Ancretteville-sur-Mer is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A small farming village situated some 32 miles northeast of Le Havre, at the junction of the D33 and the D68; the church of Saint-Amand, dating from the twelfth century The eighteenth century Château d'Angerval. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department INSEE Ancretteville-sur-Mer on the Quid website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Allouville-Bellefosse is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A farming village situated in the Pays de Caux, some 30 miles northeast of Rouen at the junction of the D33, D34 and the D110 roads; the church of St. Quentin, dating from the sixteenth century. Chêne chapelle, a 1000-year-old oak tree with a chapel built into it; the sixteenth-century abandoned church at Bellefosse. A natural history museum; the eighteenth-century château, in Louis XV style. Two manorhouses, at Bellefosse and Ismenil. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Official website of Allouville-Bellefosse Allouville-Bellefosse on the Quid website
A railway town, or railroad town, is a settlement that originated or was developed because of a railway station or junction at its site. During the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the 1860s, temporary, "Hell on wheels" towns, made of canvas tents, accompanied the Union Pacific Railroad as construction headed west. Most faded away but some became permanent settlements. In the 1870s successive boomtowns sprung up in Kansas, each prospering for a year or two as a railhead, withering when the rail line extended further west and created a new endpoint for the Chisholm Trail. Becoming rail hubs made Los Angeles grow from small towns to large cities. Sayre and Atlanta, Georgia were among the American company towns created by railroads in places where no settlement existed. In western Canada, railway towns became associated with brothels and prostitution, concerned railway companies started a series of YMCAs in the late nineteenth century in response. In some cases, a railroad town would be started by the railroad using a separate town or land company when another town existed nearby.
The population of the existing town would shift to the railroad town. This would create a boon for the town company and its railroad founder, which would sell off lots near the station at a substantial profit before the railroad arrived at the new townsite; such is the case with Colorado. In the spring of 1880, William Bell of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad scoured the La Plata County area in the vicinity of Animas City, located on the Animas River; when negotiations to acquire land through the local homesteaders fell through, Bell acquired property downstream to the south under more favorable conditions in the name of the Durango Land and Coal Company. By the end of the year, a Durango newspaper reported all of "Animas City is coming to Durango as fast as accommodations can be secured." The population, at the time estimated between 2,500 and 3,000 people, crammed into the little "box town," where the only permanent structures were saloons, dance halls and stores. When the railroad arrived in August 1881, the train stopped in a jubilant Durango, not Animas City.
The railroad pushed on up the Animas River, reaching Silverton in July 1882, passing through Animas City without a stop. Animas City subsisted as a de facto suburb of the Durango area before annexation by Durango in 1948; the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, a heritage railroad and successor to the Rio Grande in La Plata County, still passes by the townsite. In Denmark and Norway, a related concept is the stationsby or "station town". Stationsbyer are rural towns that grew up around railways, but they were based on agricultural co-operatives and artisan communities rather than on railway industries. In Victorian Britain, the spread of railways affected the fate of many small towns. Peterborough and Swindon became successful due to their status as railway towns; some new towns grew up around railway works. Middlesbrough was the first new town to be developed due to the railways, growing from a hamlet of 40 into an industrial port after the Stockton and Darlington Railway was extended in 1830.
Wolverton was fields before 1838 and had a population of 1,500 by 1844. Other examples of early railway towns include Ashford and Neasden. Crewe grew after the Grand Junction Railway Company moved there in 1843; the railway town of'New Swindon' displaced the neighbouring pre-existing town after the Great Western Railway moved there: a market town of 2,000 in 1840 became a railway town of 50,000 in 1905. Railways became major employers, with 6,000 people employed by them in Crewe in 1877, 14,000 in Swindon in 1905; the growth of railway towns was in the mould of the'paternalistic employer' providing housing, hospitals and civic buildings for their workers, similar to Cadbury's Bournville. Workforces were loyal and obedient: industrial action in railway towns was rare because the workforce depended on the company. Railwaymen dominated local politics in railway towns Francis Webb's'Independent Railway Company Party' in Crewe and George Leeman in York; the chief mechanical engineer of GWR, Daniel Gooch, was MP for Swindon for twenty years.
Crewe was a'company town' for its first few decades as workers moved in their thousands from other parts of the country. Most social amenities and organisations were sponsored by the railway, but moves such as the establishment of a town council in 1877 reduced company influence, the railway company began to consider spending on town amenities as a municipal concern. Workers organised their own institutions such as clubs, trade unions, co-operatives to gain independence from company control, they became the basis for political opposition in railway towns. Changchun in China was built by the Japanese occupying Manchuria, as a'model town' as part of Japan's imperialist modernisation; the first railway town at Changchun was begun by the Russians in 1898, but it excluded Chinese residents. A second major railway town was designed and built from 1905 by the South Manchuria Railway, inspired by Russian railway towns such as Dalian, it was based on a rectangular system that contrasted with the circular walled town of old Changchun, grid patterns became the standard for Chinese railway towns.
The SMR developed dozens of railway towns in north-east China from 1906-1936, such
Ambrumesnil is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France. A light industrial and farming village situated near the banks of the river Scie in the Pays de Caux, some 8 miles southwest of Dieppe, at the junction of the D 123 and D 327 roads; the church of St. Martin, dating from the twelfth century; the church at Ribeuf. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Ambrumesnil on the Quid website
Jacques Anquetil was a French road racing cyclist and the first cyclist to win the Tour de France five times, in 1957 and from 1961 to 1964. He stated before the 1961 Tour that he would gain the yellow jersey on day one and wear it all through the tour, a tall order with two previous winners in the field—Charly Gaul and Federico Bahamontes—but he did it, his victories in stage races such as the Tour were built on an exceptional ability to ride alone against the clock in individual time trial stages, which lent him the name "Monsieur Chrono". Anquetil was the son of a builder in Mont-Saint-Aignan, in the hills above Rouen in Normandy, north-west France, he lived there with his parents and Marie, his brother Philippe and at Boisguillaume in a two-storey house, "one of those houses with exposed beams that tourists think are pretty but those who live there find uncomfortable."In 1941, his father refused contracts to work on military installations for the German occupiers and his work dried up.
Other members of the family worked in strawberry farming and Anquetil's father followed them, moving to the hamlet of Bourguet, near Quincampoix. Anquetil had his first bicycle – an Alcyon – at the age of four and twice a day rode the kilometre and a half to the village and back. There he was taught by a teacher wearing clogs in a classroom heated by a smoking stove. Anquetil learned metal-turning at the technical college at Sotteville-lès-Rouen, a suburb of the city, where he played billiards with a friend named Maurice Dieulois, his friend began racing. Anquetil said: He was 17 and he took out his first racing licence on 2 December 1950, he stayed a member the rest of his life and his grave in the churchyard at Quincampoix has a permanent tribute from his clubmates. Anquetil passed his qualifications in light engineering and went to work for 50 old francs a day at a factory in Sotteville, he left after 26 days following a disagreement with his boss over time off for training. The AC Sottevillais, founded in 1898, was run by a cycle-dealer, André Boucher, who had a shop in the Place du Trianon in Sotteville.
The club had not just Anquetil but Claude LeBer, who became professional pursuit champion in 1955, Jean Jourden, world amateur champion in 1961, Francis Bazire, who came second in the world amateur championship in 1963. Boucher trained his group first from a bicycle and by Derny. Anquetil won 16 times as an amateur, his first victory was the Prix Maurice Latour at Rouen on 3 May 1951. He took the Prix de France in 1952 and the Tour de la Manche and the national road championship the same year. Anquetil rode in the French team in the 100 km time trial at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki and won a bronze medal. Impressed by his protégé's progress, André Boucher sent an envelope of Anquetil's press cuttings to the local representative of the Perle bicycle company and asked him to send them to the firm's cycling team manager, the former Tour de France rider, Francis Pélissier. Pélissier called Anquetil, surprised and flattered to hear from him, offered him 30,000 old francs a month to ride for La Perle as an independent, or semi-professional.
Anquetil accepted and ordered a new car, a Renault Fregate, which he crashed twice in the first 12 months. Pélissier wanted Anquetil for the 1953 Grand Prix des Nations, a race started by the newspaper Paris-Soir which since 1932 had risen to the status of an unofficial world time-trial championship, it was held on a 142 km loop of rolling roads through Versailles, Maulette, St-Rémy-les-Chevreuse and back to Versailles before finishing on the Buffalo track in Paris. Anquetil was aware that one of his rivals was an Englishman named Ken Joy, who had broken records in Britain but was unknown in France, he would ride with Bob Maitland. The historian Richard Yates says: Many of the'against-the-clock' fraternity in the United Kingdom sincerely believed that the British time triallists were as good as, if not better than, their Continental counterparts and here was the chance to prove it; when the final result was known the British fans were disappointed and saw the race as a total failure for Britain as both Englishman had finished nearly 20 minutes down.
To rub salt in the wounds, the event had been won by an unknown, curly-haired teenager from Normandy. Anquetil caught Joy — the moment he realised he was going to win the race — though Joy had started 16 minutes earlier. At 19, Anquetil had become unofficial time-trial champion of the world; the win did not convince him. Next year he drove his team car not behind Anquetil but Hugo Koblet. Anquetil was not amused; when he beat Koblet, he sent his winner's bouquet to Pélissier's wife "in deepest sympathy". Anquetil rode the Grand Prix des Nations nine times without being beaten. On 22 September 1954, Anquetil started two years' compulsory service in the army, joining the Richepanse de Rouen barracks as a gunner of the 406th artillery regiment; the army accorded him few great favours but there was an exception: Should he break the record, he and the army agreed, he would give half the rewards to the army and the rest to the mother of a soldier, André Dufour, killed while fighting at Palestro, in Algeria.
The chances of breaking it were far from guaranteed, not only because Coppi's record had defied Gerrit Schulte and Louison Bobet but Anquetil himself, on 23 November 1955, when he had started too fast and finished 696 m short of Coppi. His second attempt flopped, he again started too fast. After 54:36 his helpers called him to a stop after 41.326 km. His legs failed him when he go