises, the house of the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society and Danish Brotherhood. The society received permission to build outside the old city limits in the 1750s, the building has housed the Copenhagen City Museum since 1956. With the abolishment of the demarcation line in 1853, the dismantling of the old fortifications that ringed the center of town in the late 1860s, the removal of the old entrance gates to the city in 1856, the population spread out to the “as yet” undeveloped areas outside the center.
This movement came first to the inner ring of areas outside the center: the Indre Østerbro, the Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg. At that time the name Vesterbro began being used for the entire area around the street named Vesterbro, late in the 1800s the name of the street itself was changed to Vesterbrogade. Istedgade Carlsberg neighbourhood Copenhagen Puppet Festival Det Ny Teater Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Tivoli Gardens Tycho Brahe Planetarium Museum of Copenhagen Copenhagen Meatpacking District Radisson SAS Royal Hotel, Copenhagen Sorte Hest Enghaveparken Skydebanehaven City of Copenhagen’s statistical office Copenhagen/Vesterbro travel guide from Wikivoyage Spurce Source
Johann Friedrich Struensee
Johann Friedrich, Greve Struensee was a German doctor. He became royal physician to the mentally ill King Christian VII of Denmark and a minister in the Danish government, he rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda caused a scandal after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death. Born at Halle an der Saale and baptized at St. Moritz on 7 August 1737, Struensee was the third child of six born to Pietist theologian and minister Adam Struensee, Pfarrer in Halle an der Saale in 1732, "Dr. theol. von Halle" in 1757, pastor in Altona between 1757 and 1760, "Kgl. Generalsuperintendant von Schleswig und Holstein" between 1760 and 1791, his wife Maria Dorothea Carl, a respectable middle-class family that believed in religious tolerance. Three of the Struensee sons went to University. Johann Friedrich entered the University of Halle on 5 August 1752 at the age of fifteen where he studied Medicine, graduated as a Doctor in Medicine on 12 December 1757.
The university exposed him to Age of Enlightenment ideals, social and political critique and reform. He supported these new ideas, becoming a proponent of atheism, the writings of Claude Adrien Helvétius, other French materialists; when Adam and Maria Dorothea Struensee moved to Altona in 1758, where the elder Struensee became pastor of Trinitatiskirche, Johann Friedrich moved with them. He was soon employed as a public doctor in Altona, in the estate of Count Rantzau, in the Pinneberg District, his wages were meager, he expected to supplement them with private practice. His parents moved to Rendsburg in 1760 where Adam Struensee became first superintendent for the duchy, subsequently superintendent-general of Schleswig-Holstein. Johann Struensee, now 23 years old, had to set up his own household for the first time, his lifestyle expectations were not matched by his economics. His superior intelligence and elegant manners, soon made him fashionable in the better circles, he entertained his contemporaries with his controversial opinions.
He was ambitious, petitioned the Dano-Norwegian government in the person of Denmark-Norways’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count von Bernstorff for funds. He tried his hand at writing Enlightenment treatises, published many of them in his journal Zum Nutzen und Vergnügen. During Struensee's near ten-year residence in Altona he came into contact with a circle of aristocrats, sent away from the royal court in Copenhagen. Among them were Enevold Brandt and Count Schack Carl Rantzau, who were supporters of the Enlightenment. Rantzau recommended Struensee to the court as a physician to attend King Christian VII on his forthcoming tour to princely and royal courts in western Germany, the Netherlands and France. Struensee received the appointment in April 1768; the king and his entourage set forth on 6 May. While in England Struensee received the honorary degree of Doctor in Medicine from the University of Cambridge. During the eight-month tour he gained the king's affection; the king's ministers and Finance Minister H.
C. Schimmelmann, were pleased with Struensee's influence on the king, who began making fewer embarrassing "scenes". Upon the court's return to Copenhagen in January 1769, Struensee was appointed personal physician to the king. In May, he was given the honorary title of State Councillor, which advanced him to the class of the third rank at court. Struensee wrote an important report on the mental health of the King First he reconciled the king and queen. At first Caroline Matilda disliked Struensee, but she was unhappy in her marriage and spurned by the king, affected by his illness, but Struensee was one of the few people who paid attention to the lonely queen, he seemed to do his best to alleviate her troubles. Over time her affection for the young doctor grew and by spring 1770 he became her lover. Struensee was involved with the upbringing of the Crown Prince Frederick VI along the principles of Enlightenment, such as outlined by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's challenge to return to nature; however he had his own rather strict interpretation of Rousseau's ideas, by isolating the child, encouraging him to manage things on his own.
He took Rousseau's advice about cold being beneficial for children and the Crown Prince was thus only sparsely clothed during winter time. Struensee was named royal adviser and konferensråd on 5 May 1770; the royal court and government spent the summer of 1770 in Schleswig-Holstein. On 15 September the King dismissed Chancellor Bernstorff and on 18 December Struensee appointed himself maître des requêtes, consolidating his power and starting the 16-month period referred to as the "Time of Struensee"; when in the course of the year the king sank into a condition of mental torpor, Struensee's auth