Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the tribe and is closely related to barley. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas and it can be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. Rye is a grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, which is used for lawns, pasture. Rye is one of a number of species grow wild in central and eastern Turkey. It is possible that rye traveled west from Turkey as an admixture in wheat. Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye widely in Central and it serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands, claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the dates, and identifications based solely on grain.
Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide cover for the winter. It grows during warmer days of the winter when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing and it is sometimes used in winter gardens and is a common nurse crop. Rye is grown primarily in Eastern and Northern Europe, the main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Belarus and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is grown in North America, in South America, in Oceania, in Turkey, in Kazakhstan, production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2012. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million metric tons in 1992 to 2.1 t in 2012, most rye is consumed locally or exported only to neighboring countries, rather than being shipped worldwide. Rye is highly susceptible to the ergot fungus, consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause physical and mental harm, including convulsions, necrosis of digits, hallucinations.
Historically, damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to epidemics of this condition. There have been occurrence of ergotism with periods where there were incidents of people persecuted for being witches
E85 is an abbreviation typically referring to an ethanol fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol fuel and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume. In the United States, the ratio of fuel ethanol to hydrocarbon may vary according to ASTM5798 that specifies the allowable ethanol content in E85 as ranging from 51% to 83%. Cold cranking in cold climates is the primary reason ethanol fuel is blended with any gasoline fraction, in Brazil, ethanol fuel is neat at the pumps, hence flexible-fuel vehicles including trucks, tractors and mopeds run on E100. The 85% fraction is sold at pumps worldwide, and when specifically supplied or sold as E85 is always 85% ethanol. Having a guaranteed ethanol fraction obviates the need for a system to calculate best engine tune according to maximise performance. In countries like Australia where E85 is always 85% ethanol, performance motoring enthusiasts, E85 reduces exhaust emissions, there is a greater potential for localized production of ethanol in agricultural areas and utilization of waste materials.
Also, a diversification of fuel sources reduces dependence on any one type of fuel. They claim that some engines have already produced 22% more miles per gallon than identical gasoline engines. Ethanol advocates state that it is a mistake to base ethanol engine design on gasoline engine design, using this approach, the EPA has produced an ethanol-only engine which achieves much higher brake thermal efficiency levels than gasoline engines achieve. Mileage is dependent upon the composition of the blend, transmission. In the United States to offset this difference in consumption in vehicles not optimised for ethanol. In contrast, ethanol critics contest the benefits of E85 by focusing on the fact that E85 has 33% lower heating value compared to the heating value of gasoline. However comparing energy expressed as a value of heat does not reflect the work from an Otto Cycle. E85 ethanol is used in engines modified to accept higher concentrations of ethanol. In the US such FFVs are designed to run on any mixture of gasoline or ethanol up to 85% ethanol, whereas in countries such as Brazil where the climate is typically warmer, there are a few major differences between FFVs and non-FFVs.
One is the elimination of bare magnesium and rubber parts in the fuel system, fuel injection control systems have a wider range of pulse widths to inject up to 34% more fuel. Stainless steel fuel lines, sometimes lined with plastic, and stainless-steel fuel tanks in place of fuel tanks have been used. In some cases, FFVs use specific engine oil that neutralises acidity, for vehicles with in-tank-mounted fuel pumps, precautions to prevent arcing, as well as flame arrestors positioned in the tanks fill pipe, are sometimes used
Alexandroupoli is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace. It is an important port and commercial center of northeastern Greece, Alexandroupoli is one of the newest cities in Greece, as it was only a fishing village until the late 19th century. However, the city is located at the site of ancient Sale. Alexandroupoli benefits from its position at the centre of land and sea routes connecting Greece with Turkey, the modern city was founded in the middle of the 19th century by fishermen from the villages of Makri and Maroneia and it became known as Dedeağaç. According to the legend, the name was based on a wise old Turkish man or dede who spent much of his time in the shade of a tree and was eventually buried beside it. In 1920, the King of Greece, Alexander I, visited the city, the request was duly approved by the central Greek government, and Alexandroupoli has been the citys name ever since. Alexandroupoli is about 14.5 km west of the delta of the river Evros,40 km from the border with Turkey,346 km from Thessaloniki on the newly constructed Egnatia highway, and 750 km from Athens.
At the 2001 census, the city had a population of 48,885. Besides Alexandroúpolis, its other largest settlements are the villages of Mákri, Ávas, Sykorráchi, Aisými, the settlements history goes back to the 19th century, when the area was part of the Ottoman Empire. The work was part of an effort to modernise the Empire, the settlement soon grew into a fishing village known as Dedeağaç. In 1873 it was made the town of a Kaza, to which it gave its name. In 1884 it was raised in rank from a Kaza to a Sanjak. In 1889 the Greek archbishopric of Aenus was transferred to Dedeağaç, in the late 19th and early 20th century, Dedeağaç was part of the Adrianople Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Dedeağaç was captured by the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the officers in charge saw that reconstruction incorporated wide streets running parallel to each other, allowing the quick advance of troops, and avoided cul-de-sacs. This was very unlike the narrow alleys, cobbled streets, the city returned to Ottoman control by the end of the war, but the brief Russian presence had a lasting effect on the design of Alexandroúpolis streets.
The building of a station in Dedeağaç led to the development of the village into a town. The town became the seat of a Pasha as the capital of a sanjak, Ottoman control of the town would last until the Balkan Wars. On 8 November 1912, Dedeağaç and its station was captured by Bulgarian forces with the assistance of the Hellenic Navy and Greece were allies during the First Balkan War, but opponents in the Second Balkan War
Tsipouro is a pomace brandy from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus and the island of Crete. Tsipouro is a distilled spirit containing 40-45% alcohol by volume and is produced from the pomace. It comes in two types and anise-flavored, according to tradition, the first production of tsipouro was the work of Greek Orthodox monks in the 14th century on Mount Athos in Macedonia, Greece. Ripe dark grapes are passed through crusher/destemmers, the mass is left to settle for a few days, just enough to get fermentation started. Formerly, wine would be collected and only the solid residue would be used for tsipouro in an attempt to get the most out of the plant and this method is outdated and modern producers tend to use the whole grape mass, which is a huge improvement in quality. In the next stage, the mass is fed into distillation units, the first and last distinct batches are discarded. Only the intermediate batch is kept to make tsipouro and this process is repeated at least once more, giving a double or multiple distilled result.
Finally, the distillate is left to settle and mature in stainless steel tanks and it can be aged in wooden barrels to give aged tsipouro, a relatively new beverage that can be compared to whiskey. Depending on the time of year, tsipouro is used either as refreshment or as a hot beverage and tsikoudia, like all alcoholic beverages in Greece, are generally consumed at social gatherings. According to Greek manufacturers, the best way to enjoy tsipouro is straight from the freezer, some people prefer to either dilute with water or add ice. Tsipouro is usually served in glasses with meze such as nuts, dried fruit, cheese, seafood, halva. In 2006, Greece filed a request for tsipouro to be recognized as a PDO product, anise-flavored tsipouro is available, produced especially in Macedonia and Thessaly. Anise-flavored tsipouro and ouzo have almost identical taste but vary enormously in their method of production, tsikoudia Komova/Komovica Raki Arak Grappa Orujo Zivania
Provinces of Greece
The provinces of Greece were sub-divisions of some the countrys prefectures. From 1887, the provinces were abolished as actual administrative units, before the Second World War, there were 139 provinces, and after the war, with the addition of the Dodecanese Islands, their number grew to 147. According to the Article 7 of the Code of Prefectural Self-Government, Provincial administration consisted of two parts, a collective Provincial Council and an eparch. Members of the Provincial Council were the councillors of the respective province. The eparch or sub-prefect was the councillor who received the most votes in the prefectural elections
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Viticulture is the science and study of grapes. It deals with the series of events occur in the vineyard. It is a branch of the science of horticulture, for this reason, viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Viticulturists are often involved with winemakers, because vineyard management. A great number of varieties are now approved in the European Union as true grapes for wine-growing and viticulture, the earliest evidence of grape vine cultivation and winemaking dates back 7,000 years. The history of viticulture is closely related to the history of wine, evidence suggests that some of the earliest domestication of Vitis vinifera occurred in the area of the modern countries Georgia and Armenia. The oldest-known winery was discovered in the Areni-1 cave in Vayots Dzor, dated to c. 4100 BC, the site contained a wine press, fermentation vats and cups. Archaeologists found V. vinifera seeds and vines, commenting on the importance of the find, McGovern said, The fact that winemaking was already so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology probably goes back much earlier.
There is evidence of domestication in the Near East in the early Bronze Age. Evidence of ancient viticulture is provided by sources, plant remains, historical geography. The remnants of ancient wine jars have been used to determine the culture of wine consumption, in addition to winemaking, grapes have been grown for the production of raisins. With the ability to pollinate itself, over time the hermaphroditic vines were able to sire offspring that were consistently hermaphroditic, during this period, grape cultivation developed from an aspect of local consumption to an important component of international economies and trade. From 1200 BC to 900 BC, the Phoenicians developed viticulture practices that were used in Carthage. Around 500 BC, the Carthaginian writer Mago recorded such practices in a work that was one of the few artifacts to survive the Roman destruction of Carthage during the Third Punic War. The Roman statesman Cato the Elder was influenced by texts, and around 160 BC he wrote De Agricultura.
Around 65 AD, the Roman writer Columella produced the most detailed work on Roman viticulture in his twelve-volume text De Re Rustica, columellas work is one of the earliest to detail trellis systems for raising vines off the ground. Columella advocated the use of stakes versus the previously accepted practice of training vines to grow up along tree trunks. Roman viticulturists were among the first to identify steep hillsides as one of the locations to plant vines, because cool air runs downhill
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions. The closely related genus Broussonetia is known as mulberry, notably the paper mulberry. Mulberries are fast-growing when young, but soon become slow-growing and rarely exceed 10–15 metres tall, the leaves are alternately arranged and often lobed and serrated on the margin. Lobes are more common on juvenile shoots than on mature trees, the trees can be monoecious or dioecious. The mulberry fruit is a fruit, approximately 2 to 3 cm long. Immature fruits are white, green, or pale yellow, in most species the fruits turn pink and red while ripening, dark purple or black, and have a sweet flavor when fully ripe. The fruits of the white-fruited cultivar are white when ripe, the fruit of this cultivar is sweet, the taxonomy of Morus is complex and disputed. Morus classification is further complicated by widespread hybridisation, wherein the hybrids are fertile.
Jams and sherbets are often made from the fruit in this region, black mulberry was imported to Britain in the 17th century in the hope that it would be useful in the cultivation of silkworms. It was much used in medicine, especially in the treatment of ringworm. Mulberries are widespread in Greece, particularly in the Peloponnese, mulberries can be grown from seed, and this is often advised as seedling-grown trees are generally of better shape and health, but they are most often planted from large cuttings which root readily. The mulberry plants which are allowed to grow tall with a height of 5–6 feet from ground level. Usually, the plantation is raised and in formation with a spacing of 6 feet ×6 feet, or 8 feet ×8 feet, as plant to plant. The plants are usually pruned once a year during the season to a height of 5–6 feet. The leaves are harvested three or four times a year by a leaf-picking method under rain-fed or semiarid conditions, depending on the monsoon, the tree branches pruned during the fall season are cut and used to make durable baskets supporting agriculture and animal husbandry.
Some North American cities have banned the planting of mulberries because of the amounts of pollen they produce. In actuality, only the male mulberry trees produce pollen, this light-weight pollen can be inhaled deeply into the lungs, female mulberry trees produce all-female flowers, which draw pollen and dust from the air. Because of this feature, all-female mulberry trees have an OPALS allergy scale rating of just 1
Evros (regional unit)
Evros is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace and its name is derived from the river Evros, which appears to have been a Thracian hydronym. Evros is the northernmost regional unit and it borders Turkey to the east, across the river Evros, and it borders Bulgaria to the north and the northwest. Together with the regional units Rhodope and Xanthi, it forms the region of Western Thrace. Evros is one of the largest regional units of Greece and it forms the eastern part of the geographical region Western Thrace, and includes the island Samothrace in the northern Aegean Sea. Its length is about 150 km from north to south and its width ranges from 70 to 100 km from east to west. The most important rivers are the Evros and its tributary Arda, the Rhodope Mountains lie in the west and the southwest. The Aegean Sea lies to the south, the coastal area has a predominantly Mediterranean climate, whereas the northern part and the mountains have a colder continental climate.
The Evros regional unit is subdivided into 5 municipalities and these are, Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli Evros was established as a prefecture in 1930, when the former Thrace Prefecture was divided into the Rhodope and Evros prefectures. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was transformed into a unit within the East Macedonia and Thrace region. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, as a part of Western Thrace, the territory of the Evros regional unit followed the fate of that region. At 1821, several parts of Evros region, such as Lavara and it became part of Greece in 1920, when it was ceded by Bulgaria as a result of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. Initially it was part of the Thrace Prefecture, which was subdivided in 1930, during the Greco-Turkish War, many Greek refugees settled in the Evros, and new towns bere built, including Orestiada. The Evros river valley was flooded several times, notably in 1997,2005, another line connects Alexandroupoli with Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria via Didymoteicho and Orestiada, with a branch line from Didymoteicho to Uzunköprü, Turkey.
The Alexandroupolis International Airport is served by national flights
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It consists of the parts of the country, comprising the eastern part of the region of Greek Macedonia along with the region of Western Thrace. The region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace was established in the 1987 administrative reform, capital of the region is Komotini, which by population is the fourth largest city, following Alexandroupoli and Xanthi. Unlike the former prefectures, the regional units however have limited administrative powers. Along with Central Macedonia, the region is supervised by the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia, the political post of the Regional governor was created in the course of the Kallikratis reform and can be considered the successor of the former prefects. Current governor is the former Prefect of Xanthi, Giorgos Pavlidis, the region is home to Greeces main Muslim minority, made up mainly of Pomaks and Western Thrace Turks, whose presence dates to the Ottoman period.
Unlike the Muslims of Greek Macedonia and elsewhere in northern Greece, they were exempted from the Greek-Turkish population exchange following the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne